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Gaya E.,Duke University | Hognabba F.,University of Helsinki | Holguin A.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Molnar K.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

The resolution of the phylogenetic relationships within the order Teloschistales (Ascomycota, lichen-forming-fungi), with nearly 2000 known species and outstanding phenotypic diversity, has been hindered by the limitation in the resolving power that single-locus or two-locus phylogenetic studies have provided to date. In this context, an extensive taxon sampling within the Teloschistales with more loci (especially nuclear protein-coding genes) was needed to confront the current taxonomic delimitations and to understand evolutionary trends within this order. Comprehensive maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were performed based on seven loci using a cumulative supermatrix approach, including protein-coding genes RPB1 and RPB2 in addition to nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal RNA-coding genes. We included 167 taxa representing 12 of the 15 genera recognized within the currently accepted Teloschistineae, 22 of the 43 genera within the Physciineae, 49 genera of the closely related orders Lecanorales, Lecideales, and Peltigerales, and the dubiously placed family Brigantiaeaceae and genus Sipmaniella. Although the progressive addition of taxa (cumulative supermatrix approach) with increasing amounts of missing data did not dramatically affect the loss of support and resolution, the monophyly of the Teloschistales in the current sense was inconsistent, depending on the loci-taxa combination analyzed. Therefore, we propose a new, but provisional, classification for the re-circumscribed orders Caliciales and Teloschistales (previously referred to as Physciineae and Teloschistineae, respectively). We report here that the family Brigantiaeaceae, previously regarded as incertae sedis within the subclass Lecanoromycetidae, and Sipmaniella, are members of the Teloschistales in a strict sense. Within this order, one lineage led to the diversification of the mostly epiphytic crustose Brigantiaeaceae and Letrouitiaceae, with a circumpacific center of diversity and found mostly in the tropics. The other main lineage led to another epiphytic crustose family, mostly tropical, and with an Australasian center of diversity - the Megalosporaceae - which is sister to the mainly rock-inhabiting, cosmopolitan, and species rich Teloschistaceae, with a diversity of growth habits ranging from crustose to fruticose. Our results confirm the use of a cumulative supermatrix approach as a viable method to generate comprehensive phylogenies summarizing relationships of taxa with multi-locus to single locus data. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Wiersema J.H.,Beltsville Agricultural Research Center West | McNeill J.,Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh | Turland N.J.,Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin Dahlem | Orli S.S.,Smithsonian Institution | Wagner W.L.,Smithsonian Institution
Taxon | Year: 2015

A newly expanded digital resource exists for tracking decisions on all nomenclature proposals potentially contributing to Appendices II–VIII of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. This system owes its origins to the Smithsonian Institution’s “Proposals and Disposals” website created by Dan H. Nicolson to track conservation / rejection proposals, but now also treats proposals to suppress works or requests for binding decisions. The new resource was created to accommodate the steadily expanding content of the Appendices in relation to the main body of the Code. A database is now available to generate these Appendices, as has been done for the Melbourne Code. A web interface allows users to query database content in various ways to review proposal histories or to extract all or part of the Appendices. An analysis of the underlying data was conducted to make comparisons between proposals submitted for the various editions of the Code. These include the type of nomenclatural remedy sought, the major group concerned, the numbers of names involved, the timeliness of the proposal evaluation process, the proposal success rate, and the diversity of proposal authorship. The success of proposals was also evaluated by the type of remedy sought and by major groups. © International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) 2015.

