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Lin I.,Boston Health Economics | Sung J.,Sanofi S.A. | Sanchez R.J.,Regeneron Pharmaceuticals | Mallya U.G.,Sanofi S.A. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Managed Care and Specialty Pharmacy

BACKGROUND: Widespread use of statins has improved hypercholesterolemia management, yet a significant proportion of patients remain at risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. Analyses of treatment patterns reveal inadequate intensity and duration of statin therapy among patients with hypercholesterolemia, and little is known about real-world statin use, specifically in subgroups of patients at high risk for CV events. OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of statin use and outcomes among patients with high-risk features who newly initiated statin monotherapy. METHODS: Adult patients (aged = 18 years) at high CV risk who received = 1 prescription for statin monotherapy and who had not received lipidmodifying therapy during the previous 12 months were identified from the Truven MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases (from January 2007 to June 2013). Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or diabetes were hierarchically classified into 5 mutually exclusive CV risk categories (listed here in order from highest to lowest risk): (1) recent CV event (subcategorized by hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome [ACS] or other non-ACS CV event within 90 days of index); (2) coronary heart disease (CHD); (3) history of ischemic stroke; (4) peripheral artery disease (PAD); and (5) diabetes. Outcomes of interest included changes in therapy, proportion of days covered (PDC), time to discontinuation, and proportion of patients with ASCVD-related inpatient visit during the follow-up period. Statin therapy was subdivided into high-intensity treatment (atorvastatin 40 mg or 80 mg, rosuvastatin 20 mg or 40 mg, or simvastatin 80 mg) or moderate- to low-intensity treatment (all other statins and statin dosing regimens). Follow-up data were obtained from the index date (statin initiation) until the end of continuous enrollment. RESULTS: A total of 541,221 patients were included in the analysis. The majority of patients were stratified in the diabetes cohort (61.1%), followed in frequency by recent ACS event (15.8%), recent non-ACS CV event (9.9%), PAD (4.7%), CHD (4.4%), and history of ischemic stroke (4.1%). Only 15.0% of the population initiated therapy with a high-intensity statin, and 22.5% of these high-intensity statin initiators switched to a moderate- to lowintensity regimen during the follow-up period. Median time to statin discontinuation was approximately 15 months. Duration of treatment was longer among those who were treated with a high-intensity versus a moderate- to low-intensity statin regimen (21 and 15 months, respectively). The PDC was highest in the recent ACS hospitalization cohort (66.4%) and lowest in the diabetes cohort (55.5%). The PDC was significantly greater among patients who initiated treatment with a high-intensity statin regimen than with a moderate- to low-intensity statin regimen (62.1% vs. 57.5%, respectively; P < 0.001). At 1 year, Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative rates for ASCVD-related hospitalizations ranged from 3.5% (diabetes) to 21.8% (recent ACS hospitalization). CONCLUSIONS: Patients at high risk for CV events are suboptimally dosed with statins, have high rates of discontinuation, and have low rates of adherence. Despite the use of statin therapy, ASCVD-related inpatient visit rates were high, particularly among those patients at highest risk because of a recent ACS hospitalization. Future interventions are required to ensure that high-risk patients are effectively managed to reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality. © 2016, Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy. Source

Sussman M.,Boston Health Economics | Mallick R.,Daiichi Sankyo | Friedman M.,Boston Health Economics | Federico V.,Boston Health Economics | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology

Purpose: To understand rates of procedure failure among patients undergoing revascularization for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in clinical practice. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis of patients with PAD who underwent a PAD-related procedure used claims and electronic medical record data from 2005 to 2009. Procedures were grouped by type (endovascular [ie, angioplasty with/without stent, atherectomy] or surgical [ie, bypass surgery, endarterectomy, thrombectomy]) and site (ie, iliac, infrainguinal). The study assessed antiplatelet and anticoagulant agent use; procedure failure, defined as a subsequent procedure or amputation; and predictors of time to procedure failure. Results: A sample of 248 patients with PAD who underwent a PAD-related procedure was identified. The population was 59% male, had a mean age of 73 years, and had a mean follow-up of 23 months. Endovascular procedures alone were performed in 37% of patients, with the remainder receiving surgery only or surgery with an endovascular procedure, and 79% of patients had an infrainguinal intervention. Antiplatelet and anticoagulant use rates after the procedure were 90% and 25%, respectively. After their initial procedure, 20% of patients required a second procedure or amputation, with an average failure time of 228 days. Patients treated with infrainguinal procedures had a significantly higher failure rate versus those treated with iliac procedures (23% vs 8%; P =.011). In multivariate analysis, patients without anticoagulant use before the procedure were at significantly lower failure risk (P =.022). Conclusions: Repeated intervention and/or major amputation after revascularization of PAD was common. Further investigation of the factors associated with procedure failure is warranted. © 2013 SIR. Source

Menzin J.,Boston Health Economics | Sussman M.,Boston Health Economics | Nichols C.,Boston Health Economics | Friedman M.,Boston Health Economics | Zbrozek A.,Global Health Economics
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy

