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Yaso M.,Enga Pyrethrum Company | Yando J.,Enga Pyrethrum Company | Meckseane W.A.,Enga Pyrethrum Company | Sitango K.,Western Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

The future of the pyrethrum industry in the highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG) was thrown into jeopardy in 1995 due to the abrupt cessation of all export market arrangements with the existing customer. This resulted in some 65-85,000 subsistence farmers losing their major source of cash income in a matter of weeks. Enga Province, which produces 98% of PNG pyrethrum, initiated new marketing arrangements made with Botanical Resource Australia Pty Ltd (BRA) during 2005, accompanied by a major new project funded by the Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research (ACIAR). The project was aimed at recommercializing the PNG pyrethrum industry and improving harvested yield, with a major focus on ensuring local science and technology was more widely available, extended to, and adopted by PNG pyrethrum growers, to help sustain the industry into the foreseeable future. This paper presents an overview of the rural agricultural extension activities undertaken by the Enga Pyrethrum Company (EPC) to revive the pyrethrum industry over the four year duration of the ACIAR supported project. These activities included the establishment of centralised propagation nurseries, farmer training, formation of farmer's co-operatives, and the development and management of pyrethrum estates. At the completion of the project, extension coverage included six districts in Enga Province. An estimated 10,000 pyrethrum growers were trained and 105 ha of land was developed for plantations, with an estimated 900,000 improved pyrethrum seedlings distributed. Overall yield improved from 32 tons to 61 tons per year from 2007 to 2011 and income levels of small holders increased significantly. The effectiveness of the extension activities and other impacts of the project are discussed in this paper.


Sitango K.,Western Research Institute | Lindsay E.,Western Research Institute | Gracie A.,Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research | Brown P.,Central Queensland University | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Pyrethrum was introduced into the highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG) and was an attractive cash crop that sustained the livelihood of some 65-85,000 people. Unfortunately, the pyrethrum extraction factory closed during 1995 and growers lost interest in this crop. In 2003, the Enga Provincial Government invested funds to modernise the pyrethrum extraction factory and seek international support to assist the local industry. In 2007, a broadly based team consisting of the Enga Provincial Government, PNG National Agricultural Research Institute (NARI), Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd (BRA) and the Tasmania Institute of Agricultural Research (TIAR) was successful in obtaining a major funding grant from The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) to recommercialise the pyrethrum industry in PNG. This project supported R&D trials to improve the local plant material, improved growing and harvesting practices that was appropriate for the local growers and assisted in the refurbishment of the pyrethrum extraction factory. This project was very successful and the pyrethrum industry appears to have a sustainable future, but would very much benefit from ongoing support by NARI and the Enga Provincial Government.


Greenhill M.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd | Cole P.,Entologic Consulting | Griffin D.,Crop Protection Research
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Pyrethrum, the natural insecticide, is extracted from Tanacetum cineariaefolium, Asteraceae, the pyrethrum plant. Pyrethrum is widely used internationally as an insecticide. However, its use in agricultural systems is often limited because of perceived incompatibility with Integrated Pest Management Systems. This paper summarises two field trials conducted during the course of the Horticulture Australia Limited supported project, "Investigation of Pyrethrum Compatibility with Integrated Pest Management Systems for Horticulture and Field Crops". The two field trials were conducted using tomatoes grown in protected cropping situations. The trials demonstrated that pyrethrum is effective in controlling greenhouse whitefly and tomato russet mite, two common insect pests of tomatoes grown in protected cropping situations in Australia. Furthermore, the impact of pyrethrum application on the beneficial predator, Encarsia, can be mitigated through applying pyrethrum formulations 18-22 days prior to emergence. If used judiciously, pyrethrum formulations can be employed as a useful tool in integrated pest management in protected cropping environments.


Hay F.,University of Tasmania | Pethybridge S.J.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

A desktop study was undertaken to assess the contribution of the pyrethrum industry in Tasmania, Australia to on-farm greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in comparison to potato and onion. Pyrethrum used significantly less diesel in transport than potato or onion. This was mainly due to the lower weight of dried flowers harvested from pyrethrum crops in comparison to the weight of crop from potato and onion fields (60 t/ha). First harvest pyrethrum required a similar amount of diesel to potato and onion for tractor and harvester operations. However, older pyrethrum crops required only 41% of the diesel used in potato and onion crops due mainly to the perennial nature of pyrethrum and the absence of cultivation in years subsequent to planting. Pyrethrum required greater inputs (kg a.i./ha) of herbicides and lower inputs of fungicides than potato and onion. All three crops required little input of insecticides. Pyrethrum had substantially lower inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) than potato or onion. First-harvest pyrethrum required only 38 and 59% of the N required by potato and onion, respectively. Moreover, pyrethrum required lower potassium (K) than potato, but higher K than onion. The electricity consumption associated with irrigation of pyrethrum and onion were similar, and amounted to 39% that of potato, due to the higher irrigation requirement of potato (5.1 ML/ha) in comparison to pyrethrum and onion (2.0 ML/ha) in Tasmania. The global warming potential (GWP) per hectare associated with planting to harvest of first year pyrethrum (18 months) and subsequently from one harvest to another (12 months) was estimated at 4,128.8 and 2,184.7 kg CO2-e/ha, respectively. By comparison the GWP resulting from planting to harvest of potato and onion in Tasmania (4 months) was estimated at 5,284.0 and 4,875.3 kg CO2-e/ha. The GWP of first year pyrethrum was therefore 78% that of potato and 85% that of onion, while the annual GWP per hectare of older pyrethrum fields was 41% that of potato and 45% that of onion. This study was based on strict assumptions and on generic emission factors for greenhouse gases. Therefore caution is required with the absolute figure for GWP. However, this study indicated that the on-farm production of pyrethrum is a relatively low contributor to GHG production on a per hectare basis, in comparison to other annual crops often grown in rotation.


