Botanischer Garten Munich Nymphenburg

München, Germany

Botanischer Garten Munich Nymphenburg

München, Germany
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Milet-Pinheiro P.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Gerlach G.,Botanischer Garten Munich Nymphenburg
Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics | Year: 2017

The Neotropical genus Catasetum is one of the most notable orchids because of its unusual reproductive strategy. In contrast to most orchids, all of the ca. 170 Catasetum species have sexually dimorphic, unisexual flowers involved in a highly specialized pollination mechanism. Flowers of Catasetum produce strong floral perfumes that act as both attractant and reward for male euglossine bees. While collecting perfumes, euglossine males may remove the pollinarium from a male flower and subsequently deposit it in the stigmatic slit of a female flower, resulting in pollination. Here we present an overview of the existing literature on floral scent chemistry and pollinators of Catasetum and add new reports on the pollinators of some species. We provide some insights into the ecology and evolution of floral scents in the genus Catasetum and suggest directions for future research. We hope this review will stimulate research not only on the ecology and evolution of Catasetum but also of the about 1000 species of fragrance-rewarding plants that are found in the Neotropics. © 2017 Elsevier GmbH


Blanco M.A.,University of Costa Rica | Davies K.L.,University of Cardiff | Stpiczynska M.,University of Warsaw | Carlsward B.S.,Eastern Illinois University | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Botany | Year: 2013

Background and Aims A significant proportion of orchid species assigned to subtribe Oncidiinae produce floral oil as a food reward that attracts specialized bee pollinators. This oil is produced either by glabrous glands (epithelial elaiophores) or by tufts of secretory hairs (trichomal elaiophores). Although the structure of epithelial elaiophores in the Oncidiinae has been well documented, trichomal elaiophores are less common and have not received as much attention. Only trichomal elaiophores occur in the genus Lockhartia, and their distribution and structure are surveyed here for the first time. Methods Flowers of 16 species of Lockhartia were studied. The location of floral elaiophores was determined histochemically and their anatomical organization and mode of oil secretionwas investigated by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results and Conclusions - All species of Lockhartia investigated have trichomal elaiophores on the adaxial surface of the labellum. Histochemical tests revealed the presence of lipoidal substances within the labellar trichomes. However, the degree of oil production and the distribution of trichomes differed between the three major groups of species found within the genus. All trichomes were unicellular and, in some species, of two distinct sizes, the larger being either capitate or apically branched. The trichomal cuticle was lamellate, and often appeared distended due to the subcuticular accumulation of oil. The labellar trichomes of the three species examined using transmission electron microscopy contained dense, intensely staining cytoplasm with apically located vacuoles. Oil-laden secretory vesicles fused with the plasmalemma and discharged their contents. Oil eventually accumulated between the cell wall and cuticle of the trichome and contained electron-transparent profiles or droplets. This condition is considered unique to Lockhartia among those species of elaiophore-bearing Oncidiinae studied to date. © The Author 2013.


Perez-Escobar O.A.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Gottschling M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Whitten W.M.,University of Florida | Salazar G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Gerlach G.,Botanischer Garten Munich Nymphenburg
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2016

Two sexual systems are predominant in Catasetinae (Orchidaceae), namely protandry (which has evolved in other orchid lineages as well) and environmental sex determination (ESD) being a unique trait among Orchidaceae. Yet, the lack of a robust phylogenetic framework for Catasetinae has hampered deeper insights in origin and evolution of sexual systems. To investigate the origins of protandry and ESD in Catasetinae, we sequenced nuclear and chloroplast loci from 77 species, providing the most extensive data matrix of Catasetinae available so far with all major lineages represented. We used Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships and evolution of sexual systems. Irrespectively of the methods used, Catasetinae were monophyletic in molecular phylogenies, with all established generic lineages and their relationships resolved and highly supported. According to comparative reconstruction approaches, the last common ancestor of Catasetinae was inferred as having bisexual flowers (i.e., lacking protandry and ESD as well), and protandry originated once in core Catasetinae (comprising Catasetum, Clowesia, Cycnoches, Dressleria and Mormodes). In addition, three independent gains of ESD are reliably inferred, linked to corresponding loss of protandry within core Catasetinae. Thus, prior gain of protandry appears as the necessary prerequisite for gain of ESD in orchids. Our results contribute to a comprehensive evolutionary scenario for sexual systems in Catasetinae and more generally in orchids as well. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, University of Florida, National Autonomous University of Mexico and Botanischer Garten Munich Nymphenburg
Type: | Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution | Year: 2016

Two sexual systems are predominant in Catasetinae (Orchidaceae), namely protandry (which has evolved in other orchid lineages as well) and environmental sex determination (ESD) being a unique trait among Orchidaceae. Yet, the lack of a robust phylogenetic framework for Catasetinae has hampered deeper insights in origin and evolution of sexual systems. To investigate the origins of protandry and ESD in Catasetinae, we sequenced nuclear and chloroplast loci from 77 species, providing the most extensive data matrix of Catasetinae available so far with all major lineages represented. We used Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships and evolution of sexual systems. Irrespectively of the methods used, Catasetinae were monophyletic in molecular phylogenies, with all established generic lineages and their relationships resolved and highly supported. According to comparative reconstruction approaches, the last common ancestor of Catasetinae was inferred as having bisexual flowers (i.e., lacking protandry and ESD as well), and protandry originated once in core Catasetinae (comprising Catasetum, Clowesia, Cycnoches, Dressleria and Mormodes). In addition, three independent gains of ESD are reliably inferred, linked to corresponding loss of protandry within core Catasetinae. Thus, prior gain of protandry appears as the necessary prerequisite for gain of ESD in orchids. Our results contribute to a comprehensive evolutionary scenario for sexual systems in Catasetinae and more generally in orchids as well.


