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Dal Grande F.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | Widmer I.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | Beck A.,Botanische Staatssammlung Munich | Scheidegger C.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest
Conservation Genetics | Year: 2010

We isolated and characterized eight microsatellite markers for Dictyochloropsis reticulata, the primary photosynthetic partner of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. These are the first microsatellite loci reported for a lichen symbiotic alga. These polymorphic markers will be useful for investigating spatial genetic structure, biogeography and dispersal of this eukaryotic alga and will generally shed light on the coevolution of the green-algal lichen symbioses. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Sadowski E.-M.,University of Gottingen | Seyfullah L.J.,University of Gottingen | Sadowski F.,Bielefeld University | Fleischmann A.,Botanische Staatssammlung Munich | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.


Schlauer J.,Zwischenstr. 11 | Fleischmann A.,Botanische Staatssammlung Munich
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2016

Naphthoquinone patterns found in Drosera hybrids between quinone-heterogenous parent species are reported here for the first time. Quinone patterns are constant in and characteristic for all taxa investigated. Each investigated parent species contains only one quinone isomer (either plumbagin or 7-methyljuglone), whereas all investigated hybrids between quinone-heterogenous parent species contain both isomers at almost equal concentrations, which indicates co-dominant heredity resulting from expression of both parental loci affecting regioselectivity in the biosynthesis of these acetogenic metabolites. This allows predictions on hybridity (and possibly on parentage) in some taxa of the genus. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Vargas Castillo R.,Botanische Staatssammlung Munich | Vargas Castillo R.,University of Concepción | Beck A.,Botanische Staatssammlung Munich
Fungal Biology | Year: 2012

Little is known about the nature of the association between mycobionts and photobionts in isolated lichen communities. Here we studied the photobiont diversity of different Caloplaca species in a fog-induced community in the Atacama Desert. We compared nrDNA ITS sequences of both symbionts, photobionts and mycobionts, along with morphological characters of the different lichen thalli, to investigate the diversity and to assess the degree of selectivity and specificity of photobiont species in a community of Caloplaca species. Specimens of six fungal species (C. orthoclada, C. fernandeziana, and four undescribed species) were sampled along an altitudinal gradient on a coastal bluff with a strong fog presence, 60. km south of Iquique, Chile. The photobiont species in this community belong to three species of the genus Trebouxia in the strict sense: T. arboricola, T. decolorans, and T. gigantea. Most of the fungal species were lichenized with photobionts belonging to different haplotypes of T. arboricola and T. decolorans, although the algae of three specimens, associated with two fungal species (C. orthoclada and C. sp1), were related to representatives of T. gigantea. These results indicate that members of the genus Caloplaca in northern Chile have moderate photobiont selectivity and appear to be selective to members of the T. arboricola group. Also, at high altitudes, changes in the photobiontal haplotype composition were observed in comparison to lower altitudes, probably generated by a higher water availability given higher fog condensation and precipitation in the upper areas of the bluff. This may suggest that ecological factors, such as altitude and water availability could result in a local shift of the associated photobiont and specialization as a product of local adaptation. © 2012 The British Mycological Society.


Beck A.,Botanische Staatssammlung Munich | Beck A.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Mayr C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Mayr C.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2012

Stable isotope patterns in lichens are known to vary largely, but effects of substrate on carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures of lichens were previously not investigated systematically. N and C contents and stable isotope (δ15N, δ13C) patterns have been measured in 92 lichen specimens of Xanthoria parietina from southern Bavaria growing on different substrates (bark and stone). Photobiont and mycobiont were isolated from selected populations and isotopically analyzed. Molecular investigations of the internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS nrDNA) region have been conducted on a subset of the specimens of X. parietina. Phylogenetic analysis showed no correlation between the symbionts X. parietina and Trebouxia decolorans and the substrate, isotope composition, or geographic origin. Instead specimens grown on organic substrate significantly differ in isotope values from those on minerogenic substrate. This study documents that the lichens growing on bark use additional or different N sources than the lichens growing on stone. δ15N variation of X. parietina apparently is controlled predominantly by the mass fraction of the mycobiont and its nitrogen isotope composition. In contrast with mycobionts, photobionts of X. parietina are much more 15N-depleted and show less isotopic variability than mycobionts, probably indicating a mycobiont-independent nitrogen acquisition by uptake of atmospheric ammonia.© 2012 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Bensch K.,Botanische Staatssammlung Munich | Bensch K.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Braun U.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Groenewald J.Z.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | And 3 more authors.
Studies in Mycology | Year: 2012

A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. © CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre.


