West Perth, Australia
West Perth, Australia

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Wylie S.J.,Murdoch University | Li H.,Murdoch University | Dixon K.W.,Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority | Richards H.,Australian Orchid Foundation | Jones M.G.K.,Murdoch University
Virus Research | Year: 2013

Four species of Diuris temperate terrestrial orchids from wild and captive populations were tested for the presence of polyadenylated RNA viruses. The genomes of three exotic viruses were determined: two potyviruses, Bean yellow mosaic virus and Ornithogalum mosaic virus, and the polerovirus Turnip yellows virus. The genomes of five indigenous viruses were detected, including four novel species. They were the potyvirus Blue squill virus A, another potyvirus, two proposed capilloviruses, and a partitivirus. Partitivirus infection is of interest as this group of viruses is also associated with endophytic fungi (mycorrhizae) that are necessary for the germination, growth, development of many terrestrial orchids. Sequence divergence data indicate post-European, pre-European, and endemic origins for these viruses via inoculum from introduced and native plants. The implications of the findings of this study for orchid conservation, and particularly reintroduction programs where viruses may be spread inadvertently to wild populations from infected propagation sources, are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Pollock L.J.,University of Melbourne | Bayly M.J.,University of Melbourne | Nevill P.G.,Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority | Nevill P.G.,University of Western Australia | Vesk P.A.,University of Melbourne
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2013

Aim To relate genetic diversity to topographic features and to investigate genetic interactions between Eucalyptus species in a local centre of endemism and diversity in south-eastern Australia. Location Grampian Ranges, Victoria, Australia. Methods We documented chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation for a group of endemic Eucalyptus species (E. serraensis, E. verrucata and E. victoriana) that dominate rocky, high-elevation ridgelines of the Grampian Ranges and for one closely-related, widespread species (E. baxteri) occupying flanking slopes and valleys. We documented genetic patterns across the landscape using cpDNA microsatellites, and related them to topographic features (exposed west-facing versus protected east-facing slopes and valleys). We also determined the extent of local haplotype sharing between populations of endemic species and neighbouring E. baxteri downslope with cpDNA microsatellites, and haplotype sharing between the endemic group and more distantly related species (E. obliqua, E. pauciflora and E. willisii) with sequences of the JLA+ chloroplast region. Results We detected 26 cpDNA microsatellite haplotypes in a relatively small area of c.20km×50km. Populations of E. baxteri on east-facing slopes and valleys had greater cpDNA microsatellite diversity than E. baxteri and endemic species on exposed west-facing slopes. Endemic species frequently shared chloroplast haplotypes with E. baxteri downslope. Sharing of JLA+ haplotypes with species outside the endemic group was mostly restricted to E. victoriana, which had cpDNA more similar to the species from other sections of Eucalyptus (E. obliqua, E. willisii and E. pauciflora). Main conclusions Intensive sampling of related species on small isolated mountain ranges allowed us to relate genetic diversity to fine-scale habitats and to document extensive local haplotype sharing between species. This study contributes to a general understanding of the environmental conditions that enable plant population persistence by linking concentrations of genetic diversity to particular habitats. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Barrett R.L.,Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority | Barrett R.L.,University of Western Australia | Barrett R.L.,Bentley Delivery Center
Annals of Botany | Year: 2013

