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Grzesik Z.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Smola G.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Adamaszek K.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Jurasz Z.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Mrowec S.,AGH University of Science and Technology
Corrosion Science | Year: 2013

The corrosion of four valve steels (X33CrNiMn23-8, X50CrMnNiNbN21-9, X53CrMnNiN20-8 and X55CrMnNiN20-8) in combustion gases of petrol, containing different concentrations of ethanol (5, 10 and 50. wt.%) has been studied at 900. °C under thermal cycle conditions. It has been shown that the chemical composition, in particular chromium content, determines the corrosion resistance of these materials. The X33CrNiMn23-8 steel containing the highest chromium concentration does not virtually undergo corrosion, because of the formation of protective chromia scale. On the other hand, three remaining steels with lower chromium concentration undergo high temperature corrosion due to formation of heterogeneous scale with worse protective properties. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Grzesik Z.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Jurasz Z.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Adamaszek K.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Mrowec S.,AGH University of Science and Technology
High Temperature Materials and Processes | Year: 2012

The oxidation kinetics of four Fe-Cr-Mn-Ni based steels, utilized in automobile industry, have been studied as a function of temperature (973-1273 K) and oxygen partial pressure (5-105 Pa). It has been shown that the rate of corrosion of these steels under isothermal conditions is determined by diffusion of reagents through the scale, which phase composition and morphology depend first of all on chromium and to some extend also on nickel and manganese contents. The highest oxidation resistance at high temperatures is observed in the case of the X33CrNiMn23-8 steel, containing highest chromium concentration, equal 23.4 wt.% and nickel equal 7.8 wt.%. The remaining three steels with virtually the same chromium content (≈20 wt.%), but lower than that in the first one, show comparable oxidation resistance. Small differences in the oxidation rates of these three steels may be related to different nickel and manganese contents. It has been found also that the rate of corrosion of all steels under investigation does not depend under steady state conditions on oxygen partial pressure. Copyright © 2012 De Gruyter. Source


Grzesik Z.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Smola G.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Adamaszek K.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Jurasz Z.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Mrowec S.,AGH University of Science and Technology
Oxidation of Metals | Year: 2013

The high-temperature corrosion behavior of four valve steels (X33CrNiMn23-8, X50CrMnNiNbN21-9, X53CrMnNiN20-8 and X55CrMnNiN20-8) in combustion gases of fuel oil, containing different concentrations of bio-components (5 and 10 wt%) has been studied under thermal shock conditions. It was found that the addition of bio-components decreased the corrosion resistance of steels investigated. It was also found that the X33CrNiMn23-8 steel containing the highest chromium concentration, behaved in the investigated atmospheres much better than three remaining steels due to the formation of highly protective chromia scale. © 2013 The Author(s). Source


Bialkowski P.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Krezel B.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd
Diagnostyka | Year: 2015

In this article an early crack detection method during fatigue testing has been described. The test object was a beam mounted on a durability test bench. Piezoelectric accelerometers were mounted onto the beam. With observation of the signals from the accelerometers it was determined what change of the signal was caused by crack appearance during the test. Three car beams were tested. The measurement method and testing bench are described in this work. To determine the change of the signal and show potential cracks, time domain estimates have been used: RMS, peak, peak-peak, Crest Factor and Kurtosis. Results for all these estimates are listed in tables. Conclusions were drawn according to their variations in particular time ranges. Source


Bielaczyc P.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Szczotka A.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Woodburn J.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd
Archives of Environmental Protection | Year: 2014

SI engines are highly susceptible to excess emissions when started at low ambient temperatures. This phenomenon has multiple air quality and climate forcing implications. Direct injection petrol engines feature a markedly different fuelling strategy, and so their emissions behaviour is somewhat different from indirect injection petrol engines. The excess emissions of direct injection engines at low ambient temperatures should also differ. Additionally, the direct injection fuel delivery process leads to the formation of PM, and DISI engines should show greater PM emissions at low ambient temperatures. This study reports on laboratory experiments quantifying excess emissions of gaseous and solid pollutants over a legislative driving cycle following cold start at a low ambient temperature for both engine types. Over the legislative cycle for testing at-7°C (the UDC), emissions of HC, CO, NOx and CO2 were higher when tested at-7°C than at 24°C. Massive increases in emissions of HC and CO were observed, together with more modest increases in NOx and CO2 emissions. Results from the entire driving cycle showed excess emissions in both phases (though they were much larger for the UDC). The DISI vehicle showed lower increases in fuel consumption than the port injected vehicles, but greater increases in emission of HC and CO. DISI particle number emissions increased by around 50%; DISI particle mass by over 600%. The observed emissions deteriorations varied somewhat by engine type and from vehicle to vehicle. Excesses were greatest following start-up, but persisted, even after several hundred seconds' driving. The temperature of the intake air appeared to have a limited but significant effect on emissions after the engine has been running for some time. All vehicles tested here comfortably met the relevant EU limits, providing further evidence that these limits are no longer challenging and need updating. © 2014 Archives of Environmental Protection. Source

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