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Arup U.,Botanical Museum | Berlin E.S.,Botanical Museum
Lichenologist | Year: 2011

For a long time it has been discussed as to whether Melanelixia fuliginosa comprises one or two species: one darker, mainly saxicolous, and one lighter, mainly corticolous. To settle the question, a morphometric and a molecular analysis were carried out and analyzed using a principal component analysis (PCA). The morphometric analysis indicates a differentiation in several characters between material previously recognized as subspecies fuliginosa and glabratula, but also a considerable overlap in some of them. The molecular analysis of the nrITS DNA gene reveals a clear division of the taxa. Specimens belonging to Melanelia fuliginosa fall out in two different clades, which have good bootstrap support, corresponding to the subspecies fuliginosa and glabratula. Accordingly, we propose that the subspecies should be acknowledged as separate species, Melanelixia fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) O. Blanco et al. and Melanelixia glabratula (Lamy) Sandler & Arup. Copyright © 2011 British Lichen Society.


Somlyay L.,Hungarian Natural History Museum | Sennikov A.N.,Botanical Museum | Sennikov A.N.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute
Nordic Journal of Botany | Year: 2016

The original material of Sorbus danubialis (Jáv.) Prodan, and the most similar taxa described from Hungary (S. javorkae (Soó) Kárpáti, S. sooi (Soó) Kárpáti & Soó and S. pseudodanubialis Kárpáti), have been examined along with other specimens cited either as referable to those taxa or to S. cretica (Lindl.) Fritsch in the monograph of Sorbus in Hungary and adjacent countries by Kárpáti. Lectotypes are designated for S. javorkae and S. sooi; these two names and S. pseudodanubialis are reduced to synonymy of S. danubialis because of insignificant differences in morphology. Diagnostic characters and the distribution of S. danubialis are discussed based on a new description and a map of the distribution in Hungary. The authorship of S. danubialis is discussed. The principal infraspecific taxa in the "Flora Hungarica" of Jávorka (1924-1925) are interpreted as validly published at the rank of subspecies under ICN Art. 37.5. © 2016 Nordic Society Oikos.


Hallenberg N.,Gothenburg University | Yurchenko E.,Vf Kuprevich Institute Of Experimental | Ghobad-Nejhad M.,Botanical Museum
Mycotaxon | Year: 2010

Peniophora laeta is easily recognized because it is restricted to Carpinas as host in Europe, and the reddish yellow basidioma is provided with prominent teeth or hyphal pegs, disrupting the bark when developing. P. pseudonuda was earlier not even thought of as related to P. laeta, because basidiomata are smooth and developing on the bark. Moreover, basidioma initiation starts with a thin layer of brown-pigmented hyphae on the bark surface. This gives a bluish tint to the mature basidioma, which is in striking contrast to the orange-yellow basidiomata found in P. laeta. Nevertheless, both ITS sequences and crossing tests show that P. pseudonuda is conspecific with P. laeta. This was supported also by similarities in spores, basidia, and cystidia morphology.


Kauserud H.,University of Oslo | Knudsen H.,Botanical Museum | Hogberg N.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Skrede I.,University of Oslo
Fungal Biology Reviews | Year: 2012

Recent research on the evolution, phylogeography and population genetics of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans is reviewed. The fungus causes severe damage to construction wood in temperate regions worldwide. Multi-locus genetic analyses have shown that S. lacrymans includes two cryptic species currently referred to as var. shastensis and var. lacrymans. Both lineages occur naturally in high altitude regions, but var. lacrymans has also spread from its natural range in Asia, and established itself in indoor environments in temperate regions worldwide. Japan was apparently colonized independently from Europe, North and South America by var. lacrymans. The population found in Australia and New Zealand seems to represent a mixture of the Japanese and the Euro-American lineages. Little genetic variation exists in the founder populations of var. lacrymans worldwide. Due to the introduction of a limited number of vic (vegetative incompatibility) alleles into the founder populations, genetically different individuals often cannot recognize self from non-self through the vegetative incompatibility response. Moreover, only a low number of MAT (mating) alleles seem to be present in Europe. Genetic analyses of the European and Japanese indoor populations have shown that S. lacrymans mainly spreads sexually via basidiospores. Surprisingly, an excess of heterozygotes has been observed in the founder populations. This could be due to heterozygote advantage caused by a limited number of MAT alleles. Recent analyses of the S. lacrymans genome provide new opportunities for further research on the dry rot fungus. © 2012 The British Mycological Society.


Somlyay L.,Hungarian Natural History Museum | Sennikov A.N.,Botanical Museum | Sennikov A.N.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute
Phytotaxa | Year: 2016

The name Sorbus dacica Borbás (1887: 404), which refers to a well-defined species endemic to Romania, is widely accepted (e.g. Jávorka 1924–1925, Nyárády 1939, Kárpáti 1940, 1960, Buia 1956, Warburg & Kárpáti 1968, Dihoru & Pârvu 1987, Ciocârlan 2009, Dihoru & Negrean 2009, Kurtto 2009, Sârbu et al. 2013). This species is supposed to be of hybrid origin between some taxa of S. subgen. Aria Persoon (1806: 38) and S. aucuparia Linnaeus (1753: 477) of S. subgen. Sorbus; such hybrids and stabilized hybridogenous species are currently classified in S. subgen. Soraria Májovský & Bernátová (2001: 21). © 2016 Magnolia Press.


