Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Gaborone, Botswana

The Botswana International University of Science & Technology, also known as BIUST, is an International university located in the town of Palapye, Botswana. It is the Southern African nation's second university, after the University of Botswana in the country's capital, Gaborone. The location of the University is a 2,500 hectare site of gently sloping land the outskirts of Palapye. Wikipedia.

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Andersen J.E.T.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2017

Several flaws of the conventional standard-addition method (SAM) have been unravelled. By revisiting the theory, it has been shown that the SAM cannot be used to correct completely for interferences in analytical chemistry. Therefore, a new theory of SAM was developed, which takes into account the uncertainty of measurement and relates this information to differences that might stem from interferences. The SAM may be used to correct for rotational effects but it cannot be used to correct for translational effects, which confirms earlier findings. A full set of equations were supplied for undertaking a full method validation including a new set of parameters of performance. The equations were tested on determination by UV–VIS spectrophotometry of L-ascorbic acid. Previous results are reviewed and discussed in view of these new findings and recommendations are given about the importance of carrying out full method validations as a prerequisite to the SAM. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Juma A.O.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2016

In2S3 thin films deposited using chemical methods always contain residual elements from the precursors, which modify their properties. As buffer layers in solar cells, the residual elements in the In2S3 layer affect the performance of these devices. The stoichiometry of In2S3 thin films deposited by spray ion layer gas reaction (ILGAR) was studied as a function of the residual Cl from InCl3 precursor by varying the deposition parameters. The chemical formula was deduced from the elemental composition determined using Rutherford backscattering (RBS). Incomplete sulfurization of the precursor implies that residual Cl− remains bonded to the In3+ ions while some occupy interstitial and/or antisite positions in the In2S3 matrix. This results in thin films with different stoichiometry, described by the formula In4S6−xCl2x+2y. This changes the local bond configuration and geometry and underpins the influence of residual Cl on the physical properties of In2S3 thin films. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Muchuweni E.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology | Sathiaraj T.S.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology | Nyakotyo H.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Ceramics International | Year: 2016

Gallium and aluminium co-doped zinc oxide (GAZO) thin films were deposited by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering onto glass substrates and the effect of rf power on their structural, optical and electrical properties was respectively investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Spectrophotometry and Four–Point Probe Resistivity measurements. All films had a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with a preferred (002) grain orientation. The films’ crystallinity deteriorated with increasing rf power from 150 W to 250 W as revealed by the increase in full width at half maximum (FWHM), decrease in mean crystallite size and increase in dislocation density. A further increase in rf power to 300 W caused slight improvements in crystallinity due to enhanced surface diffusion of the ad-atoms. High optical transmittances, around 80–90% were observed for all films in the visible region and their optical band gap red shifted from 3.32 eV to 3.20 eV with increasing rf power. The electrical resistivity firstly increased as the rf power changed from 150 W to 250 W and then decreased at 300 W. The lowest electrical resistivity of 5.0×10−1Ωcm and maximum figure of merit of 4.8×10−4Ω−1 were obtained for films deposited at 150 W, indicating their better performance in optoelectronic applications. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l.

Akinyemi F.O.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Weather, Climate, and Society | Year: 2017

Smallholder farmers are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change and variability in semiarid contexts. Despite the limited adaptation options often used and the largely subsistence agriculture practiced, studies have shown that smallholders have accumulated local knowledge about changes in climatic conditions. Farmers with field experience and an extensive stay in three sites in Palapye, eastern Botswana, were interviewed. This study related farmers' perceptions of changes in climate with results from analysis of climate data. Major changes perceived are a reduction in rainfall amount, rising temperature, and increasing frequency of drought conditions. Perceived reduction in rainfall amount is confirmed by analysis results as variability in rainfall amount is high throughout the series. Rainfall was poorly distributed and below average at the beginning of the cropping seasons for four years between 2013 and 2017. For 1990, 2003, and 2012, the standardized precipitation index (SPI) was 21.77 (severe drought), 21.37 (moderate drought), and 22.32 (extreme drought), respectively. To minimize impacts on crop production, farmers simultaneously planted different crops based on the perception that climatic impacts on different crops vary and favored crops perceived as drought resistant. Livestock farmers supplemented with livestock feeds, reduced herd size, and moved livestock to areas with better forage. Off-farm incomes from selling products harvested from the wild are important to farmers as a coping strategy, particularly when rain fails. Some female farmers brewed and sold alcohol made locally from sorghum. That local knowledge and perceptions exist and are used by smallholder farmers to adapt to climate change and variability is suggested. Engaging with local knowledge systems is an imperative for climate change policy making. © 2017 American Meteorological Society.

