Botanical Survey of India
Botanical Survey of India
Seal T.,Botanical Survey of India
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014
The antioxidant activities of seven wild edible plants e.g. Allium schoenoprasum, Carica papaya, Neptunia oleracea, Eurya acuminata, Hodgsonia heteroclita, Brassica nigra and Flacourtia jangomas collected from Meghalaya state in India were studied by assessing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power ability, estimation of total phenolic content, flavonoid content and flavonol content, using different solvent extraction system. The solvents used for extracting active components from plant were benzene, chloroform, acetone and methanol. The different levels of antioxidant activities were found in the solvent systems used. The results indicate that these wild edible vegetables can be utilized as natural antioxidant. These findings are also important for providing evidence that the studied plants might be the potential sources of nutritional and medicinal agents.
Singh L.J.,Botanical Survey of India
Nordic Journal of Botany | Year: 2017
Cycas dharmrajii L.J.Singh (Cycadaceae), a new species from the Andaman Islands, India is described and illustrated, and its conservation status is assessed. An abnormal branching habit of the giant trunk, its swollen base, often branched, polymorphic aerial roots, medium-sized leaves, megasporophylls with well-defined 10–28 paired lateral hook-like structures and 1–3 pairs of ovules, 2-schizo-lysigenous mucilage canals in leaflet, and characteristic pitting on the periclinal walls of the epidermal cells of the leaflets distinguishes it from all previously known species. A key to the species of Cycas from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is also provided. © 2016 The Authors
Seal T.,Botanical Survey of India |
Chaudhuri K.,Botanical Survey of India |
Pillai B.,Botanical Survey of India
Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2013
The present communication deals with the antioxidant activity of the benzene, chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of five wild edible fruits e. g. Zanthoxylum armatum, Gomphogyne cissiformis, Gymnopetalum cochinensis, Artocarpus gomeziana, and Baccaurea sapida collected from Meghalaya state in India. The total phenolic content varied from 0. 72 ±0. 34 to 4. 30±0. 53 mg/g, 0. 19 ±0. 11 to 4. 89±0. 86 mg/g, 1. 58 ±0. 21 to 34. 24±0. 25 mg/g and 21. 14 ± 0. 23 to 96. 19 ± 1. 18 mg/g dry material in the benzene, chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of the fruits respectively. Flavonoids and flavonols content were found highest in the acetone extract of Gymnopetalum cochinensis whereas least amount of flavonoids present in the acetone extract of Baccaurea sapida. 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The highest radical scavenging was observed in the methanol extract of Artocarpus gomeziana with IC50 = 0. 19±0. 0005 mg dry material. The greater amount of phenolic compounds leads to more potent radical scavenging effect as shown by the methanol extract of Artocarpus gomeziana. The reducing power of the extracts of the plants were also evaluated as mg AAE (ascorbic acid equivalent)/g dry material. The results indicate that these wild edible fruits can be utilized as natural antioxidant.
Seal T.,Botanical Survey of India
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2011
The present communication deals with the in vitro antioxidant studies of the acetone and aqueous methanol extracts of four wild edible fruits e.g. Morus indica, Parkia roxburghii, Prunus nepalensis and Terminalia bellerica, collected from Meghalaya state in India. The total phenol varied from 10.49±0.14 to 95.40±0.74 mg/g in the aqueous methanol extract and 9.21±0.23 to 130.48±0.97 mg/g in the acetone extract of the fruits. Flavanoids content were between 2.14±0.02 and 7.07±0.01 mg/g in aqueous methanol extract and varied from 2.21±0.14 to 10.37±0.10 mg/g in the acetone extract. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The highest radical scavenging was observed in the acetone extract of M. esculenta with IC50 = 0.058±9.72E-05 mg dry material. The greater amount of phenolic compounds leads to more potent radical scavenging effect as shown by the acetone extract of T. bellerica. Flavonol content was observed highest in the acetone extract of P. nepalensis (14.12 ± 0.05 mg/g) and least in the aqueous methanol extract of P. roxburghii (2.83±0.11 mg/g). The reducing power of the extracts of the plants were also evaluated as mg AAE (ascorbic acid equivalent)/g dry material. The results indicate that these wild edible fruits can be utilized as natural antioxidant.
