Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Gaborone, Botswana

The Botswana International University of Science & Technology, also known as BIUST, is an International university located in the town of Palapye, Botswana. It is the Southern African nation's second university, after the University of Botswana in the country's capital, Gaborone. The location of the University is a 2,500 hectare site of gently sloping land the outskirts of Palapye. Wikipedia.

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Andersen J.E.T.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2017

Several flaws of the conventional standard-addition method (SAM) have been unravelled. By revisiting the theory, it has been shown that the SAM cannot be used to correct completely for interferences in analytical chemistry. Therefore, a new theory of SAM was developed, which takes into account the uncertainty of measurement and relates this information to differences that might stem from interferences. The SAM may be used to correct for rotational effects but it cannot be used to correct for translational effects, which confirms earlier findings. A full set of equations were supplied for undertaking a full method validation including a new set of parameters of performance. The equations were tested on determination by UV–VIS spectrophotometry of L-ascorbic acid. Previous results are reviewed and discussed in view of these new findings and recommendations are given about the importance of carrying out full method validations as a prerequisite to the SAM. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

MARIJANI T.,University of Dar es Salaam | LUNGU E.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Journal of Biological Systems | Year: 2017

We consider a mathematical model for malaria involving, susceptible red blood cells (RBCs), latent infected red blood cells (RBCs), active IRBCs, intracellular parasites, extracellular parasites and effector cells. We extend the model to include effect of treatment on the prognosis of malaria. One of the questions addressed in our study is: what range of the parameter, (Formula presented.) which denotes the number of intracellular parasites released from a naturally dying activated infected red blood cell can lead to malaria pathogenesis? Sensitivity analysis revealed that poor parametric estimation can lead to wrong disease prognosis, and consequently to over or under-prescription of treatment drugs. In malaria endemic areas where the parasite is developing resistance to the drugs, this can limit options of treatment drugs. We recommend that the administration of malaria treatment drugs should be done under supervision as is the case for TB to ensure complete adherence to treatment and reduce the emergence of malaria drug resistant strains. Secondly, we recommend that individuals with malaria or showing symptoms of the disease should be tested for other chronic infections which could complicate the treatment of malaria. © 2017 World Scientific Publishing Company

Tirivarombo S.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Environment and Water Resource Management, AfricaEWRM 2014 | Year: 2014

This paper evaluates the impacts of climate change on agricultural droughts in the Zambezi River basin. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to estimate drought occurrence and severity, historically and in the near future (2064-2065). Outputs of three downscaled and bias-corrected Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under the A2 emissions scenario are employed to evaluate the impact of climate change on future droughts in the basin. Based on the three GCMs it is anticipated that the basin will experience a generally increasing but minimal trend in precipitation in the range of 0.3% to 12%, with increased normal conditions and the possibility of a lower frequency of occurrence of severe to extreme drought events. The study also reveals that there is uncertainty associated with the GCMs as to the magnitude and direction of change of the basin's response to future climate change.

McCowan C.,University of Glasgow | Wang S.,Imperial College London | Thompson A.M.,University of Dundee | Makubate B.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology | Petrie D.J.,University of Melbourne
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Background:Low adherence to adjuvant tamoxifen is associated with worse health outcomes but little is known about the cost-effectiveness of high adherence.Methods:We conducted an economic evaluation using data for all women with incident breast cancer between 1993 and 2000 who were subsequently prescribed tamoxifen in the Tayside region of Scotland. Patient-level, lifetime Markov models evaluated the impact of high vs low adherence to tamoxifen using linked prescribing, cancer registry, clinical cancer audit, hospital discharge and death records. Direct medical costs were estimated for each patient and quality-of-life weights were assigned. Recurrence information was collected by case note review and adherence calculated from prescribing records with low adherence classed below 80%.Results:A total of 354 (28%) patients had a recorded recurrence and 504 (39%) died. Four hundred and seventy-five (38%) patients had low adherence over the treatment period, which was associated with reduced time to recurrence of 52% (P<0.001). Time to other cause mortality was also reduced by 23% (P=0.055) but this was not statistically significant. For an average patient over her lifetime, low adherence was associated with a loss of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.15-1.71) discounted life years or 1.12 (95% CI: 0.91-1.34) discounted quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and increased discounted medical costs of £5970 (95% CI: £4644-£7372). Assuming a willingness to pay threshold of £25 000 per QALY, the expected value of changing a patient from low to high adherence is £33 897 (95% CI: £28 322-£39 652).Conclusion:Patients with low adherence have shorter time to recurrence, increased medical costs and worse quality of life. Interventions that encourage patients to continue taking their treatment on a daily basis for the recommended 5-year period may be highly cost-effective. © 2013 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.