Korotkova N.,Free University of Berlin | Nauheimer L.,Free University of Berlin | Ter-Voskanyan H.,Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin Dahlem | Ter-Voskanyan H.,Armenian National Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Plastid genomes exhibit different levels of variability in their sequences, depending on the respective kinds of genomic regions. Genes are usually more conserved while noncoding introns and spacers evolve at a faster pace. While a set of about thirty maximum variable noncoding genomic regions has been suggested to provide universally promising phylogenetic markers throughout angiosperms, applications often require several regions to be sequenced for many individuals. Our project aims to illuminate evolutionary relationships and species-limits in the genus Pyrus (Rosaceae)- A typical case with very low genetic distances between taxa. In this study, we have sequenced the plastid genome of Pyrus spinosa and aligned it to the already available P. pyrifolia sequence. The overall p-distance of the two Pyrus genomes was 0.00145. The intergenic spacers between ndhC-trnV, trnR- AtpA, ndhF-rpl32, psbM-trnD, and trnQ-rps16 were the most variable regions, also comprising the highest total numbers of substitutions, indels and inversions (potentially informative characters). Our comparative analysis of further plastid genome pairs with similar low p-distances from Oenothera (representing another rosid), Olea (asterids) and Cymbidium (monocots) showed in each case a different ranking of genomic regions in terms of variability and potentially informative characters. Only two intergenic spacers (ndhF-rpl32 and trnK-rps16) were consistently found among the 30 top-ranked regions. We have mapped the occurrence of substitutions and microstructural mutations in the four genome pairs. High AT content in specific sequence elements seems to foster frequent mutations. We conclude that the variability among the fastest evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific and thus cannot be precisely predicted across angiosperms. The often lineage-specific occurrence of stem-loop elements in the sequences of introns and spacers also governs lineage-specific mutations. Sequencing whole plastid genomes to find markers for evolutionary analyses is therefore particularly useful when overall genetic distances are low. © 2014 Korotkova et al.

Miadlikowska J.,Duke University | Kauff F.,University of Kaiserslautern | Kauff F.,Justus Liebig University | Hognabba F.,University of Helsinki | And 36 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

The Lecanoromycetes is the largest class of lichenized Fungi, and one of the most species-rich classes in the kingdom. Here we provide a multigene phylogenetic synthesis (using three ribosomal RNA-coding and two protein-coding genes) of the Lecanoromycetes based on 642 newly generated and 3329 publicly available sequences representing 1139 taxa, 317 genera, 66 families, 17 orders and five subclasses (four currently recognized: Acarosporomycetidae, Lecanoromycetidae, Ostropomycetidae, Umbilicariomycetidae; and one provisionarily recognized, 'Candelariomycetidae'). Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses on four multigene datasets assembled using a cumulative supermatrix approach with a progressively higher number of species and missing data (5-gene, 5 + 4-gene, 5 + 4 + 3-gene and 5 + 4 + 3 + 2-gene datasets) show that the current classification includes non-monophyletic taxa at various ranks, which need to be recircumscribed and require revisionary treatments based on denser taxon sampling and more loci. Two newly circumscribed orders (Arctomiales and Hymeneliales in the Ostropomycetidae) and three families (Ramboldiaceae and Psilolechiaceae in the Lecanorales, and Strangosporaceae in the Lecanoromycetes inc. sed.) are introduced. The potential resurrection of the families Eigleraceae and Lopadiaceae is considered here to alleviate phylogenetic and classification disparities. An overview of the photobionts associated with the main fungal lineages in the Lecanoromycetes based on available published records is provided. A revised schematic classification at the family level in the phylogenetic context of widely accepted and newly revealed relationships across Lecanoromycetes is included. The cumulative addition of taxa with an increasing amount of missing data (i.e., a cumulative supermatrix approach, starting with taxa for which sequences were available for all five targeted genes and ending with the addition of taxa for which only two genes have been sequenced) revealed relatively stable relationships for many families and orders. However, the increasing number of taxa without the addition of more loci also resulted in an expected substantial loss of phylogenetic resolving power and support (especially for deep phylogenetic relationships), potentially including the misplacements of several taxa. Future phylogenetic analyses should include additional single copy protein-coding markers in order to improve the tree of the Lecanoromycetes. As part of this study, a new module ("Hypha") of the freely available Mesquite software was developed to compare and display the internodal support values derived from this cumulative supermatrix approach. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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