BackgroundSedges (Cyperaceae) form an important ecological component of many ecosystems around the world. Sword and rapier sedges (genus Lepidosperma) are common and widespread components of the southern Australian and New Zealand floras, also occurring in New Caledonia, West Papua, Borneo, Malaysia and southern China. Sedge ecology is seldom studied and no comprehensive review of sedge ecology exists. Lepidosperma is unusual in the Cyperaceae with the majority of species occurring in dryland habitats.ScopeExtensive review of ecological literature and field observations shows Lepidosperma species to be important components of many ecosystems, often dominating understorey and sedge-rich communities. For the first time, a detailed ecological review of a Cyperaceae genus is presented.Conclusions Lepidospermaspecies are long-lived perennials with significant abundance and persistence in the landscape. Speciation patterns in the genus are of considerable interest due to complex biogeographical patterns and a high degree of habitat specificity. Potential benefits exist for medicinal products identified from several Lepidosperma species. Over 178 organisms, including 26 mammals, 42 birds, six reptiles, five amphibians, eight arachnids, 75 insects, three crustaceans and 13 fungi, are found to be dependent on, or making use of, Lepidosperma species. A significant relationship exists between Lepidosperma species and the moth genus Elachista. Implications for the conservation and ecology of both sedges and associated species are discussed. © 2013 The Author.

Barrett R.L.,Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority | Barrett R.L.,University of Western Australia | Wilson K.L.,Bentley Delivery Center
Australian Systematic Botany | Year: 2012

Species diversity in the genus Lepidosperma Labill. is much greater than previously thought. On the basis of morphological and molecular data, we currently recognise 73 named species (mainly in Australia), with many more species yet to be described. As a precursor to a complete revision, we review the names published in Lepidosperma. All published names at infrageneric, specific and infraspecific rank are typified and their current taxonomic status is indicated. Brief distribution notes are given for the 73 named species recognised. We also give a list of names referrable to other genera. A summary of the taxonomic history of the genus is provided, as well as notes on the specimens collected by early collectors in Australia. Three new combinations are made in Lepidosperma: L. asperatum (Kk.) R.L.Barrett, L. neozelandicum (Kk.) R.L.Barrett K.L.Wilson and L. rigidulum (Kk.) K.L.Wilson. L. sanguinolentum K.L.Wilson is a nomen novum based on L. drummondii var. floribundum Kk. Lectotypes are designated for eight infrageneric names and for 39 specific and infraspecific names, including the following: L. angustifolium Hook.f., L. angustatum R.Br., L. angustatum var. curvispiculum Benth., L. australe (A.Rich.) Hook.f., L. benthamianum C.B.Clarke, L. brunonianum Nees, L. brunonianum var. binuciferum Kk., L. canescens Boeckeler, L. carphoides Benth., L. concavum var. pyramidatum Benth., L. confine Nees, L. costale Nees, L. costale var. densispicatum Kk., L. drummondii Benth., L. effusum Benth., L. forsythii A.A.Ham., L. gladiatum Labill., L. globosum Labill., L. inops F.Muell. ex Rodway, L. laterale var. angustum Benth., L. laterale var. majus Benth., L. leptophyllum Benth., L. leptostachyum Benth., L. leptostachyum var. asperatum Kk., L. muelleri Boeckeler, L. neesii Kunth, L. perplanum Guillaumin, L. perteres C.B.Clarke, L. pruinosum Kk., L. pruinosum var. rigidulum Kk., L. quadrangulatum A.A.Ham., L. resinosum var. pleianthemum Kük., L. scabrum Nees, L. scabrum var. effusum Benth., L. sieberi Kunth, L. squamatum Labill., L. tenue Benth., L. viscidum R.Br. and L. viscidum var. subpyramidale Kk. Twenty-two excluded names are listed and new combinations are provided in Tricostularia for L. aphyllum R.Br. and L. exsul C.B.Clarke. A lectotype is selected for L. pauciflorum F.Muell. (=Tricostularia pauciflora (F.Muell.) Benth.). © CSIRO 2012.