Purpose. The impact of correcting elevated International Normalized Ratio (INR) values on inhospital mortality in patients with warfarin-associated major bleeding is presented. Methods. Using patient information from the database of a large U.S. health system, a retrospective analysis was conducted to (1) evaluate inpatient practice patterns in correcting INR elevations among patients hospitalized with warfarin-related intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or non-ICH bleeding and (2) test the hypothesis that achieving INR correction, defined as an INR of ≤1.5, at any point during the hospital stay is correlated with lower inhospital mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to assess predictors of inhospital death. Results. Among the 354 patients who met the study selection criteria, INR correction was achieved in 87.9% overall (92.5% and 85.5% of patients with ICH and non-ICH bleeds, respectively). Patients whose elevated INR values were corrected had significantly lower inhospital death rates than those with uncorrected elevations: 15.3% versus 55.6% (p = 0.010) among patients with ICH and 2.0% versus 11.8% (p = 0.017) among those with non-ICH bleeds. After adjusting for baseline demographics and comorbidities, the correlation between failure to correct INR elevations and increased mortality risk was significant only for patients with ICH (hazard ratio, 8.04; 95% confidence interval, 2.07-31.18; p = 0.003). Conclusion. Results of this study indicated that correction of elevated INR values was associated with a lower likelihood of inhospital death among warfarin-treated patients hospitalized for ICH or non-ICH major bleeding. Copyright © 2014, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Huang H.,Boston Health Economics | Taylor D.C.A.,Ironwood Pharmaceuticals | Carson R.T.,Forest Research Institute Inc. | Sarocco P.,Ironwood Pharmaceuticals | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Medical Economics

Objectives: To use techniques of decision-analytic modeling to evaluate the effectiveness and costs of linaclotide vs lubiprostone in the treatment of adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Methods: Using model inputs derived from published literature, linaclotide Phase III trial data and a physician survey, a decision-tree model was constructed. Response to therapy was defined as (1) a ≥14-point increase from baseline in IBS-Quality-of-Life (IBS-QoL) questionnaire overall score at week 12 or (2) one of the top two responses (moderately/significantly relieved) on a 7-point IBS symptom relief question in ≥2 of 3 months. Patients who do not respond to therapy are assumed to fail therapy and accrue costs associated with a treatment failure. Model time horizon is aligned with clinical trial duration of 12 weeks. Model outputs include number of responders, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and total costs (including direct and indirect). Both one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results: Treatment for IBS-C with linaclotide produced more responders than lubiprostone for both response definitions (19.3% vs 13.0% and 61.8% vs 57.2% for IBS-QoL and symptom relief, respectively), lower per-patient costs ($803 vs $911 and $977 vs $1056), and higher QALYs (0.1921 vs 0.1917 and 0.1909 vs 0.1894) over the 12-week time horizon. Results were similar for most one-way sensitivity analyses. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the majority of simulations resulted in linaclotide having higher treatment response rates and lower per-patient costs. Limitations: There are no available head-to-head trials that compare linaclotide with lubiprostone; therefore, placebo-adjusted estimates of relative efficacy were derived for model inputs. The time horizon for this model is relatively short, as it was limited to the duration of available clinical trial data. Conclusions: Linaclotide was found to be a less costly option vs lubiprostone for the treatment of adult patients with IBS-C. © 2015 Informa UK Ltd. Source

Lang K.,Boston Health Economics | Hao Y.,Novartis | Huang H.,Boston Health Economics | Lin I.,Boston Health Economics | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research

Aim: To evaluate treatment patterns among elderly, newly diagnosed stage IV breast cancer patients receiving HER-2-targeted therapy. Methods: Women aged 65+ with an incident diagnosis of stage IV breast cancer (index) and no history of other cancer were identified from 2006 to 2010 linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results and Medicare data. Continuous enrollment from 1 year preindex (baseline) through disenrollment, death or the end of the data (follow-up) was required. Patients were required to receive HER-2-targeted therapy (trastuzumab or lapatinib) during follow-up. Treatment therapies during follow-up were evaluated, as was the distribution of treatment combinations. Initial treatment regimens were evaluated based on the treatment(s) received after index. A 42-day gap in therapy or the addition of a biologic therapy was used as a marker for a subsequent regimen. Results: A total of 173 patients were identified (mean [standard deviation] age: 73.9 [6.7] years). The majority received trastuzumab (>93%) during follow-up (mean [standard deviation] duration: 24.3 [11.3] months), with 9.8% receiving lapatinib. Most received chemotherapy (83.2%), approximately half received surgery (55.5%), over 40% received hormonal therapy and a third received radiation (35.3%). Trastuzumab + chemotherapy was the most common initial treatment regimen (43.9%); less common therapies include trastuzumab alone (17.3%), and trastuzumab + chemotherapy + hormonal (13.3%). Among patients receiving chemotherapy, the majority received a taxane-based chemotherapy. The average treatment duration for any treatment regimen was just less than a year (44.9-52.5 weeks). Conclusion: Among this population, the majority received taxane-based combination chemotherapy, consistent with National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

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