Boston College is a private Jesuit Catholic research university located in the village of Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA, 6 miles west of downtown Boston. It has 9,100 full-time undergraduates and almost 5,000 graduate students. The university's name reflects its early history as a liberal arts college and preparatory school in Boston's South End. It is a member of the 568 Group and the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities. Its main campus is a historic district and features some of the earliest examples of collegiate gothic architecture in North America.Boston College's undergraduate program is currently ranked 31st in the National Universities ranking by U.S. News & World Report. Boston College is categorized as a research university with high research activity by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Students at the university earned 21 Fulbright Awards in 2012, ranking the school eighth among American research institutions. At $2.131 billion, Boston College has the 40th largest university endowment in North America, and the largest endowment of all Jesuit colleges and universities.Boston College offers bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, and doctoral degrees through its nine schools and colleges: College of Arts & science, Boston College Graduate School of Arts & science, Carroll School of Management, Lynch School of Education, Connell School of Nursing, Boston College Graduate School of Social Work, Boston College Law School, Boston College School of Theology and Ministry, Woods College of Advancing Studies.Boston College sports teams are called the Eagles, and their colors are maroon and gold; the school mascot is Baldwin the Eagle. The Eagles compete in NCAA Division I as members of the Atlantic Coast Conference in all sports offered by the ACC. The men's and women's ice hockey teams compete in Hockey East. Boston College's men's ice hockey team is one of the most decorated programs in the nation, having won five national championships. Wikipedia.
Heyman G.M.,Boston College
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology | Year: 2013
According to the idea that addiction is a chronic relapsing disease, remission is at most a temporary state. Either addicts never stop using drugs, or if they do stop, remission is short lived. However, research on remission reveals a more complex picture. In national epidemiological surveys that recruited representative drug users, remission rates varied widely and were markedly different for legal and illegal drugs and for different racial/ethnic groups. For instance, the half-life for cocaine dependence was four years, but for alcohol dependence it was 16 years, and although most dependent cocaine users remitted before age 30, about 5% remained heavy cocaine users well into their forties. Although varied, the remission results were orderly. An exponential growth curve closely approximated the cumulative frequency of remitting for different drugs and different ethnic/racial groups. Thus, each year a constant proportion of those still addicted remitted, independent of the number of years since the onset of dependence. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews.
Heyman G.M.,Boston College
Frontiers in Psychiatry | Year: 2013
Addiction's biological basis has been the focus of much research. The findings have persuaded experts and the public that drug use in addicts is compulsive. But the word "compulsive" identifies patterns of behavior, and all behavior has a biological basis, including voluntary actions. Thus, the question is not whether addiction has a biology, which it must, but whether it is sensible to say that addicts use drugs compulsively. The relevant research shows most of those who meet the American Psychiatric Association's criteria for addiction quit using illegal drugs by about age 30, that they usually quit without professional help, and that the correlates of quitting include legal concerns, economic pressures, and the desire for respect, particularly from family members. That is, the correlates of quitting are the correlates of choice not compulsion. However, addiction is, by definition, a disorder, and thereby not beneficial in the long run.This is precisely the pattern of choices predicted by quantitative choice principles, such as the matching law, melioration, and hyperbolic discounting. Although the brain disease model of addiction is perceived by many as received knowledge it is not supported by research or logic. In contrast, well established, quantitative choice principles predict both the possibility and the details of addiction. © 2013 Heyman.
Petrovich G.D.,Boston College
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2013
The motivation to eat is driven by a complex sum of physiological and non-physiological influences computed by the brain. Physiological signals that inform the brain about energy and nutrient needs are the primary drivers, but environmental signals unrelated to energy balance also control appetite and eating. The two components could act in concert to support the homeostatic regulation of food intake. Often, however, environmental influences rival physiological control and stimulate eating irrespective of satiety, or inhibit eating irrespective of hunger. If persistent, such maladaptive challenges to the physiological system could lead to dysregulated eating and ultimately to eating disorders. Nevertheless, the brain mechanisms underlying environmental contribution in the control of food intake are poorly understood. This paper provides an overview in recent advances in deciphering the critical brain systems using rodent models for environmental control by learned cues. These models use associative learning to compete with the physiological control, and in one preparation food cues stimulate a meal despite satiety, while in another preparation fear cues stop a meal despite hunger. Thus far, four forebrain regions have been identified as part of the essential cue induced feeding circuitry. These are telencephalic areas critical for associative learning, memory encoding, and decision making, the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and the lateral hypothalamus, which functions to integrate feeding, reward, and motivation. This circuitry also engages two orexigenic peptides, ghrelin and orexin. A parallel amygdalar circuitry supports fear cue cessation of feeding. These findings illuminate the brain mechanisms underlying environmental control of food intake and might be also relevant to aspects of human appetite and maladaptive overeating and undereating. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Tummala-Narra P.,Boston College
Cultural diversity & ethnic minority psychology | Year: 2013
Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Tan K.L.,Boston College
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2011
The use of reversibly formed covalent bonds to induce intramolecular reactions is a powerful way of controlling regio- and stereoselectivity, as well as accelerating reactions. Although this mode of activation was demonstrated in catalytic systems over 60 years ago, it is infrequently used in catalyst design. This review will focus on highlighting examples of reversible covalent bonding in organic catalysts as well as ligands for metal catalysis. A key aspect of this type of catalysis is that it is an entropically driven process, so it has the potential to be applied to a broad variety of reactions. Furthermore, this design element can be used in concert with more traditional forms of catalyst activation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.