Frooberg L.,Botanical Museum | Stoll P.,University of Basel | Baur A.,University of Basel | Baur B.,University of Basel
Ecosphere | Year: 2011

Herbivores are known to decrease plant species diversity in ecosystems with low productivity. Limestone pavements are low-productive habitats harboring specialized communities of cyanobacteria, and endo- and epilithic lichens exposed to extreme temperature and humidity fluctuations. Pavements of the Great Alvar (Ö land, Sweden) are covered by free-living cyanobacteria giving the rock surface a dark color. Based on cyanobacterial abundance along the edges, two types of cracks intersecting the pavements have been described: Type one with abundant cyanobacteria and type two without cyanobacteria resulting in light-colored edges. Erosion and different lengths of inundation by melt water have been suggested to cause the conspicuous differences in community composition and hence color between cracks. We hypothesized that this pattern results from the grazing activity of the cyanobacteria- and lichen-feeding snail Chondrina clienta, which reduces cyanobacterial cover along light-colored cracks and facilitates endolithic lichens. Three dark and three light-colored cracks were investigated at each of three localities. Crack characteristics (i.e., aspect, width, depth and erosion) and snail density were assessed at the crack level. Cyanobacterial cover and lichen diversity were recorded in 1-cm sections, sampled every 5 cm along eight 160-cm-long transects per crack. Model selection was applied to estimate effects of snail density and distance from crack edges on cyanobacterial abundance and lichen diversity. Crack characteristics explained no differences in cyanobacterial cover or lichen diversity. However, cyanobacterial cover decreased towards the edges of cracks with high snail densities. A transplant experiment supported the correlationalevidence. The abundant cyanobacterial cover on pieces of stone placed close to cracks with high snail densities was completely grazed within 19 months. By contrast, cyanobacteria recolonized initially completely grazed pieces of stone when fixed near cracks without snails. Abundance and diversity of endolithic lichens increased along cracks with high compared to low snail densities but decreased in epilithic lichens and lichens with cyanobacterial symbionts. However, the presence of the gastropod herbivore decreased overall lichen diversity. Comparing presence-absence matrices with null models revealed that species co-occurred less frequently than expected. Taken together, we provide evidence that herbivory indirectly released endolithic lichens from competition for light by reducing cyanobacterial cover. © 2011 Fröberg et al.


Somlyay L.,Hungarian Natural History Museum | Sennikov A.N.,Botanical Museum | Sennikov A.N.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute
Phytotaxa | Year: 2014

The taxonomic and nomenclatural history of Jávorka's Sorbus bakonyensis is surveyed and its correct authorship and bibliographic citation is provided. The identity of the original material of S. bakonyensis and the history of its interpretations are discussed. The name S. bakonyensis is applicable to an endemic of the eastern Bakony Mountains, restricted to the vicinity of the village of Márkó in Hungary. The illegitimate name S. majeri is a synonym of S. bakonyensis. A new name, S. udvardyana, is introduced here for the species occurring in the western Balaton region of Hungary, which was erroneously named "S. bakonyensis" in recent Hungarian literature. © 2014 Magnolia Press.


Ronikier A.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Borgen T.,Botanical Museum
Polish Botanical Journal | Year: 2010

Three species belonging to Hygrocybe sect. Coccineae subsect. Squamulosae are commented based on material collected in Poland. Hygrocybe calciphila is reported for the first time from Poland. Hygrocybe miniata is reported from several new localities in the Tatra Mts, and the identity of one Polish collection of Hygrocybe strangulata is discussed. Macro- and micromorphological characters of the examined collections are described and their taxonomical status is discussed.


Sennikov A.N.,Botanical Museum | Sennikov A.N.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute | Tojibaev K.S.,Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan | Khassanov F.O.,Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan | Beshko N.Y.,Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan
Phytotaxa | Year: 2016

A new project, ‘Flora of Uzbekistan’, is announced to start with publication in 2017. It aims at publishing a multi-volume taxonomic treatment of vascular plants of Uzbekistan, with complete synonymy, nomenclature, distribution data, descriptions and identification keys. The taxonomic treatment is supported by an extensive database of distribution records, used to generate distribution maps. The background information for the Flora is provided, and the structure and the format of the work are outlined. © 2016 Magnolia Press.


Stepanchikova I.S.,Saint Petersburg State University | Schiefelbein U.,Blucherstrasse 71 | Alexeeva N.M.,Koroleva St. 54 2 87 | Ahti T.,Botanical Museum | And 3 more authors.
Folia Cryptogamica Estonica | Year: 2011

66 species of lichens, 9 lichenicolous fungi and 4 non-lichenized saprobic fungi are reported as new to the Berezovye Islands (Leningrad Region, Russia). The updated lichen biota of the archipelago comprises 356 species. Caloplaca maritima, Lecanora compallens, Verrucaria boblensis and Xanthoriicola physciae are reported for the first time for Russia, Lecanora aitema - for European Russia, Lecanora semipallida and Lichenodiplis lecanorae - for North-Western European Russia. Absconditella sphagnorum, Chaenothecopsis vainioana, Lempholemma polyanthes and Opegrapha niveoatra are new to the Leningrad Region, Arthonia byssacea and Lecanora subrugosa - to the Western Leningrad Region.

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