Oladele A.S.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology
International Conference on Transportation and Development 2016: Projects and Practices for Prosperity - Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Transportation and Development | Year: 2016

Performance modelling of gravel roadways is required to predict the conditions in the future and provide information for optimal maintenance interventions. Roads are expensive asset and should be properly maintained regardless of their class or function to enhance their performance. Optimal maintenance interventions at the appropriate time to preserve the asset value are required. As improvement over previous methodologies, this paper modifies the logistic regression model by incorporating the ordinal nature of a dependent variable through defining the probabilities differently to develop improved gravel road performance models based on site specific data. The models reflect the history of gravel loss conditions to predict future performance for gravel roads in Botswana as a threshold to trigger optimal maintenance interventions. The input data for the models were generated from the triennial condition survey for Botswana carried out in 2002, 2005, and 2008. The developed improved gravel road performance methodologies are long term plans for preservation and maintenance as gravel road management systems in Botswana. © ASCE.

Tjiparuro Z.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies | Year: 2015

The use of words in prose form to represent and communicate design ideas is not popular in engineering or at least not to the same extent as graphical representation. Is this because prose is completely defective for communicating design information? A variant question to the above was first investigated in 1987 at Carnegie-Mellon University and revisited nearly 15 years later at Arizona State University. The investigations gave graphics an edge over prose, albeit with the results so close, especially for the latter, that the maxim; the jury is still out there, would be an apt description. It is for this reason that the matter is revisited in the investigation reported in this paper. Ninety-eight (98) freshmen, taking an engineering graphics course (CETG 102: Engineering Graphics with AutoCAD) at the Botswana International University of Science and Technology, were given a ‘test’ on their first day of the course. In the ‘test’ the students were given a word description of a system and asked to draw/sketch it. The data gained from the experiment was collated and analyzed for quality and or ambiguity. Major findings from the investigation indicate that a fairly large numbers of students interpreted the word description of the system correctly and the ambiguity was fairly minimal with only 28 different groups of wrong interpretations of the same word description observed. © Springer India 2015.

Rahube T.O.,University of Regina | Rahube T.O.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology | Viana L.S.,University of Graz | Koraimann G.,University of Graz | Yost C.K.,University of Regina
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014

A wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is an environment high in nutrient concentration with diverse bacterial populations and can provide an ideal environment for the proliferation of mobile elements such as plasmids. WWTPs have also been identified as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes that are associated with human pathogens. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize self-transmissible or mobilizable resistance plasmids associated with effluent from wastewater treatment plant. An enrichment culture approach designed to capture plasmids conferring resistance to high concentrations of erythromycin was used to capture plasmids from an urban wastewater treatment plant servicing a population of ca. 210,000. DNA sequencing of the plasmids revealed diversity of plasmids represented by incompatibility groups IncU, col-E, IncFII and IncP-1β. Genes coding resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics (macrolide, tetracycline, beta-lactam, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, sulphonamide), quaternary ammonium compounds and heavy metals were co-located on these plasmids, often within transposable and integrative mobile elements. Several of the plasmids were self-transmissible or mobilizable and could be maintained in the absence of antibiotic selection. The IncFII plasmid pEFC36a showed the highest degree of sequence identity to plasmid R1 which has been isolated in England more than fifty years ago from a patient suffering from a Salmonella infection. Functional conservation of key regulatory features of this F-like conjugation module were demonstrated by the finding that the conjugation frequency of pEFC36a could be stimulated by the positive regulator of plasmid R1 DNA transfer genes, TraJ. © 2014 Rahube, Viana, Koraimann and Yost.

