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Sitango K.,Western Research Institute | Lindsay E.,Western Research Institute | Gracie A.,Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research | Brown P.,Central Queensland University | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Pyrethrum was introduced into the highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG) and was an attractive cash crop that sustained the livelihood of some 65-85,000 people. Unfortunately, the pyrethrum extraction factory closed during 1995 and growers lost interest in this crop. In 2003, the Enga Provincial Government invested funds to modernise the pyrethrum extraction factory and seek international support to assist the local industry. In 2007, a broadly based team consisting of the Enga Provincial Government, PNG National Agricultural Research Institute (NARI), Botanical Resources Australia Pty Ltd (BRA) and the Tasmania Institute of Agricultural Research (TIAR) was successful in obtaining a major funding grant from The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) to recommercialise the pyrethrum industry in PNG. This project supported R&D trials to improve the local plant material, improved growing and harvesting practices that was appropriate for the local growers and assisted in the refurbishment of the pyrethrum extraction factory. This project was very successful and the pyrethrum industry appears to have a sustainable future, but would very much benefit from ongoing support by NARI and the Enga Provincial Government. Source

Groom K.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty. Ltd.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

A review of all existing active pesticide substances placed on the European Union (EU) market was started with two pieces of legislation; Directive 91/414 EEC which covered plant protection products (PPP) and Directive 98/8/EC which covered biocides (products for non-agricultural uses). PPP and biocides are administered by different EU departments but similar procedures are followed for both types of active substances; consisting of submission of a dossier by companies to a rapporteur member country for review, followed by a joint decision made by member states and the central EU authorities. Dossiers were submitted in support of pyrethrins for PPP and biocide uses as insecticide and repellents. The PPP review of pyrethrins was suspended in 2010 with provisional approval for use in PPP in Europe. The review was re-activated in November 2011 and is still in progress. The draft assessment report for biocide use of pyrethrins was released in October 2010 and the final stage of the review is in progress. Source

Hay F.,University of Tasmania | Pethybridge S.J.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty. Ltd.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

A desktop study was undertaken to assess the contribution of the pyrethrum industry in Tasmania, Australia to on-farm greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in comparison to potato and onion. Pyrethrum used significantly less diesel in transport than potato or onion. This was mainly due to the lower weight of dried flowers harvested from pyrethrum crops in comparison to the weight of crop from potato and onion fields (60 t/ha). First harvest pyrethrum required a similar amount of diesel to potato and onion for tractor and harvester operations. However, older pyrethrum crops required only 41% of the diesel used in potato and onion crops due mainly to the perennial nature of pyrethrum and the absence of cultivation in years subsequent to planting. Pyrethrum required greater inputs (kg a.i./ha) of herbicides and lower inputs of fungicides than potato and onion. All three crops required little input of insecticides. Pyrethrum had substantially lower inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) than potato or onion. First-harvest pyrethrum required only 38 and 59% of the N required by potato and onion, respectively. Moreover, pyrethrum required lower potassium (K) than potato, but higher K than onion. The electricity consumption associated with irrigation of pyrethrum and onion were similar, and amounted to 39% that of potato, due to the higher irrigation requirement of potato (5.1 ML/ha) in comparison to pyrethrum and onion (2.0 ML/ha) in Tasmania. The global warming potential (GWP) per hectare associated with planting to harvest of first year pyrethrum (18 months) and subsequently from one harvest to another (12 months) was estimated at 4,128.8 and 2,184.7 kg CO2-e/ha, respectively. By comparison the GWP resulting from planting to harvest of potato and onion in Tasmania (4 months) was estimated at 5,284.0 and 4,875.3 kg CO2-e/ha. The GWP of first year pyrethrum was therefore 78% that of potato and 85% that of onion, while the annual GWP per hectare of older pyrethrum fields was 41% that of potato and 45% that of onion. This study was based on strict assumptions and on generic emission factors for greenhouse gases. Therefore caution is required with the absolute figure for GWP. However, this study indicated that the on-farm production of pyrethrum is a relatively low contributor to GHG production on a per hectare basis, in comparison to other annual crops often grown in rotation. Source

Greenhill M.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty. Ltd. | Cole P.,Entologic Consulting | Griffin D.,Crop Protection Research
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Pyrethrum, the natural insecticide, is extracted from Tanacetum cineariaefolium, Asteraceae, the pyrethrum plant. Pyrethrum is widely used internationally as an insecticide. However, its use in agricultural systems is often limited because of perceived incompatibility with Integrated Pest Management Systems. This paper summarises two field trials conducted during the course of the Horticulture Australia Limited supported project, "Investigation of Pyrethrum Compatibility with Integrated Pest Management Systems for Horticulture and Field Crops". The two field trials were conducted using tomatoes grown in protected cropping situations. The trials demonstrated that pyrethrum is effective in controlling greenhouse whitefly and tomato russet mite, two common insect pests of tomatoes grown in protected cropping situations in Australia. Furthermore, the impact of pyrethrum application on the beneficial predator, Encarsia, can be mitigated through applying pyrethrum formulations 18-22 days prior to emergence. If used judiciously, pyrethrum formulations can be employed as a useful tool in integrated pest management in protected cropping environments. Source

Fist A.J.,Tasmanian Alkaloids Pty Ltd | Chung B.,Botanical Resources Australia Pty. Ltd.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Pyrethrum and poppy are two world class export industries that have been introduced and developed in Tasmania during the last 30-40 years. There are many similar features that have contributed to the success of these two industries. These include the utilization of local R&D in the development of low cost and effective plant propagation systems, effective weed and disease management, mechanical harvesting and associated logistics and extraction and further processing of active products within Tasmania. The importance of these technological factors is discussed together with other success factors such as management, marketing and team work. Source

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