Bogner J.,Botanischer Garten Munich Nymphenburg
Willdenowia | Year: 2011

Spathiphyllum pygmaeum from Ecuador is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Only 10 - 15 cm tall, it is the smallest species in the genus and it is characterised by leaf blades 7 - 10 cm long and c. 2 cm wide, with 3 - 5 primary lateral veins on each side of the midrib, a white spathe with green apex and a two-locular ovary with one ovule in each locule; the chromosome number is 2n = 30; the pollen, formerly considered as inaperturate for Spathiphyllum, is actually polyaperturate. It is compared with the closely related S. minor, which is also illustrated. © 2011 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem.


Bogner J.,Botanischer Garten Munich Nymphenburg
Willdenowia | Year: 2011

Two species of Culcasia, C. brevipetiolata from Gabon and C. linearifolia from Gabon and Cameroon, and two new species of Stylochaeton, S. pilosus from Sierra Leone and S. malaissei from DR Congo, are described as new to science and illustrated. C. brevipetiolata is characterised by short petioles and leaf blades with a rounded base, C. linearifolia by linear leaf blades, S. pilosus by ± rounded, abaxially hairy leaf blades and hairy petioles, and S. malaissei by leaf blades with a cuneate base. © 2011 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem.


Gerlach G.,Botanischer Garten Munich Nymphenburg
Lankesteriana | Year: 2013

The sexual dimorphism of the genera Catasetum and Cycnoches is now common knowledge to orchid growers and investigators. Female flowers of Catasetum are all non-resupinate with a hooded lip, whereas the male flowers can be non-resupinate with a hooded lip or resupinate with a differently shaped lip, depending on the species. Only with male flowers present can the species of a Catasetum can be determined. In Cycnoches, flowers of both sexes are resupinate with a slender and long, curved column, resembling a swan's neck. The lip of male flowers of C. sect. Heteranthae is provided with finger-like projections, but female flowers of that section and those of C. sect. Cycnoches have an entire lip. Female flowers of both genera observed in the Botanical Garden of Munich bear pollinaria, but they are without any function. Slight movements of the female inflorescences of Catasetum cause the pollinaria to fall off, and as a result their presence is often overlooked. In female pollinaria of Catasetum the caudicles are absent, making pollination impossible in nature. Their pollen is germinable, and application of the pollinia to the stigma of the same flower yields viable seeds. The seldomobserved intermediate forms have a stigmatic cavity as in the male flowers. Their pollinaria are similar to those of the female flowers, so they are also non-functional. They do not serve either as males or females. In female Cycnoches, the anther cap does not fall off, so preventing pollination by such a pollinarium. The pollinia are encapsulated by the anther cap and so cannot come into contact with the stigma of another flower. Here, too, germination tests of the female pollen were positive. It is suspected that selfing of the female flowers here also will result in viable seeds. In both cases the female flowers are true hermaphrodites, but because of their limited male function one should think of them as functional female flowers. Male flowers, however, do not develop precursors of ovules, and a stigma is not present. Given the different flower morphologies and the pollination processes, one assumes that the floral fragrances should differ among the sexes of Catasetum flowers. The battered pollinator will remember the negative experience with the male flowers. So different fragrances in the female flowers would be the way out of this dilemma. Floral fragrances of five Catasetum species and two Cycnoches species were investigated by gas chromatography. Only weak differences in the fragrance composition of the separate sexes were detected, begging several questions. What are the forces driving the pollinator from male to female flowers? Is the weight of the pollinarium sufficient to explain avoidance of the male flowers? Does the bee still remember the disagreeable episode? Is identification effected only by visual senses?


A brief history is provided of the Munich Botanical Garden, focusing on the past 100 years. The garden's main historical buildings and works of art are illustrated. © 2013 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem.


Yeng W.S.,University Malaysia Sarawak | Bogner J.,Botanischer Garten Munich Nymphenburg | Boyce P.C.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Webbia | Year: 2011

Piptospatha marginata is shown to be a morphologically and ecologically distinct species restricted to exposed shales along the Rejang drainages of central Sarawak, and not a synonym of NW Bornean, granite-obligated P. elongata, with which it has been considered conspecific. Recognition of P. marginata as distinct takes to nine the number of recognized Piptospatha species, of which seven are endemic to Borneo. An expanded description of P. marginata is presented and an updated key to the genus is provided.


Bogner J.,Botanischer Garten Munich Nymphenburg | Croat T.B.,Missouri Botanical Garden
Willdenowia | Year: 2012

Philodendron geniculatum is described as a species new to science and illustrated. This species has been in cultivation for decades in the USA, Europe and Asia (Taiwan), but has not flowered until recently. It is characterised by a conspicuous geniculum on the apex of the subterete petiole, by an elliptic leaf blade with a thick, whitish midrib, many parallel primary lateral veins on each side, an auriculate base and a cuspidate apex, as well as by persistent red cataphylls drying brown soon and becoming fibrous later. P. geniculatum has a single inflorescence with a striking spathe, outside burgundy-red in the lower part and intensively red in the upper part. The species is morphologically closest and probably related to P. scherberichii, from which we delimit it. © 2012 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem.

Loading Botanischer Garten Munich Nymphenburg collaborators
Loading Botanischer Garten Munich Nymphenburg collaborators