Eight new species of Lecideaceae are described from the southern subpolar region: Bryobilimbia coppinsiana Fryday, a saxicolous species with one septate ascospores (Campbell Island, New Zealand); Immersaria fuliginosa Fryday, with a thallus composed of thalloconidia (Falkland Islands); Lecidea aurantia Fryday, with an orange thallus (Auckland Islands, New Zealand); L. campbellensis Fryday, with an endolithic thallus and apothecia resembling those of a species of Porpidia (Campbell Island); Poeltiaria ochyrae Hertel, which is similar to P. subincongua but with a thick areolate thallus (South Orkney and South Shetland Islands); P. tasmanica Fryday, which is similar to P. urbanskyana but with smaller ascopores (Tasmania); Poeltidea inspersa Fryday with an enolithic thallus and a hymenium with large oil globules (Falkland Islands); and Porpidia vulcanoides Hertel & Fryday with immersed apothecia with a thick margin and large ascospores (SW Chile). Lecidea kalbii Hertel is resurrected from the synonymy of L. mannii Tuck. and treated as a distinct species. The circumscription of genera within the Lecideaceae is also discussed: Poeltiaria is shown to be heterogeneous, and the genera Labyrintha and Notolecidea are reduced to synonymy with Poeltidea and Poeltiaria respectively, and the new combinations Poeltidia implexa (Malcolm et al.) Hertel & Fryday and Poeltiaria subcontinua (Hertel) Hertel & Fryday made. A key to the genera of Lecideaceae s. lat. is provided. © British Lichen Society 2014.


Esser H.-J.,Botanische Staatssammlung Munich
Novon | Year: 2010

The new combination Stillingia tenella (Pax & K. Hoffm.) Esser is proposed, which is based on an overlooked name originally described in Sapium Jacq. and replaces Stillingia yungasensis Belgrano & Pozner as a new synonym. © 2010 Missouri Botanical Garden.


Esser H.-J.,Botanische Staatssammlung Munich
Rodriguesia | Year: 2012

The tribe Hippomaneae (Euphorbiaceae) in Brazil. The tribe Hippomaneae is discussed with respect to its taxonomic history, its placement within the Euphorbiaceae, its diagnostic characters (particularly the floral buds), current data on phylogeny and subdivision, and its general pattern of diversity. The tribe is represented in Brazil with 13 genera and ca. 120 species. A key to the Brazilian genera is provided. All Brazilian genera are discussed, citing relevant characters, recent taxonomic literature, and the current state of knowledge, sometimes pointing to unresolved problems. For five of the genera, published revisions exist; six genera have unpublished but completed revisions or are currently under revision. Actinostemon and Gymnanthes are currently the most difficult genera, mostly based on the absence of available up-to-date taxonomic references. For Mabea and Senefeldera, two genera with completed but currently unpublished revisions, additional data are given on aspects of their taxonomy, ecology and biogeography.


Dolnik C.,University of Kiel | Beck A.,Botanische Staatssammlung Munich | Zarabska D.,Adam Mickiewicz University
Lichenologist | Year: 2010

Cladonia rei and Cladonia subulata are morphologically similar, but chemically different cup lichens of dry grasslands and nutrient-poor ruderal habitats. Recently, C. rei has been synonymized with C. subulata on the basis of combined morphological and chemical investigations. However, doubts remained due to a molecular divergent North American sample of C. rei compared to European C. subulata. To clarify the situation, using molecular methods, we analysed chemically different European samples of C. rei and C. subulata, as well as other morphologically or chemically similar Cladonia species. Molecular data show that European and North American samples of C. rei belong to the same clade, which is closely related to C. fimbriata and followed by a subclade with C. coniocraea and C. ochrochlora. The subclade of C. subulata appears to be distinct from C. rei. In concordance with molecular data, the presence of homosekikaic acid is the determining chemical feature for C. rei. In addition, C. humilis and C. innominata proved to be molecularly distinct species. © 2010 British Lichen Society.

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