Mullan P.C.,Baylor College of Medicine |
Steenhoff A.P.,University of Pennsylvania |
Draper H.,Baylor College of Medicine |
Wedin T.,University of Pennsylvania |
And 4 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2011
This retrospective review evaluated records of cerebrospinal fluid samples between 2000 and 2008 at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Of the 7501 cerebrospinal fluid samples reviewed, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 125) and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 60) were the most common bacteria cultured. There were also 1018 cryptococcal and 44 tuberculous meningitis cases. Antimicrobial susceptibilities are described. Public health interventions could decrease the burden of meningitis in Botswana. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Shapiro R.L.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center |
Shapiro R.L.,Harvard University |
Hughes M.D.,Harvard University |
Ogwu A.,Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute |
And 30 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010
Background: The most effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in pregnancy and its efficacy during breast-feeding are unknown. Methods: We randomly assigned 560 HIV-1 - infected pregnant women (CD4+ count, ≥200 cells per cubic millimeter) to receive coformulated abacavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine (the nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor [NRTI] group) or lopinavir - ritonavir plus zidovudine - lamivudine (the protease-inhibitor group) from 26 to 34 weeks' gestation through planned weaning by 6 months post partum. A total of 170 women with CD4+ counts of less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter received nevirapine plus zido vudine - lamivudine (the observational group). Infants received single-dose nevirapine and 4 weeks of zidovudine. Results: The rate of virologic suppression to less than 400 copies per milliliter was high and did not differ significantly among the three groups at delivery (96% in the NRTI group, 93% in the protease-inhibitor group, and 94% in the observational group) or throughout the breast-feeding period (92% in the NRTI group, 93% in the protease-inhibitor group, and 95% in the observational group). By 6 months of age, 8 of 709 live-born infants (1.1%) were infected (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5 to 2.2): 6 were infected in utero (4 in the NRTI group, 1 in the protease-inhibitor group, and 1 in the observational group), and 2 were infected during the breast-feeding period (in the NRTI group). Treatment-limiting adverse events occurred in 2% of women in the NRTI group, 2% of women in the protease-inhibitor group, and 11% of women in the observational group. Conclusions: All regimens of HAART from pregnancy through 6 months post partum resulted in high rates of virologic suppression, with an overall rate of mother-to-child transmission of 1.1%. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00270296.) Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.
Rottinghaus E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Bile E.,CDC Botswana |
Modukanele M.,CDC Botswana |
Maruping M.,CDC Botswana |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013
Dried blood spots (DBS) collected onto filter paper have eased the difficulty of blood collection in resource-limited settings. Currently, Whatman 903 (W-903) filter paper is the only filter paper that has been used for HIV load and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) testing. We therefore evaluated two additional commercially available filter papers, Ahlstrom grade 226 (A-226) and Munktell TFN (M-TFN), for viral load (VL) testing and HIVDR genotyping using W-903 filter paper as a comparison group. DBS specimens were generated from 344 adult patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Botswana. The VL was measured with NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 v2.0, and genotyping was performed for those specimens with a detectable VL (>2.90 log10 copies/ml) using an in-house method. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a strong concordance in quantitative VL analysis between W-903 and A-226 (bias = -0.034 ± 0.246 log10 copies/ml [mean difference ± standard deviation]) and W-903 and M-TFN (bias = -0.028 ± 0.186 log10 copies/ml) filter papers, while qualitative VL analysis for virological failure determination, defined as a VL of ≥3.00 log10 copies/ml, showed low sensitivities for A-266 (71.54%) and M-TFN (65.71%) filter papers compared to W-903 filter paper. DBS collected on M-TFN filter paper had the highest genotyping efficiency (100%) compared to W-903 and A-226 filter papers (91.7%) and appeared more sensitive in detecting major HIVDR mutations. DBS collected on A-226 and M-TFN filter papers performed similarly to DBS collected on W-903 filter paper for quantitative VL analysis and HIVDR detection. Together, the encouraging genotyping results and the variability observed in determining virological failure from this small pilot study warrant further investigation of A-226 and M-TFN filter papers as specimen collection devices for HIVDR monitoring surveys. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
PubMed | Botswana Ministry of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Zambia Ministry of Health, Zambia AIDS Related Tuberculosis ZAMBART Project and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2016
Out-patient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care and treatment clinics in Zambia and Botswana, countries with a high burden of HIV and TB infection.To develop a tuberculosis infection control (TB IC) training and implementation package and evaluate the implementation of TB IC activities in facilities implementing the package.Prospective program evaluation of a TB IC training and implementation package using a standardized facility risk assessment tool, qualitative interviews with facility health care workers and measures of pre- and post-test performance.A composite measure of facility performance in TB IC improved from 32% at baseline to 50% at 1 year among eight facilities in Zambia, and from 27% to 80% at 6 months among 10 facilities in Botswana. Although there was marked improvement in indicators of managerial, administrative and environmental controls, key ongoing challenges remained in ensuring access to personal protective equipment and implementing TB screening in health care workers.TB IC activities at out-patient HIV clinics in Zambia and Botswana improved after training using the implementation package. Continued infrastructure support, as well as monitoring and evaluation, are needed to support the scale-up and sustainability of TB IC programs in facilities in low-resource countries.