Fist A.J.,Tasmanian Alkaloids Pty Ltd | Chung B.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Pyrethrum and poppy are two world class export industries that have been introduced and developed in Tasmania during the last 30-40 years. There are many similar features that have contributed to the success of these two industries. These include the utilization of local R&D in the development of low cost and effective plant propagation systems, effective weed and disease management, mechanical harvesting and associated logistics and extraction and further processing of active products within Tasmania. The importance of these technological factors is discussed together with other success factors such as management, marketing and team work.


Howe R.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd. | Faber H.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd. | Casey B.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd (BRA) has pyrethrum manufacturing activities located at its Ulverstone Site. The manufacturing process contains many hazards, some of which are relatively unique to the pyrethrum process. BRA has recently invested in new technology and solutions to manage these hazards. Two recent examples of engineered hazard management are the Pellet Line No.2, commissioned in 2010 and Extraction Plant No.2, due for completion in late 2011. The work done by BRA to reduce exposure and risk to its operational personnel has delivered outstanding outcomes to not only safety, but also production efficiency and product quality. BRA has received peer group recognition for this work via winning the 2010 WorkCover Tasmania Safety Award and the 2011 Engineers Australia (Tasmanian Division) Engineering Excellence Award.


Harrington-Esposito W.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd | Strochnetter D.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd | Kerr M.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

HPLC has become the principal technique for the identification and quantification of pyrethrins for the pyrethrum industry. HPLC has found useful applications across a range of sample types encountered in pyrethrum production, including crop samples, in-process samples, technical grade products and formulated products. A range of HPLC techniques have been developed to meet the disparate requirements of rapid turnaround times for production activities, large sample numbers for research and development activities and good separation for formulated products. These methods may be beneficial to others interested in measuring pyrethrins and are discussed.


Groom T.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd | Phipps D.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd | Coles S.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd | Greenhill M.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

This paper gives an overview of how Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd (BRA) has developed pyrethrum into a broadacre mechanised production model and the approaches that were taken to agronomic research. After the establishment of BRA in 1996, the growing of pyrethrum in Australia was still essentially in the experimental phase. A move towards lower cost direct seeding was being made and this brought with it a whole new set of agronomic challenges compared to the previous traditional method of production from splits and transplants. There was an urgent need to produce high quality seed, develop effective weed control methods, overcome several disease problems and efficiently mechanise the harvesting process. The main focus was on improving yields and basic agronomic development was going to provide the fastest payback. BRA did not have the resources within its own organisation to carry out all of this research and therefore took the decision to leverage off a number of outside research organisations. These included the University of Tasmania (now TIA), Agronico Pty Ltd, Serve-Ag Research Pty Ltd (now Peracto Pty Ltd) and the Tasmanian Department of Primary Industry. Pyrethrum growers continue to contribute to a research levy which is matched by Horticulture Australia Ltd, an Australian Government research funding body, and this process has provided the major source of research money for agronomy. Significant research funds is also made available by BRA and through the Australian Research Council and a number of other public and private sources. Whilst BRA continues to rely on outside research providers, in recent years it has built up its own research department so that by 2011 it now has a plant breeder, agronomic research manager and seven other staff employed in this area. As a result of this effort, research has provided significant gains in yield and has now established pyrethrum as a significant crop for the region.


Groom K.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty. Ltd.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

A review of all existing active pesticide substances placed on the European Union (EU) market was started with two pieces of legislation; Directive 91/414 EEC which covered plant protection products (PPP) and Directive 98/8/EC which covered biocides (products for non-agricultural uses). PPP and biocides are administered by different EU departments but similar procedures are followed for both types of active substances; consisting of submission of a dossier by companies to a rapporteur member country for review, followed by a joint decision made by member states and the central EU authorities. Dossiers were submitted in support of pyrethrins for PPP and biocide uses as insecticide and repellents. The PPP review of pyrethrins was suspended in 2010 with provisional approval for use in PPP in Europe. The review was re-activated in November 2011 and is still in progress. The draft assessment report for biocide use of pyrethrins was released in October 2010 and the final stage of the review is in progress.


Bhuiyan M.A.H.B.,University of Melbourne | Groom T.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd | Nicolas M.E.,University of Melbourne | Taylor P.W.J.,University of Melbourne
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

The infection process and life cycle of S. tanaceti in leaf lamina of pyrethrum plants was investigated using histopathology. Conidia attached firmly to the leaf surface before the infection hyphae penetrated directly into the epidermal cells of the leaf without forming appressoria. The maximum germination of conidia on leaf surface was 85 % at 54 HAI. Infection hyphae infected the epidermal and palisade parenchyma cells through the middle lamella. Brown lesions on the leaf were a result of infected necrotic epidermal cells. Extensive colonization through both intra- and intercellular hyphae along with pycnidia formation caused enormous damage to the infected cells at 12 DAI. Unlike the quadruple stain, both single and dual stains had very limited ability to visualise infection structures. These results have provided a better understanding of the physical interaction between the pathogen and the pyrethrum leaf tissues and will help to elucidate the complete disease cycle of S. tanaceti on pyrethrum plant. © 2015, Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

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