Swarts N.D.,Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority | Sinclair E.A.,Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority | Francis A.,University of Tasmania | Dixon K.W.,Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority | Dixon K.W.,University of Western Australia
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2010

Terrestrial orchid germination, growth and development are closely linked to the establishment and maintenance of a relationship with a mycorrhizal fungus. Mycorrhizal dependency and specificity varies considerably between orchid taxa but the degree to which this underpins rarity in orchids is unknown. In the context of examining orchid rarity, large scale in vitro and in situ germination trials complemented by DNA sequencing were used to investigate ecological specialization in the mycorrhizal interaction of the rare terrestrial orchid Caladenia huegelii. Common and widespread sympatric orchid congeners were used for comparative purposes. Germination trials revealed an absolute requirement for mycorrhisation with compatibility barriers to germination limiting C. huegelii to a highly specific and range limited, efficacious mycorrhizal fungus. DNA sequencing confirmed fidelity between orchid and fungus across the distribution range of C. huegelii and at key life history stages within its life cycle. It was also revealed that common congeners could swap or share fungal partners including the fungus associated with the rare orchid but not vice versa. Data from this study provides evidence for orchid rarity as a cause and consequence of high mycorrhizal specialization. This interaction must be taken into account in efforts to mitigate the significant extinction risk for this species from anthropogenically induced habitat change and illustrates the importance of understanding fungal specificity in orchid ecology and conservation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Rokich D.P.,Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority
Ecological Management and Restoration | Year: 2016

A unique, two decade-long partnership of a government research organization (Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority) and an industry partner (Hanson Construction Materials) has enabled the restoration and management of Perth's Banksia woodland after sand extraction to be seriously tackled. © 2016 Ecological Society of Australia.

Worth J.R.P.,University of Tasmania | Williamson G.J.,University of Tasmania | Sakaguchi S.,University of Tokyo | Nevill P.G.,Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority | Jordan G.J.,University of Tasmania
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2014

Aim: Many predictions of responses to future climate change utilize ecological niche models (ENMs). We assess the capacity of these models to predict species distributions under conditions that differ from the current environment by testing whether they can predict past distributions of species. Location: From 43°S to 31°S in south-eastern Australia (including Tasmania). Methods: We studied three dominant tree species of temperate Australian mesic forests, Atherosperma moschatum, Eucalyptus regnans and Nothofagus cunninghamii. Phylogeographic evidence indicates that these species each survived the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in multiple refugia. We modelled the current distribution of each species and projected those models onto LGM climates under six palaeoclimatic scenarios. The support for phylogeographic-based glacial refugia was estimated under each scenario using three different thresholds for inferring species presence/absence. Results: The LGM models under scenarios that allowed for a realistic level of rainfall failed to predict survival of the study species in refugia identified from genetic evidence, apart from those in perhumid western Tasmania. Main conclusions: Correct prediction of nearly all modern occurrences of the species suggests that this failure of ENMs to predict refugial survival was not methodological. Rather we conclude that the existing realized niches of these species may have changed since the LGM. Such niche changes may have involved the occurrence of non-analogue climates in the LGM and some significant alteration of fundamental niche (for at least E.regnans). Our results emphasize that predictions of future impacts of climate change on biodiversity will benefit from awareness of the limitations of ENMs in predicting the extinction of populations/species. Greater knowledge of how niches have changed through time and how this relates to the characteristics of species is needed to improve the reliability of ENMs. Niche changes in plants may also affect palaeoclimatic estimates based on fossil pollen. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Botanic Gardens And Parks Authority | Date: 2015-09-08

A new and distinct cultivar of Grevillea plant named Kings Celebration, characterized by its bright red-colored inflorescences, medium green-colored foliage, and moderately vigorous, upright growth habit, is disclosed.

Botanic Gardens And Parks Authority | Date: 2016-02-02

A new and distinct cultivar of Grevillea plant named Kings Rainbow, characterized by its light yellow-green and medium red bi-colored, medium green-colored foliage, and moderately vigorous, semi-upright growth habit, is disclosed.

Botanic Gardens And Parks Authority | Date: 2016-02-02

A new and distinct cultivar of Grevillea plant named Kings Fire, characterized by its bright red-colored inflorescences, light green-colored foliage, and moderately vigorous, semi-upright growth habit, is disclosed.

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