PubMed | Botswana Ministry of Health, University of Pennsylvania, University of Sheffield, University of Botswana and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Acta tropica | Year: 2016
Human cytochrome P450 2C8 is a highly polymorphic gene and shows variation according to ethnicity. The CYP2C8*2 is a slow drug metabolism allele and shows 10-24% frequency in Black populations. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of CYP2C8*2 allele in Botswana among the San (or Bushmen) and the Bantu ethnic groups. For that purpose we recruited 544 children of the two ethnicities in three districts of Botswana from primary schools, collected blood samples, extracted DNA and genotyped them through PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The results demonstrated that in the San the prevalence of the CYP2C8*2 allele is significantly higher than among the Bantu-related ethnic groups (17.5% and 8.5% for San and Bantu, respectively; P=0.00002). These findings support the evidence of a different genetic background of the San with respect to Bantu-related populations, and highlight a possible higher risk of longer drug clearance or poor level of activation of pro-drugs among the San group.
PubMed | Consultant Public Health Specialist, Botswana Ministry of Health and University of Botswana
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2017
Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications.A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed.A total of 619 patients records were reviewed with a mean (SD) age of 27.12 (5.97) years. The majority of abortions (95.5%) were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%). Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%), tender uterus (11.3%), septic shock (3.9%) and pelvic peritonitis (2.4%) were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2%) of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%). There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively).Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for clinical audit on post-abortion care to insure implementation of standard protocol and reduce complications.
PubMed | Botswana Ministry of Health, University of Pennsylvania, Health Informatics and Telemedicine and Princess Marina Hospital
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA | Year: 2016
Mobile telemedicine involves the use of mobile device (e.g., cell phones, tablets) technology to exchange information to assist in the provision of patient care. Throughout the world, mobile telemedicine initiatives are increasing in number and in scale, but literature on their impact on patient outcomes in low-resource areas is limited. This study explores the potential impact of a mobile oral telemedicine system on the oral health specialty referral system in Botswana. Analysis of 26 eligible cases from June 2012 to July 2013 reveals high diagnosis concordance between dental officers and oral health specialists at 91.3% (21/23) but significant management plan discordance at 64.0% (16/25), over two-thirds of which involved the specialists disagreeing with the referring clinicians about the need for a visit to a specialist. These findings suggest mobile telemedicine can optimize the use of insights and skills of specialists remotely in regions where they are scarce.
PubMed | Botswana Ministry of Health, Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, United States Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy | Year: 2016
The aim of the study was to evaluate for the presence of drug resistance to HIV medications in treatment-naive individuals in Botswana.Two different populations were evaluated for evidence of HIV drug resistance at three different geographical locations in Botswana. In the first study population, consisting of pregnant females diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy, participants were enrolled at the time of their HIV diagnosis. The second population included pre-ART enrollees at Infectious Diseases Care Clinics (IDCCs) who had a CD4 T cell count >350 cells/L.A total of 422 genotypes were determined: 234 for samples from antenatal clinic (ANC) participants and 188 for samples from IDCC participants. Between 2012 and 2014, 6 of 172 (3.5%) genotypes from ANC participants exhibited transmitted drug resistance (TDR), with 3 (1.7%) showing resistance to first-line ART. In a subset of samples from Gaborone, Botswanas capital and largest city, the TDR rate was 3 in 105 (2.9%), but only 1 in 105 (1.0%) showed first-line ART resistance. Between December 2014 and April 2015, the rate of resistance to any ART in Gaborone was 6 in 62 (9.7%), with 5 (8.1%) exhibiting first-line ART resistance.These data demonstrate that TDR rates for HIV differ geographically and temporally in Botswana, with significant increases in TDR observed at ANCs in Gaborone between 2012 and 2015. These findings stress the importance of continued testing for TDR, particularly as access to HIV treatment increases and guidelines recommend treatment at the time of HIV diagnosis.
