BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd

Bielsko-Biała, Poland

BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd

Bielsko-Biała, Poland
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Jurasz Z.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd. | Adamaszek K.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd.
METAL 2015 - 24th International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

The corrosion behavior of four grades of valves steels i.e. X33CrNiMn23-8, X50CrMnNiNbN21-9, X33CrNiMnN23-8, X50CrMnNiNbN21-8, X53CrMnNiN20-8 and X55CrMnNiN20-8 in combustion gases of petrol with different of ethanol volume percentage has been studied. In this work, the results of kinetic oxidation of above mentioned valve steels in combustion gases of petrol-ethanol mix with 5,10, 50 % [v/v] of ethanol are presented. It has been found that increase of ethanol in a petrol-ethanol mix up to 50 % ethanol volume percentage decreases corrosion resistance of examined steels. The corrosion tests have been performed gravimetrically under thermal shock conditions by heating of specimens from room temperature up to 1173 K. After heating at 1173 K for two hours, specimens were quenching at room temperature for 20 minutes and again heated. This experiment simulated the working conditions of a highly thermal loaded exhaust valves in spark or self-ignited combustion engines. The analysis performed shows that the corrosion resistance of X50CrMnNiNbN21-9, X53CrMnNiN20-8 and X55CrMnNiN20-8 valve steels in an environment of combustion gases from petrol with 50 % ethanol additive (v/v) is significantly worse than in an environment of combustion gases of petrol-ethanol mix with 5 and 10 % [v/v] of ethanol.


Bialkowski P.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Krezel B.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd
Diagnostyka | Year: 2017

In this article an attempt to diagnose damage to the shock absorbers of a passenger car during road operation with the use of vibration response measurement has been described. Accelerometers were mounted on the body - sprung mass. Based on the recorded signals, FFT and Cross-Spectrum graphs were prepared. The test was performed for several variants shock absorber damage. The single-number index of vibration amplitude increase, in the range of resonance frequency, was calculated, based on spectrum analysis. The results are shown as graphs and tables, for different damage types. The realization of measurement and adopted method of damage diagnosis are described.


Grzesik Z.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Smola G.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Adamaszek K.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd. | Jurasz Z.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd. | Mrowec S.,AGH University of Science and Technology
Corrosion Science | Year: 2013

The corrosion of four valve steels (X33CrNiMn23-8, X50CrMnNiNbN21-9, X53CrMnNiN20-8 and X55CrMnNiN20-8) in combustion gases of petrol, containing different concentrations of ethanol (5, 10 and 50. wt.%) has been studied at 900. °C under thermal cycle conditions. It has been shown that the chemical composition, in particular chromium content, determines the corrosion resistance of these materials. The X33CrNiMn23-8 steel containing the highest chromium concentration does not virtually undergo corrosion, because of the formation of protective chromia scale. On the other hand, three remaining steels with lower chromium concentration undergo high temperature corrosion due to formation of heterogeneous scale with worse protective properties. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Bielaczyc P.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Woodburn J.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Szczotka A.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

Natural gas is one of the most promising alternative fuels to meet the upcoming stringent Euro 6 emissions regulations in the European Union, as well as the planned reductions in CO2 emissions. For spark-ignition engines, bi-fuel fuelling equipment is widely available and engine conversion technology for European automobiles is well established, thereby facilitating usage of natural gas in its compressed form (CNG). In light of the promising characteristics and increasing usage of natural gas as a vehicular fuel, this study investigates emissions from a passenger car featuring a spark-ignition engine capable of running on both CNG and standard gasoline. Results from emissions testing of the vehicle on a chassis dynamometer are presented and discussed in the context of the Euro 6 emissions requirements. The test vehicle featured a multipoint gas injection system and was an unmodified, commercially available European vehicle meeting the Euro 5 standard. The results indicated that when fueled with CNG, such a vehicle can comfortably meet Euro 6 emissions limits, with certain differences observed in the emissions according to the fuel type used. Furthermore, when running on CNG the vehicle was observed to emit considerably less carbon dioxide than when fueled with gasoline, with the reduction closely agreeing with the results of other studies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Bielaczyc P.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Szczotka A.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Woodburn J.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd
Archives of Environmental Protection | Year: 2014

SI engines are highly susceptible to excess emissions when started at low ambient temperatures. This phenomenon has multiple air quality and climate forcing implications. Direct injection petrol engines feature a markedly different fuelling strategy, and so their emissions behaviour is somewhat different from indirect injection petrol engines. The excess emissions of direct injection engines at low ambient temperatures should also differ. Additionally, the direct injection fuel delivery process leads to the formation of PM, and DISI engines should show greater PM emissions at low ambient temperatures. This study reports on laboratory experiments quantifying excess emissions of gaseous and solid pollutants over a legislative driving cycle following cold start at a low ambient temperature for both engine types. Over the legislative cycle for testing at-7°C (the UDC), emissions of HC, CO, NOx and CO2 were higher when tested at-7°C than at 24°C. Massive increases in emissions of HC and CO were observed, together with more modest increases in NOx and CO2 emissions. Results from the entire driving cycle showed excess emissions in both phases (though they were much larger for the UDC). The DISI vehicle showed lower increases in fuel consumption than the port injected vehicles, but greater increases in emission of HC and CO. DISI particle number emissions increased by around 50%; DISI particle mass by over 600%. The observed emissions deteriorations varied somewhat by engine type and from vehicle to vehicle. Excesses were greatest following start-up, but persisted, even after several hundred seconds' driving. The temperature of the intake air appeared to have a limited but significant effect on emissions after the engine has been running for some time. All vehicles tested here comfortably met the relevant EU limits, providing further evidence that these limits are no longer challenging and need updating. © 2014 Archives of Environmental Protection.


