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Toyama-shi, Japan

Kanemoto T.,Botanic Gardens of Toyama
Journal of Japanese Botany | Year: 2013

Morphological features of triploid and tetraploid cytotypes of Pellionia scabra were examined. In reproductive characters, the triploid cytotype is distinguishable from the tetraploid cytotype by abundant, smaller achenes and several dorsal setae on the horn-like appendages of the female flower perianth. There are no differences between the two cytotypes in seven vegetative characters examined. Morphological features of the triploid cytotype agree with diagnostic characteristics of P. scabra Benth. van pedimculata Yamam., therefore, this variety is considered to be the triploid cytotype of P scabra. Source

Uchimura E.,Botanic Gardens of Toyama
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

From my point of view, bamboo is different from woody plants and herbaceous plants, and does not belong to any of these groups because of its intermediary characteristics, which are discussed in this lecture. The geographical distribution of bamboo in the world and its biological and genetic resources are presented. Some factors influencing bamboo growth, as temperature, rainfall, soil, topography, are also discussed. Bamboo is a multipurpose crop and recently its importance as biomass production is improving. Source

Dadashipour M.,Toyama Prefectural University | Yamazaki M.,Toyama Prefectural University | Momonoi K.,Toyama Agricultural Research Center | Tamura K.,Toyama Prefectural University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

A novel S-hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) was purified from leaves of a plant, Baliospermum montanum, by ammonium sulfate fractionation and column chromatographies. Full-length cDNA and genomic DNA were cloned and sequenced. The latter contained two introns and one ORF encoding a 263-residue protein (subunit: 29.5kDa). The hnl gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and the enzyme was characterized including detailed kinetic studies of 20 substrates for (S)-cyanohydrin synthesis. The enzyme exhibited the highest specific activity (178U/mg), k cat (98/s) and k cat/K m ratio for piperonal. k cat/K m ratio for aromatic aldehydes was much larger than those of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones. It was strongly inhibited by AgNO 3, PMSF, phenol and methyl ethyl ketone, showed an optimum at pH 5, while having activity at range of 4-6.5. It exhibited stability at wide pH range 2.4-11, the highest activity at 20°C, being active at 0-65°C. The enzyme showed variations in residues involved in substrate pocket and substrate entrance channel compared to other S-selective HNLs, based on a model was built. C-terminal short truncations provided more enzyme production. Gel filtration revealed a 60-65kDa molecular mass for this non-FAD enzyme and its C-terminally truncated forms using three buffer compositions, indicating dimeric structures. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Uehara A.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Nakata M.,Botanic Gardens of Toyama | Kitajima J.,Showa Pharmaceutical University | Iwashina T.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2012

Flavonoids in the leaves of 17 species and 4 varieties of Japanese Chrysanthemum were surveyed. Nine flavonoid glycosides were isolated and identified as quercetin 3- O-rutinoside, eriodictyol 7- O-glucuronide, luteolin 7- O-rutinoside, 7- O-glucoside and 7- O-glucuronide, apigenin 7- O-glucoside and 7- O-glucuronide, chrysoeriol 7- O-glucuronide and acacetin 7- O-rutinoside. The taxa were divided into three chemotypes by their flavonoid characters, i.e. I) occurrence of flavone, flavonol and flavanone, II) occurrence of flavone and flavanone and III) occurrence of flavone alone. The chemotypes almost agreed with the system based on morphological, cytological and geographical characters, i.e. Group I) the taxa growing on seashore and having tubular flowers alone, Group III) the taxa of the Asian Continent origins and having both tubular and ligulate flowers. Others were included in Group II which was subdivided into four groups by flavonoid characters. Twelve external flavonoids were isolated and identified as acacetin 7- O-rutinoside, luteolin, nepetin, 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-6,5'-dimethoxyflavone, apigenin, hispidulin, 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,3',5'-trimethoxyflavone, jaceosidin, sudachitin, eupatilin, hymenoxin and pectolinarigenin. The distribution patterns of almost all external flavonoids were apparently irregular among the taxa. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Orihara T.,Tottori University | Sawada F.,2 11 12 Tsujido taiheidai | Ikeda S.,Forest Development Technological Institute | Yamato M.,General Environmental Technos Co. | And 5 more authors.
Mycologia | Year: 2010

During taxonomic revision of genus Octaviania in Japan we examined herbarium and fresh specimens of O. columellifera and O. asterosperma sensu S. Yoshimi & Y. Doi with morphological and molecular techniques. These two species were identical in both macro- and micromorphological characters and were clearly different from the generally known O. asterosperma. The identity of the two species and their distinctness from O. asterosperma was further supported by both nuclear large subunit and ITS rDNA phylogeny. The molecular analyses also revealed that O. columellifera shares its lineage with the boletoid mushroom-forming Xerocomus chrysenteron complex and that it does not form a monophyletic clade with other Octaviania species. Our morphological reevaluation, including transmission electron microscopic observation of basidiospores, clarified the taxonomic boundary between O. columellifera and other Japanese Octaviania species. Accordingly we propose a new genus, Heliogaster, for O. columellifera with designation of the lectotype. We discuss phylogenetic relationships with Octaviania sensu stricto species and the closely related boletoid (pileate-stipitate) fungi, generic characters of Helio-gaster and intraspecific phylogeny. © 2010 by The Mycological Society of America. Source

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