Sabone M.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management | Year: 2016

The pressure from globalisation has made manufacturing organisations to move towards three major competitive arenas: quality, cost, and responsiveness. Quality is a universal value and has become a global issue. In order to survive and be able to provide customers with good products, manufacturing organisations' supporting systems, tools, and structures it uses must grow or evolve. The majority of quality management concepts and strategies that are practiced recently are aimed at detecting and correcting problems which already exist and serve to limit losses. In agile manufacturing environment there is no room for defect and error so it needs a quality management which is proactively directed at problem prevention. This proactive quality management avoids losses by focusing on failure prevention, virtual elimination of the possibility of premature failure, mistake-proofing, and assuring consistently high quality in the definition and design of creation processes. To achieve this a Decision Support Tool for Quality Control and Management is suggested. Current decision support tools/methods used by most manufacturing companies in Botswana for quality management and control are not integrated, for example they are not consistent since some tests results data is recorded manually only whilst others are recorded electronically. It is only a set of procedures not a tool. These procedures cannot offer interactive decision support. This point brings to light the aim of this research which is to develop a framework which will help manufacturing companies in Botswana build a decision support tool for quality control and management. © IEOM Society International. © IEOM Society International.

Muchuweni E.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology | Sathiaraj T.S.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology | Nyakotyo H.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2017

We report the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanowires on rf sputtered gallium and aluminium co-doped ZnO (GAZO) thin films as seed layers. Their morphological, structural, optical and electrical properties were systematically tuned by optimizing the growth temperature, time and solution concentration for application as transparent electrodes in solar cells. The GAZO seed layer had a mean particle size of 77.82 nm, root mean square surface roughness of 6.07 nm and predominant (002) grain orientation. Energy dispersive spectroscopy confirmed the presence of only Zn and O in the ZnO nanowires. Growth temperature and time had pronounced effects on the nanowires' axial growth rate while solution concentration affected their lateral growth. The nanowires adopted a (002) preferred growth orientation of the GAZO seed layer and their crystallinity improved with growth temperature, time and solution concentration. Average optical transmittances around 50–80% were observed in the visible region. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of few defects and negligible residual stress in the nanowires. Well-aligned, hexagonal column shaped nanowires with low electrical resistivity (1.4×10−2Ωcm) and high figure of merit (8.3×10−3Ω−1) were obtained with optimized growth parameters (2 h, 90°C and 25 mM), demonstrating their suitability for transparent electrode fabrication. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