Shah A.,Jamia Hamdard University |
Bharati K.A.,Botanical Survey of India |
Ahmad J.,Jamia Hamdard University |
Sharma M.P.,Jamia Hamdard University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015
Background Medicinal plants are frequently employed by Gujjar and Bakerwal tribes in Rajouri and Poonch districts of Jammu and Kashmir, India for treatment of various ailments in humans and livestock. Hence, extensive field work was conducted to document the ethnomedicinal plants used by these tribes. Methodology Ninety one key informants were interviewed using both in situ and ex situ type of survey methods. The data were analyzed using user value (UV), informant consensus factor (Fic), fidelity level (FL) and relative frequency of citation (Rfc). Results A total of 104 species of medicinal plants used in the treatment of 40 different non-communicable ailments with 138 remedies are reported. Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch was recorded for the first time with ethnomedicinal uses and the rest of the species were previously reported with different medicinal uses by other tribal people. Out of 138 remedies, 129 were employed for human ailments and the remaining seven were used to treat livestock. Most of the species were harvested for leaves (24 species). Herbs (66 species) were the major life form used for medicinal purpose and the most common method of remedy preparation was decoction/tea (27.8%). The highest use value plant was Verbascum thapsus L. for the treatment of stomachache and snake bite. Conclusions Plants such as Allium humile Kunth, Angelica glauca Edgew, Arnebia benthamii (Wall. ex G. Don) I.M.Johnst, Asparagus racemosus Willd., Balanophora involucrata Hook. f. & Thomson, C. longifolia (L.) Fritsch, Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L., Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet, Gloriosa superb L., Habenaria intermedia D. Don, Phyllanthus emblica L., Ramaria Formosa (Pers.) Quel. and V. thapsus L. showing high Rfc and FL values may be studied for associated pharmacological activities. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Srivastava R.C.,Botanical Survey of India
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2010
Arunachal Pradesh, falling under Eastern Himalayan region, which is one of the global mega-diversity centre, is a botanical paradise with ca 4,485 species of angiosperms; 44 taxa of gymnosperms; ca 350 species of bryophytes; over 550 species pteridophytes; over 300 species of algae (only 52 species published so far) and over 5,350 species of fungi (including ca 350 species of lichens) and is the home of 110 ethnic communities (tribes) most of which are still forest dwellers and so diverse that they can not understand each others language. Hindi is gradually becoming popular among the persons, who are near townships. The paper throws light on the plants used by Nyishi (Daffla) including Hill Miri tribes in their day to day life.
Singh D.,Botanical Survey of India
Lindbergia | Year: 2012
Cheilolejeunea trifaria (Reinw. et al.) Mizut. is widely distributed in East and South-east Asia, Central and South America, Africa and Australia (Mizutani 1972, 1982, Tan and Engel 1986, Piippo 1990, Wigginton and Grolle 1996, Zhu and So 2001, McCarthy 2006, Yamada and Iwatsuki 2006). In India the species was known only from Andaman in Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Joshi 2001) till recently when Daniels and Mabel (2010) recorded it from the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu in Indian mainland. While, Joshi (l.c.) did not provide any taxonomic description or illustrations for the plants from the Andaman, the one provided by Daniels and Mabel ((l.c.) for the Western Ghats plants not only failed to provide the details of vital taxonomic features, but also full of inconsistencies between the description and the drawing, hence of little use rather misleading for the taxonomists working on this group. During the course of ongoing studies on Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of Sikkim the author collected some interesting corticolous population of the genus Cheilolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn. with plants having orbicular, imbricate leaves with 4-5 times as wide as the stem underleaves, sub-orbicular, bilobed to 1/4-1/3 of its length, male bracteoles present only at the basal portion of the androecial branches and obovate, 5-keeled perianth from the North district of Sikkim. In the morphological characteristics, the plants fully compare with typical C. trfaria - a species hitherto unknown in Indian Himalayan region as borne out by the review of relevant literature (Mizutani 1963, 1972, 1980, 1982, Asthana et al. 1995, Thiers 1997, Zhu and So 2001, Zhu et al. 2002). The same has been described and illustrated in detail to facilitate its easy identification in Indian bryoflora and remove the confusion caused by the publication of Daniels and Mabel ((l.c.).