Selvaraj R.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology | Kuthadi V.M.,University of Johannesburg
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2013

In privacy preserving data mining, utility mining plays an important role. In privacy preserving utility mining, some sensitive itemsets are concealed from the database according to certain privacy policies. Hiding sensitive itemsets from the adversaries is becoming an important issue nowadays. Also, only very few methods are available in the literature to hide the sensitive itemsets in the database. One of the existing privacy preserving utility mining methods utilizes two algorithms, HHUIF and MSICF to conceal the sensitive itemsets, so that the adversaries cannot mine them from the modified database. To accomplish the hiding process, this method finds the sensitive itemsets and modifies the frequency of the high valued utility items. However, the performance of this method lacks if the utility value of the items are the same. The items with the same utility value decrease the hiding performance of the sensitive itemsets and also it has introduced computational complexity due to the frequency modification in each item. To solve this problem, in this paper a modified HHUIF algorithm with Item Selector (MHIS) is proposed. The proposed MHIS algorithm is a modified version of existing HHUIF algorithm. The MHIS algorithm computes the sensitive itemsets by utilizing the user defined utility threshold value. In order to hide the sensitive itemsets, the frequency value of the items is changed. If the utility values of the items are the same, the MHIS algorithm selects the accurate items and then the frequency values of the selected items are modified. The proposed MHIS reduces the computation complexity as well as improves the hiding performance of the itemsets. The algorithm is implemented and the resultant itemsets are compared against the itemsets that are obtained from the conventional privacy preserving utility mining algorithms. © 2013 ICIC International.

Andersen J.E.T.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Revue Roumaine de Chimie | Year: 2015

The origin of uncertainty is discussed vigorously in analytical science and, at present stage, it is unclear as to what extent scientists themselves impose uncertainty on the measurements or the apparatuses possess large levels of uncertainty of measurement.1-3 Introduction of certified-reference materials (CRM's) and standard-reference materials (SRM's) in analytical chemistry has revealed that scientists and professional laboratories disagree about value of results and quality of measurement. Reproducibility is poor in many cases and it is impossible to understand why some laboratories are able to produce excellent results, whereas other laboratories produce poor results despite the fact that both analyzed the same compound with the same type of apparatus. Science is divided about this issue where one party believes that uncertainty originates from incompetence of laboratory staff and the other party believes that uncertainty relates entirely to the quality of the apparatus. The alleged lack of compliance4 will be demonstrated by examples and case studies with determination of calcium by flame-Atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). It is suggested that discrepancies can be explained entirely with inherent properties of the system, and human error is negligible. It is shown that universal compliance can be obtained by accepting the real uncertainty of measurement without rejection of outliers. These results strongly indicate that scientific methodology should be altered by introduction of consensus science. The consensus value is the most likely result that can be obtained under a given set of circumstances but the real value is genuinely unknown. Consensus science has some immediate and fundamental consequences for analytical chemistry, which are discussed in detail.

Jamisola R.S.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Proceedings of the IEEE RAS and EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics | Year: 2016

Biological limbs normally come in pairs: mammals have four, insects have six, arachnids have eight, and centipedes have one pair of legs per body segment. This work attempts to interpret the biological method of controlling paired legs (here treated as dual-Arms) in opposite and adjacent pairs to achieve a holistic controller of a large four-legged animal (here treated as a combined four-Arm robot). The four-Arm controller uses the same principle of a single end-effector controller of a dual-Arm through the use of a relative Jacobian. A modular relative Jacobian of the four arms is derived. © 2016 IEEE.

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