Schaan M.M.,University of KwaZulu - Natal |
Schaan M.M.,Harvard University |
Taylor M.,University of KwaZulu - Natal |
Puvimanasinghe J.,Botswana Ministry of Health |
And 3 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2012
Botswana's HIV prevalence is one of the highest in the world at 31.8% in the 15-49 years antenatal population. Being HIV-positive for a woman presents unique challenges with regard to sexuality, child bearing, and partner relations. To ensure optimal sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of HIV-positive women, it is important to understand how health care workers (HCWs) are prepared to address SRH issues such as contraception, fertility desires, and partner violence. This study reports on a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire completed by 98 HCWs from clinics located in and nearby Gaborone and analyzed using descriptive and nonparametric statistics. The majority of participants were nurses (43%), health educators (27%), and lay counselors (19%), 82% female, median age of 35 (Interquartile Range (IQR): 29.25-43.75). General HIV/AIDS knowledge was high with a median score of 8.0/9 (89%) (IQR: 8-9). However, the median SRH knowledge score was much lower at 6.0/10 (60%) (IQR: 4-7). Of the three groups, the SRH knowledge scores of lay counselors were significantly lower than nurses (p=0.024). The attitude scores pertaining to issues such as family planning, sexual violence, the health system's ability to offer SRH services, and personal ability to offer SRH services were moderately positive with a median score of 75% (IQR: 69-81%); although nearly 25% of respondents felt that it is irresponsible for an HIV-positive woman to want to have a child. When presented with a case study of an abused, HIV-positive pregnant woman, most respondents indicated they would offer supportive care without judgment; however 28% of respondents indicated they would express disapproval or disappointment for becoming pregnant when she knows she is HIV-positive. The low SRH knowledge scores together with discriminatory attitudes and practices emphasize the need for increased and ongoing training in SRH issues for all HCWs who provide care for HIV-positive women. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.
PubMed | Botswana Ministry of Health, Rwanda Ministry of Health, University of Vermont, Partners In Health Inshuti Mu Buzima and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC cancer | Year: 2016
Cancer services are inaccessible in many low-income countries, and few published examples describe oncology programs within the public sector. In 2011, the Rwanda Ministry of Health (RMOH) established Butaro Cancer Center of Excellence (BCCOE) to expand cancer services nationally. In hopes of informing cancer care delivery in similar settings, we describe program-level experience implementing BCCOE, patient characteristics, and challenges encountered.Butaro Cancer Center of Excellence was founded on diverse partnerships that emphasize capacity building. Services available include pathology-based diagnosis, basic imaging, chemotherapy, surgery, referral for radiotherapy, palliative care and socioeconomic access supports. Retrospective review of electronic medical records (EMR) of patients enrolled between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2014 was conducted, supplemented by manual review of paper charts and programmatic records.In the programs first 2 years, 2326 patients presented for cancer-related care. Of these, 70.5% were female, 4.3% children, and 74.3% on public health insurance. In the first year, 66.3% (n = 1144) were diagnosed with cancer. Leading adult diagnoses were breast, cervical, and skin cancer. Among children, nephroblastoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and Hodgkin lymphoma were predominant. As of June 30, 2013, 95 cancer patients had died. Challenges encountered include documentation gaps and staff shortages.Butaro Cancer Center of Excellence demonstrates that complex cancer care can be delivered in the most resource-constrained settings, accessible to vulnerable patients. Key attributes that have made BCCOE possible are: meaningful North-south partnerships, innovative task- and infrastructure-shifting, RMOH leadership, and an equity-driven agenda. Going forward, we will apply our experiences and lessons learned to further strengthen BCCOE, and employ the developed EMR system as a valuable platform to assess long-term clinical outcomes and improve care.