Botanic Gardens Trust

Sydney, Australia

Botanic Gardens Trust

Sydney, Australia
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Givnish T.J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Ames M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | McNeal J.R.,University of Georgia | McKain M.R.,University of Georgia | And 14 more authors.
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden | Year: 2010

The order Poales comprises a substantial portion of plant life (7 of all angiosperms and 33 of monocots) and includes taxa of enormous economic and ecological significance. Molecular and morphological studies over the past two decades, however, leave uncertain many relationships within Poales and among allied commelinid orders. Here we present the results of an initial project by the Monocot AToL (Angiosperm Tree of Life) team on phylogeny and evolution in Poales, using sequence data for 81 plastid genes (exceeding 101 aligned kb) from 83 species of angiosperms. We recovered highly concordant relationships using maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP), with 98.2 mean ML bootstrap support across monocots. For the first time, ML resolves ties among Poales and other commelinid orders with moderate to strong support. Analyses provide strong support for Bromeliaceae being sister to the rest of Poales; Typhaceae, Rapateaceae, and cyperids (sedges, rushes, and their allies) emerge next along the phylogenetic spine. Graminids (grasses and their allies) and restiids (Restionaceae and its allies) are well supported as sister taxa. MP identifies a xyrid clade (Eriocaulaceae, Mayacaceae, Xyridaceae) sister to cyperids, but ML (with much stronger support) places them as a grade with respect to restiids graminids. The conflict in resolution between these analyses likely reflects long-branch attraction and highly elevated substitution rates in some Poales. All other familial relationships within the order are strongly supported by both MP and ML analyses. Character-state mapping implies that ancestral Poales lived in sunny, fire-prone, at least seasonally damp/wet, and possibly nutrient-poor sites, and were animal pollinated. Five subsequent shifts to wind pollinationin Typhaceae, cyperids, restiids, Ecdeiocoleaceae, and the vast PACCMAD-BEP clade of grassesare significantly correlated with shifts to open habitats and small, inconspicuous, unisexual, and nectar-free flowers. Prime ecological movers driving the repeated evolution of wind pollination in Poales appear to include open habitats combined with the high local dominance of conspecific taxa, with the latter resulting from large-scale disturbances, combined with tall plant stature, vigorous vegetative spread, and positive ecological feedback. Reproductive assurance in the absence of reliable animal visitation probably favored wind pollination in annuals and short-statured perennials of Centrolepidaceae in ephemerally wet depressions and windswept alpine sites. © 2010 Missouri Botanical Press.

Cuneo P.,Macquarie University | Offord C.A.,Botanic Gardens Trust | Leishman M.R.,Macquarie University
Australian Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Knowledege of the seed ecology of invasive exotic species, including soil seedbank dynamics, is essential to understanding key factors in successful invasion and in identifying management opportunities. African Olive, Olea europaea L. subsp. cuspidata, is an exotic invasive woody plant in Hawaii, Norfolk Island and eastern Australia, and is now well established in the Cumberland Plain region of western Sydney, Australia. In the present study, the key aspects of the seed ecology of African Olive were determined for populations in western Sydney. Extracted seed germinated at a wide range of temperatures, consistent with tolerance of a wide range of climatic conditions. A seed-burial experiment indicated a slow decrease in viability down to 70.3% during the first year, followed by a rapid decline down to 14.7% in the second year. Probit analysis indicated that under field conditions, seed persistence in the soil was ∼29 months (2.4 years). In situ germination was low (3.3%) and did not occur until the mechanical constriction of the endocarp was released through decomposition. The woody seed endocarp was found to be permeable to water, indicating that physical dormancy was not imposed by providing a barrier to water uptake. Within its invasive range, African Olive produces abundant seed. However, the rapid loss of viability of soil-stored seed results in a narrow window of opportunity for germination. The short persistence of seed in the soil may provide an opportunity for managers to achieve control of African Olive once mature plants are removed. © 2010 CSIRO.

Vis M.L.,Ohio University | Feng J.,Shanxi University | Chiasson W.B.,Ohio University | Xie S.-L.,Shanxi University | And 4 more authors.
Phycologia | Year: 2010

Phylogeographic patterns in Batrachospermum arcuatum were investigated using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between the cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 and 3 (cox2-3 spacer) from locations worldwide. Sixteen locations were sampled in six regions as follows: three locations in Bulgaria, two in China, three in the northwestern United States, one in New Zealand, six in Hawaii and one in Taiwan. Sequencing of 107 individuals resulted in 12 haplotypes. In the United States and Bulgaria, there was considerable sequence divergence among haplotypes. Likewise in the Hawaiian Islands, there was variation among haplotypes, and each island appeared to have a single haplotype represented. Three closely related haplotypes were present at the Taiwan location. The New Zealand sample was identical to one of the haplotypes from the northwestern United States. Individuals representing the 12 cox2-3 spacer haplotypes were sequenced for the rbcL gene. In the combined analysis, the Hawaii and Taiwan samples were a well-supported clade as were two Bulgaria samples. The US and New Zealand haplotypes formed a well-supported clade and likewise the China samples, but the relationship of the third Bulgaria haplotype to these others was unresolved. The specimens showed morphological variation among localities and regions, but no morphological features appeared to be diagnostic of the molecular results. Batrachospermum arcuatum appears to be a widespread taxon with considerable morphological plasticitythatdoesnot coincide with the substantial molecular variation. Alternatively, B. arcuatum may harbour cryptic species. There appears to be a temperate origin of the taxon and a derived group of haplotypes from tropical regions.

