Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Christe C.,University of Fribourg | Kozlowski G.,University of Fribourg | Frey D.,University of Fribourg | Fazan L.,University of Fribourg | And 5 more authors.
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2014

Botanic gardens and arboreta, particularly in regions where iconic relict trees naturally occur, play a vital role in the conservation of these species. Maintaining well-managed living ex situ collections of rare and threatened relict tree species provides an immediate insurance policy for the future species conservation. The aim of this research was to investigate the origin, representativeness and genetic diversity of relict trees kept in botanic gardens and arboreta. We used as a model two ecologically and biogeographically distinct members of the prominent relict genus Zelkova (Ulmaceae), which survived the last glaciation in disjunct and isolated refugial regions: Z. carpinifolia in Transcaucasia and Z. abelicea endemic to Crete (Greece) in the Mediterranean. Our study revealed substantial differences in the genetic diversity and the origin of living ex situ collections of the two investigated taxa. The living ex situ collections of Z. carpinifolia have relatively high representativeness compared with the global genetic variability of natural stands identified in a previous study. In contrast, Z. abelicea, which possesses an extraordinarily high genetic variability in natural populations, is clearly underrepresented in botanic garden collections. Moreover, all Z. abelicea trees investigated in this study most probably originated from a single region, the Levka Ori in western Crete. Thus, the ex situ conservation of Z. abelicea requires major planning and coordination efforts, including the establishment of well-documented collections in botanic gardens in Greece and especially on Crete. New living ex situ collections should be created using plant material collected from all of the mountain regions where Z. abelicea still occurs. Our study highlights the need for re-evaluating the existing living ex situ collections of trees and the development of new strategies for future conservation efforts in botanic gardens and arboreta. The coordination of conservation efforts between gardens must be enhanced to prioritize actions for the most threatened relict tree species. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Tejedor Garavito N.,Bournemouth University | Newton A.C.,Bournemouth University | Oldfield S.,Botanic Gardens Conservation International BGCI
ORYX | Year: 2015

The Tropical Andes are characterized by a high level of endemism and plant species richness but are under pressure from human activities. We present the first regional conservation assessment of upper montane tree species in this region. We identified 3,750 tree species as occurring in this region, of which 917 were excluded because of a lack of data on their distribution. We identified a subset of 129 taxa that were restricted to higher elevations (> 1,500 m) but occurred in more than one country, thus excluding local endemics evaluated in previous national assessments. Distribution maps were created for each of these selected species, and extinction risk was assessed according to the IUCN Red List categories and criteria (version 3.1), drawing on expert knowledge elicited from a regional network of specialists. We assessed one species, Polylepis microphylla, as Critically Endangered, 47 species as Endangered and 28 as Vulnerable. Overall, 60% of the species evaluated were categorized as threatened, or 73% if national endemics are included. It is recommended that extinction risk assessments for tree species be used to inform the development of conservation strategies in the region, to avoid further loss of this important element of biodiversity. Copyright © 2015 Fauna & Flora International. Source


Bosque M.,University of Crete | Adamogianni M.-I.,University of Crete | Bariotakis M.,University of Crete | Fazan L.,University of Fribourg | And 7 more authors.
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2014

In this paper, the fine-scale spatial patterns of the Tertiary relict Zelkova abelicea (Lam.) Boiss. were studied (1) to reveal processes that contributed to its persistence to climate changes and (2) to assist future conservation planning, with the purpose of shifting the attention of conservation practitioners from patterns to processes. Results of the fine-scale spatial patterns of Z. abelicea indicate that the species tolerates disturbance and/or tracks changes resulting from disturbance in the range of its distribution through morphological and reproductive plasticity. In addition, our study indicates that Z. abelicea populations are conserved in the absence of metapopulation structure and that the species participates in plant-plant interactions through facilitation processes. Hence, the persistence of the species to climate changes seems to be more complicated and multifactorial than a linear and plain view of species survival in climate refugial areas, and therefore calls for a consideration of the processes revealed in this paper in future conservation planning. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Kozlowski G.,University of Fribourg | Gibbs D.,Botanic Gardens Conservation International BGCI | Huan F.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden | Frey D.,University of Fribourg | Gratzfeld J.,Botanic Gardens Conservation International BGCI
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012

Maintaining living ex situ collections is one of the key conservation methods in botanic gardens worldwide. Despite of the existence of many other conservation approaches used nowadays, it offers for many endangered plants an important insurance policy for the future, especially for rare and threatened relict trees. The aim of this research was to investigate the global extent of living ex situ collections, to assess and discuss their viability and inform the development of conservation approaches that respond to latest global conservation challenges. We used as a model taxon the tree genus Zelkova (Ulmaceae). The genus includes six prominent Tertiary relict trees which survived the last glaciation in disjunct and isolated refugial regions. Our comprehensive worldwide survey shows that the majority of botanic institutions with Zelkova collections are in countries with a strong horticultural tradition and not in locations of their origin. More importantly, the acutely threatened Zelkova species are not the most represented in collections, and thus safeguarded through ex situ conservation. Less than 20% of the ex situ collections surveyed contain plant material of known wild provenance while the majority (90%) of collections are generally very small (1-10 trees). Botanic gardens and arboreta particularly in regions where iconic relict trees naturally occur should play a vital role in the conservation of these species. The coordination of conservation efforts between gardens has to be enhanced to prioritise action for the most threatened relict trees. Large scale genetic studies should be undertaken, ideally at genus level, in order to verify or clarify the provenance of ex situ collections of relict trees in cultivation. For the most threatened relict tree genera, well-coordinated specialist groups should be created. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Larridon I.,Ghent University | Shaw K.,Botanic Gardens Conservation International BGCI | Cisternas M.A.,Jardin Botanico Nacional | Paizanni Guillen A.,Institute Ecologia | And 5 more authors.
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2014

Many of Chile's iconic cactus species are threatened by human activities and global change. In order to safeguard them from extinction, both in situ and ex situ conservation actions are urgently needed. In this paper, an overview is given of the in situ and ex situ conservation status of the mainly Chilean cactus genera Copiapoa, Eriosyce and Eulychnia, including a worldwide survey of living ex situ collections of the species of these genera. From our results, we can conclude that although the threats to Chile's remarkable biodiversity are now recognized as an environmental problem, and efforts are underway to protect the threatened endemic flora, many of the most threatened species are currently not protected in situ. Although a higher percentage of living accessions of Copiapoa, Eriosyce and Eulychnia in ex situ collections are of known wild origin compared to results of previous studies on other plant groups, the number of available accessions is insufficient to adequately preserve the genetic diversity of the threatened species. Prospects to upscale both in situ and ex situ conservation of the studied genera are discussed. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Discover hidden collaborations