Faber J.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Brodzik K.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Golda-Kopek A.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Lomankiewicz D.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2013

Indoor air composition inside the cabins of five new vehicles was examined. Air pollution was assessed on the basis of determination of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, which were emitted from interior materials. Air samples were collected by active method onto a Carbograph 1TD. VOCs were analyzed using the TD-GC-FID/MS method. Presented results include concentrations of identified VOCs and three main group of compounds (aliphatic, aromatic, and cycloalkanes), as well as 18 target compounds and 10 main hydrocarbons, presented in vehicle interiors. It can be stated that interior air composition depended on materials used to finish the interior.


Bajerlein M.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Rymaniak L.,Poznan University of Technology
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

For city buses, the costs of operation and maintenance are critical in the overall purchase and operation cost analysis. That is why the scientists from the Institute of Combustion Engines and Transport have taken up the subject of economic balance on the example of urban public transport operators. For an objective assessment of the fuel consumption it is necessary to determine all the variables. Hence, driving tests are developed that characterize the actual operating conditions and stringent procedures of their realization are set out. The paper presents the results of the fuel consumption tests carried out on public transport buses (SORT - Standardized On-Road Tests Cycles). © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Faber J.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Brodzik K.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Golda-Kopek A.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd | Lomankiewicz D.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd
Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) | Year: 2013

The aim of this work was to determine the level of benzene, toluene, o-xylene and m, p-xylene (BTX) in air samples collected from the cabins of new and used vehicles of the same model. Ten new vehicles were examined in order to check interior emission from materials used to equip the passenger compartment. In order to compare and define the impact of exhaust gases, air samples were also collected from two used cars, at different mileages (up to 20,000 km). All vehicles tested were of the same type. Samples were collected onto Carbograph 1TD sorbent, thermally desorbed and examined with the use of gas chromatography with flame ionisation and mass spectrometry detectors. All results obtained were referred to Polish and German requirements for indoor air quality (both in public buildings and in workspace environments). Average benzene, toluene, o-xylene and m, p-xylene concentrations in new cars were determined at the level of 11.8 μg/m3, 82.7 μg/m3, 21.2 μg/m3 and 89.5 μg/m3, respectively. In the used cars, BTX concentration increased with increasing vehicle mileage. The most significant increase of BTX concentration was observed above 11,000 km mileage. © 2013.


Bielaczyc P.,Bosmal Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd. | Szczotka A.,Bosmal Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd. | Woodburn J.,Bosmal Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011

Due to limited fossil fuel resources and a need to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions, biofuel usage is increasing in multiple markets. Ethanol produced from the fermentation of biomass has been of interest as a potential partial replacement for petroleum for some time; for spark-ignition engines, bioethanol is the alternative fuel which is currently of greatest interest. At present, the international market for ethanol fuel consists of E85 fuel (with 85 percent ethanol content), as well as lower concentrations of ethanol in petrol for use in standard vehicles (E5, E10). The impact of different petrol-ethanol blends on exhaust emissions from unmodified vehicles remains under investigation. The potential for reduced exhaust emissions, improved security of fuel supply and more sustainable fuel production makes work on the production and usage of ethanol and its blends an increasingly important research topic. This paper evaluates the possibility of using petrol-ethanol blends in a modern Euro 4 vehicle without substantial engine modification. The influence of different quantities of ethanol in petrol blends (E5, E10, E25, E50 and E85) on the emission measurement of the gaseous pollutants carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) for a passenger car were analysed over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) on a chassis dynamometer. The results obtained revealed that exhaust emissions are affected by the proportion of ethanol in the blend. Engine out emissions of HC, CO and NOx were found to vary significantly with the blend used. Fuel injection time, engine-out and exhaust temperatures and the efficiency of the aftertreatment system were all also found to vary from blend to blend. Fuel consumption increased approximately in line with blend energetic content for all blends, apart from when running on E85. The experimental work presented in this paper was performed as part of a test program evaluating biofuels' influence on light-duty petrol engines for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. Copyright © 2011 SAE International.


Jurasz Z.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd. | Adamaszek K.,BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd.
METAL 2014 - 23rd International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2014

The corrosion resistance of widely used X50CrMnNiNbN21-9 high-alloyed austenite valve steel, in three different combustion gases have been compared. The comparison was performed on the basis of results of kinetic corrosion of the tested steel in combustion gases from propane-butane, gasoline with 5 and 10% of ethanol additives (v/v) and fuel oil with 5 and 10% of FAME additives (v/v). The corrosion test was performed gravimetrically under thermal shock conditions by heating samples of the test steels from room temperature up to 1173 K in exhaust gases from a combustion engine, and holding them at this temperature for 2 hs and then cooling at room temperature for about 25 min. Then, the same thermal shock was repeated. After every 10 to 20 such cycles the mass of the samples were measured. This experiment simulated the working conditions of a highly thermal loaded exhaust valves in spark or self-ignited combustion engines. The analysis performed shows that the corrosion resistance of X50CrMnNiNbN21-9 valve steel in an environment of combustion gases from propane-butane and gasoline with 5 and 10% of ethanol additives (v/v) is comparable, whereas significantly worse corrosion resistance was stated in an environment of combustion gases from fuel oil with 5 % and 10 % (v/v) of FAME additives.

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