McCowan C.,University of Glasgow | Wang S.,Imperial College London | Thompson A.M.,University of Dundee | Makubate B.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology | Petrie D.J.,University of Melbourne
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Background:Low adherence to adjuvant tamoxifen is associated with worse health outcomes but little is known about the cost-effectiveness of high adherence.Methods:We conducted an economic evaluation using data for all women with incident breast cancer between 1993 and 2000 who were subsequently prescribed tamoxifen in the Tayside region of Scotland. Patient-level, lifetime Markov models evaluated the impact of high vs low adherence to tamoxifen using linked prescribing, cancer registry, clinical cancer audit, hospital discharge and death records. Direct medical costs were estimated for each patient and quality-of-life weights were assigned. Recurrence information was collected by case note review and adherence calculated from prescribing records with low adherence classed below 80%.Results:A total of 354 (28%) patients had a recorded recurrence and 504 (39%) died. Four hundred and seventy-five (38%) patients had low adherence over the treatment period, which was associated with reduced time to recurrence of 52% (P<0.001). Time to other cause mortality was also reduced by 23% (P=0.055) but this was not statistically significant. For an average patient over her lifetime, low adherence was associated with a loss of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.15-1.71) discounted life years or 1.12 (95% CI: 0.91-1.34) discounted quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and increased discounted medical costs of £5970 (95% CI: £4644-£7372). Assuming a willingness to pay threshold of £25 000 per QALY, the expected value of changing a patient from low to high adherence is £33 897 (95% CI: £28 322-£39 652).Conclusion:Patients with low adherence have shorter time to recurrence, increased medical costs and worse quality of life. Interventions that encourage patients to continue taking their treatment on a daily basis for the recommended 5-year period may be highly cost-effective. © 2013 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.

Oladele A.S.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology
International Conference on Transportation and Development 2016: Projects and Practices for Prosperity - Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Transportation and Development | Year: 2016

Performance modelling of gravel roadways is required to predict the conditions in the future and provide information for optimal maintenance interventions. Roads are expensive asset and should be properly maintained regardless of their class or function to enhance their performance. Optimal maintenance interventions at the appropriate time to preserve the asset value are required. As improvement over previous methodologies, this paper modifies the logistic regression model by incorporating the ordinal nature of a dependent variable through defining the probabilities differently to develop improved gravel road performance models based on site specific data. The models reflect the history of gravel loss conditions to predict future performance for gravel roads in Botswana as a threshold to trigger optimal maintenance interventions. The input data for the models were generated from the triennial condition survey for Botswana carried out in 2002, 2005, and 2008. The developed improved gravel road performance methodologies are long term plans for preservation and maintenance as gravel road management systems in Botswana. © ASCE.

Rahube T.O.,University of Regina | Rahube T.O.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology | Viana L.S.,University of Graz | Koraimann G.,University of Graz | Yost C.K.,University of Regina
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014

A wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is an environment high in nutrient concentration with diverse bacterial populations and can provide an ideal environment for the proliferation of mobile elements such as plasmids. WWTPs have also been identified as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes that are associated with human pathogens. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize self-transmissible or mobilizable resistance plasmids associated with effluent from wastewater treatment plant. An enrichment culture approach designed to capture plasmids conferring resistance to high concentrations of erythromycin was used to capture plasmids from an urban wastewater treatment plant servicing a population of ca. 210,000. DNA sequencing of the plasmids revealed diversity of plasmids represented by incompatibility groups IncU, col-E, IncFII and IncP-1β. Genes coding resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics (macrolide, tetracycline, beta-lactam, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, sulphonamide), quaternary ammonium compounds and heavy metals were co-located on these plasmids, often within transposable and integrative mobile elements. Several of the plasmids were self-transmissible or mobilizable and could be maintained in the absence of antibiotic selection. The IncFII plasmid pEFC36a showed the highest degree of sequence identity to plasmid R1 which has been isolated in England more than fifty years ago from a patient suffering from a Salmonella infection. Functional conservation of key regulatory features of this F-like conjugation module were demonstrated by the finding that the conjugation frequency of pEFC36a could be stimulated by the positive regulator of plasmid R1 DNA transfer genes, TraJ. © 2014 Rahube, Viana, Koraimann and Yost.

Jamisola R.S.,Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Proceedings of the IEEE RAS and EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics | Year: 2016

Biological limbs normally come in pairs: mammals have four, insects have six, arachnids have eight, and centipedes have one pair of legs per body segment. This work attempts to interpret the biological method of controlling paired legs (here treated as dual-Arms) in opposite and adjacent pairs to achieve a holistic controller of a large four-legged animal (here treated as a combined four-Arm robot). The four-Arm controller uses the same principle of a single end-effector controller of a dual-Arm through the use of a relative Jacobian. A modular relative Jacobian of the four arms is derived. © 2016 IEEE.

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