Seal T.,Botanical Survey of India
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences | Year: 2011
The study was carried out to analyze the nutritional composition, mineral contents and antioxidant activity of the leaves of Clerodendron colebrookianum, Oenanthe linearis, Sonchus arvensis, Zanthoxylum acanthopodium, roots of Houttuynia cordata, Potentilla lineate and seeds of Castanopsis indica collected from different market of Meghalaya state, India using standard method of food analysis. For different plant species the crude fat content ranged between 0.579±0.01-2.46±0.04% and crude fibre 0.59±0.03-6.30±0.45%. The crude protein content was determined high in the leaves of Z. acanthopodium (28.06±0.14%), C. colebrookianum (27.67±0.42%) and O. linearis (21.80±0.41%) while the carbohydrate content was highest in the nuts of C. indica (61.86±1.42%) and roots of H. cordata (23.45±2.11%). The nutritive value ranged from 883.75±54.03-2724.86±54.50 cal kg -1 in the various wild edible plants. Among the various macronutrients estimated in the plant samples of different wild edible plant potassium was present in the highest quantity (16.10-84.40 mg g -1) followed by calcium (5.85-23.70 mg g -1) and sodium (0.95-3.20 mg g -1). Micronutrients, such as iron, zinc, copper, manganese and chromium were analyzed in the different plant specimens. The antioxidant activity of wild edible plants was examined. The content of total phenolics in the aqueous methanolic extracts was calculated as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) and radical scavenging activity was estimated as IC 50 values using 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The total phenol varied from 17.32±0.10 to 552.01±0.48 mg g -1 in the extracts. The highest radical scavenging effect was observed in C. indica with IC 50 = 115.27±0.24 μg mL -1. The greater amount of phenolic compound leads to more potent radical scavenging effect as shown by C. indica. Nutritive values of these plants were compared to the other wild and commercial leafy vegetables and fruits. It has been observed that the mineral contents and nutritional values of the plants evaluated in the present study were richer than that of the conventional leafy vegetables and fruits. © 2011 Knowledgia Review, Malaysia.
Seal T.,Botanical Survey of India
Research Journal of Botany | Year: 2011
This study was carried out to analyze the nutritional value of some wild edible fruits like of Morus indica Linn. (Moraceae), Myrica nagi Thunb (Myricaceae), Myrica esculenta Buch-Ham exD. Don. (Myricaceae), Parkia roxburghii G. Don (Mimosaceae), Prunus nepalensis Ser (Steud) (Rosaceae) and Terminalia bellerica Roxb (Combretaceae), by determining proximate and phytochemical composition using standard method of food analysis like AOAC. The present study revealed that for different plant species the crude fat content ranged between 1.36±0.04-5.07±0.05%. The crude protein content was determined highest in the fruits of P. roxburghii (19.75±0.03%) while the available carbohydrate content was highest in M. indica (84.04±0.12%). The nutritive value ranged from 366.57±0.62-395.04±0.54 kcal/100 g in the various wild edible fruits. Among the various macronutrients estimated in the plant samples of different wild edible plants potassium was present in the highest quantity (7.28±0.10-12.73±0.12 mg g-1) followed by calcium (4.23±0.07-9.75±0.11 mg g-1) and sodium (0.395±0.005-1.01±0.01 mg g-1). Micronutrients, such as iron, zinc, copper, manganese and chromium were analyzed in the different plant specimens. The result indicates that nutritional values and mineral contents of these wild fruits under investigation were richer than that of the commercial fruits and very much comparable with the various wild fruits reported earlier. The present study also gives an account of ethnobotanical importance of the wild fruits under investigation. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.
Bandyopadhyay S.,Botanical Survey of India
Phytotaxa | Year: 2016
The name Bauhinia galpinii is lectotypified here. © 2016 Magnolia Press.