Walsh J.L.,University of Sydney | Laurence M.H.,University of Sydney | Liew E.C.Y.,Botanic Gardens Trust | Sangalang A.E.,University of Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2010

Two new species of Fusarium associated with Australian indigenous grasses in natural ecosystems are described as F. lyarnte and F. werrikimbe on the basis of morphology, DNA fingerprinting and phylogenetic analysis of EF-1? and ?-tubulin sequence data. Isolates of these species were initially recovered from soil in the McGraths Creek area of central Australia and subsequently recovered from soil and stems of the indigenous grass Sorghum interjectum from Litchfield National Park in the Northern Territory, and from Sorghum leiocladum from Werrikimbe National Park in New South Wales. The common feature of both of these species is the production of large globose microconidia in false heads on polyphialides. Attempts to apply the biological species concept were unsuccessful. © 2010 Kevin D. Hyde.

Summerell B.A.,Botanic Gardens Trust | Laurence M.H.,Botanic Gardens Trust | Liew E.C.Y.,Botanic Gardens Trust | Leslie J.F.,Kansas State University
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2010

Fusarium is a large, complex genus that causes a wide variety of plant diseases, produces a number of mycotoxins and is becoming increasingly recognized as a significant human pathogen. These fungi occur in ecosystems in all parts of the globe, which makes them useful as a model to better understand biogeographic processes affecting the distribution of fungi. Here we review the information available on the biogeography of different species and clades of Fusarium and some of the likely processes affecting dispersal and speciation. © 2010 Kevin D. Hyde.

Offord C.A.,Botanic Gardens Trust | Seed L.U.,Botanic Gardens Trust | Martyn A.J.,Botanic Gardens Trust
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Among the large diversity of plant species in Australia are many which produce potentially the longest-living seeds in the world. Many others have much shorter storage potentials, which limits the usefulness of seed collections for germplasm conservation and breeding. Work at the NSW Seedbank is exploring the reproductive fitness, germination and storage potential of many taxa of conservation and economic importance, including members of the Proteaceae family such as the Waratah (Telopea speciosissima) which is cultivated for its cut-flowers. Telopea speciosissima seed has limited long-term storage capacity as there was a general trend towards loss of viability in accessions stored at 5°C for 17 years or more. This paper presents an overview of this work with an emphasis on conservation and utilisation of genetic resources.

Laurence M.H.,University of Sydney | Summerell B.A.,Botanic Gardens Trust | Burgess L.W.,University of Sydney | Liew E.C.Y.,Botanic Gardens Trust
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2011

A new species of Fusarium associated with Australian soils in non-cultivated ecosystems is described as Fusarium burgessii on the basis of morphological and phylogenetic data. Isolates recovered from biogeographical surveys over 26 years were selected for morphological examination. Two distinct morphotypes with morphological affinities to the Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium redolens and Gibberella fujikuroi species complexes were observed. Phylogenetic resolution based on the translation elongation factor1α (EF-1α) and the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2) separated the two morphotypes into novel phylogenetic Fusarium species, with one morphotype being assigned the species epithet Fusarium burgessii sp. nov. Phylogenetic analysis of the RPB2 locus with representatives of all the major Fusarium species complexes provides evidence that F. burgessii is part of a unique monophyletic lineage of species in the genus Fusarium. © 2011 Kevin D. Hyde.

Pinaria A.G.,University of Sydney | Pinaria A.G.,Sam Ratulangi University | Liew E.C.Y.,Botanic Gardens Trust | Burgess L.W.,University of Sydney
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

Indonesia is one of the world's leading producers of vanilla, an important cash crop for smallholders. Stem rot disease is a major constraint to vanilla production in Indonesia and has caused significant economic losses over the last decade. Previous reports of vanilla stem rots in the Asia-Pacific region include those caused by Fusarium, Colletotrichum and Phytophthora species. In this paper, we report Fusarium species associated with the disease. Seven major vanilla-producing provinces were surveyed for disease incidence and 850 samples were collected. Isolates were recovered from diseased stem tissues using a selective medium. Pure cultures on carnation leaf-piece agar and potato dextrose agar were identified based on morphological criteria. Some ambiguous species were verified based on DNA sequences of the translation elongation factor gene. A total of 542 Fusarium isolates were recovered, comprising 12 species, namely F. decemcellulare, F. fujikuroi, F. graminearum, F. mangiferae, F. napiforme, F. oxysporum, F. polyphialidicum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudocircinatum, F. semitectum, F. solani and F. subglutinans. F. oxysporum was the most commonly isolated species from all areas surveyed, followed by F. solani and F. semitectum. F. oxysporum, F. solani and F. semitectum were tested for pathogenicity to vanilla but only F. oxysporum was shown to be pathogenic. The vanilla stem rot pathogen in Indonesia is verified to be F. oxysporum f. sp. vanillae. © 2010 Australasian Plant Pathology Society.

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