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Glen Allen, VA, United States

Bostwick D.G.,Bostwick Laboratories Inc.
Annals of Diagnostic Pathology | Year: 2013

Improved methods such as radiofrequency identification (RFID) are needed to optimize specimen tracking in anatomical pathology. We undertook a study of RFID in an effort to optimize specimen tracking and patient identification, including the following: (1) creation of workflow process maps, (2) evaluation of existing RFID hardware technologies, (3) creation of Web-based software to support the RFID-enabled workflow, and (4) assessment of the impact with a series of prostate biopsies. We identified multiple steps in the workflow process in which RFID enhanced specimen tracking. Multiple product choices were found that could withstand the harsh heat and chemical environments encountered in pathology processing, and software that was compatible with our laboratory information system was designed in-house. A total of 1067 prostate biopsies were received, and 78.3% were successfully processed with the RFID system. Radiofrequency identification allowed dynamic specimen tracking throughout the workflow process in anatomical pathology. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

Turbat-Herrera E.A.,Bostwick Laboratories Inc.
Contributions to Nephrology | Year: 2011

This manuscript presents the usefulness of various experimental models in research with the purpose to elucidate mechanisms of disease and help create treatment modalities. The emphasis is on the use of models primarily for the study and treatment of amyloidosis. This is a rare condition that has attracted much attention recently. Amyloidosis is a disease in which the information obtained in the research laboratory has played a key role in advancing our understanding of the mechanisms associated with this group of disorders and in the development of new avenues for therapeutic intervention. Both in-vivo and in-vitro models are addressed. The early animal models and the more recent transgenic models are presented along with their usefulness to study the pathogenesis and dissect gene expression profiles where appropriate. Their pros and cons of the various experimental settings are highlighted. In-vitro models are presented with examples from the literature as to how they have or are being used to study a variety of conditions, renal as well as others. They also serve the purpose of resolving questions primarily relating to patho-genesis and to test the value of novel interventions prior to using in vivo models that are generally more expensive and difficult to work with. Since all models have their limitations, perhaps the best way is to utilize both in-vitro and in-vivo platforms, selecting them depending upon the questions to be answered. Employing a large variety of experimental techniques can serve to obtain and validate the data. The advantages of this approach will become obvious in the book chapters that follow. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Cheng L.,Indiana University | Montironi R.,Marche Polytechnic University | Bostwick D.G.,Bostwick Laboratories Inc. | Lopez-Beltran A.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Berney D.M.,Barts Cancer Center
Histopathology | Year: 2012

Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accurate staging is critical for prognosis assessment and treatment planning for PCa. Despite the large volume of clinical activity and research, the challenge to define the most appropriate and clinically relevant staging system remains. The pathologically complex and uncertain clinical course of prostate cancer further complicates the design of staging classification and a substaging system suitable for individualized care. This review will focus on recent progress and controversial issues related to prostate cancer staging. The 2010 revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) system is the most widely used staging system at this time. Despite general acceptance of the system as a whole, there is controversy and uncertainty about its application, particularly for T2 subclassification. The three-tiered T2 classification system for organ-confined prostate cancer is superfluous, considering the biology and anatomy of PCa. A tumour size-based substaging system may be considered in the future TNM subclassification of pT2 cancer. Lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes in patients with positive lymph nodes are variable. Identification of patients at the greatest risk of systemic progression helps in the selection of appropriate therapy. The data suggest that the inherent aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer is closely linked to the tumour volume of lymph node metastasis. We recommend that a future TNM staging system should consider subclassification of node-positive cancer on the basis of nodal cancer volume, using the diameter of the largest nodal metastasis and/or the number of positive nodes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited. Source

Barnes J.L.,Medical Research Service | Barnes J.L.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Glass II W.F.,Bostwick Laboratories Inc.
Contributions to Nephrology | Year: 2011

Interstitial fibrosis is a common feature of chronic kidney disease, regardless of the etiology of the primary renal syndrome. Moreover, interstitial fibrosis is the strongest morphologic predictor of clinical outcome and is most tightly linked to progression of disease, even though the primary disease may be of glomerular origin. Also, the presence of an interstitial component in chronic kidney disease often indicates an ominous outcome. The incidence of chronic kidney disease has reached epidemic proportions; thus, understanding the pathophysiology of interstitial renal disease is paramount for the development of new therapeutic approaches to slowing progression. Experimental models of renal fibrosis have been essential in determining the mechanisms and sequence of progression of fibrogenesis, including the roles of endothelium, infiltrating leukocytes and myofibroblasts; of profibrogenic cytokine and growth factor release; of tubular injury and atrophy; and of interstitial extracellular matrix accumulation. Over the last decade, considerable attention has been paid to the origin of the myofibroblast, the cell type most responsible for interstitial matrix accumulation. However, the origin(s) of myofibroblasts and how they gain access to the peritubular interstitium has become a matter of controversy and debate. Interstitial myofibroblasts have been proposed to originate from one or more of five sources: resident fibroblasts (pericytes), adventitial fibroblasts, circulating fibrocytes, tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) or endothelial/ mesenchymal transition. To date, EMT has become the pre-eminent theory of the origin of myofibroblasts; however, a role for EMT in renal fibrosis is rigorously challenged by anecdotal and recent scientific evidence. This chapter will briefly discuss the experimental models used to explore interstitial renal disease in general and will then focus on the controversy related to the origin of myofibroblasts. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Cheng L.,Indiana University | Lopez-Beltran A.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Bostwick D.G.,Bostwick Laboratories Inc.
Bladder Pathology | Year: 2012

The human urinary bladder is subject to a unique and extraordinarily diverse array of congenital, inflammatory, metaplastic, and neoplastic abnormalities. This book provides contemporary, comprehensive, and evidence-based practice information for pathologists, urologists, oncologists, and other medical professionals. In Bladder Pathology, a full spectrum of pathologic conditions that afflict the bladder and urothelium are described and lavishly illustrated. With its emphasis on diagnostic criteria and differential diagnoses, this book is of particular value to practicing pathologists-assisting in the pathologist's recognition, understanding, and accurate interpretation of the light microscopic findings in bladder specimens. Features and benefits of this new volume include: • 1,741 high-quality, color illustrations and 112 tables to illustrate the wide range of pathologic and clinical features in the urinary tract • An evidence-based approach to diagnosis and patient management for infectious, nonneoplastic, and neoplastic conditions • Recent advances in the molecular genetics of the urinary bladder with discussion of their current or potential impact on diagnosis and personalized patient care • With emphasis on the scientific validation of current diagnostic methods and their direct application in clinical practice, Bladder Pathology is a cutting-edge resource that not only offers comprehensive research and clinical information for practicing surgical pathologists, urologists, oncologists, and their clinical colleagues, but also captures a genuine sense of excitement about recent advances in this vital, ever-evolving field. © 2012 Wiley-Blackwell. Source

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