Kolkata, India
Kolkata, India

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Kumar Dutta A.,Bose Institute of India
Annals of Hepatology | Year: 2013

Introduction. Indians are more likely to develop alcoholic cirrhosis compared to Caucasians, though the cause remains obscure. North Indians tend to consume more alcohol than other parts of the country. Genetic factors are likely to play a major role in these observations. This study investigated whether 10 different polymorphisms were associated with alcohol dependence and/or cirrhosis in North Indians. These were in ADH2*2 (rs1229984), ADH3*2 (rs698), CYP2E1*1D, CYP2E1*5 (rs3813867 and rs2031920), TNF-α (rs1800629), TNF-α (rs361525), IL-1β (rs3087258), CD-14 (rs2569190), IL-10 (rs1800872) and PNPLA3 (rs738409). Material and methods. Hundred healthy controls and 120 chronic alcoholics (60 alcoholic noncirrhotics and 60 alcoholic cirrhotics) attending various departments of PGIMER, Chandigarh were genotyped using PCR-RFLP methods. Results. Alcoholic cirrhotics compared to healthy individuals demonstrated a statistically significant increase in PNPLA3 (10109G) allele (p = 0.037, OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.29-3.4). Rest of the associations were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Conclusion. PNPLA3 10109G predisposed North Indian subjects to alcoholic cirrhosis.

Bandyopadhyay S.,Bose Institute of India
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

Quantum information is nonlocal in the sense that local measurements on a composite quantum system, prepared in one of many mutually orthogonal states, may not reveal in which state the system was prepared. It is shown that in the many copy limit this kind of nonlocality is fundamentally different for pure and mixed quantum states. In particular, orthogonal mixed states may not be distinguishable by local operations and classical communication, no matter how many copies are supplied, whereas any set of N orthogonal pure states can be perfectly discriminated with m copies, where m

Podder S.,Bose Institute of India | Ghosh T.C.,Bose Institute of India
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2010

Comparative analyses on disease and nondisease (ND) genes have greatly facilitated the understanding of human diseases. However, most studies have grouped all the disease genes together and have performed comparative analyses with other ND genes. Thus, the molecular mechanism of disease on which disease genes can be separated into monogenic and polygenic diseases (MDs and PDs) has been ignored in earlier studies. Here, we report a comprehensive study of PD and MD genes with respect to ND genes. Our work shows that MD genes are more conserved than PD genes and that ND genes are themselves more conserved than both classes of disease genes. By separating the ND genes into housekeeping and other genes, it was found that housekeeping genes are the most conserved among all categories of genes, whereas other ND genes show an evolutionary rate intermediate between MD and PD genes. Although PD genes have a higher number of interacting partners than MD and ND genes, the reasons for their higher evolutionary rate require explanation. We provide evidences that the faster evolutionary rate of PD genes is influenced by 1) the predominance of date hubs in protein-protein interaction network, 2) the higher number of disorder residues, 3) the lower expression level, and 4) the involvement with more regulatory processes. Logistic regression analysis suggests that the relative importance of the four individual factors in determining the evolutionary rate variation among the four classes of proteins is in the order of mRNA expression level > presence of party/date hubs > disorder > involvement of proteins in core/regulatory processes. © The Author 2009.

Rashid K.,Bose Institute of India | Sil P.C.,Bose Institute of India
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The phytochemical, curcumin, has been reported to play many beneficial roles. However, under diabetic conditions, the detail mechanism of its beneficial action in the glucose homeostasis regulatory organ, pancreas, is poorly understood. The present study has been designed and carried out to explore the role of curcumin in the pancreatic tissue of STZ induced and cellular stress mediated diabetes in eight weeks old male Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of STZ (65. mg/kg body weight). Post to diabetes induction, animals were treated with curcumin at a dose of 100. mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanism was determined using various biochemical assays, DNA fragmentation, FACS, histology, immunoblotting and ELISA. Treatment with curcumin reduced blood glucose level, increased plasma insulin and mitigated oxidative stress related markers. In vivo and in vitro experimental results revealed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL1-β and IFN-γ), reduced level of cellular defense proteins (Nrf-2 and HO-1) and glucose transporter (GLUT-2) along with enhanced levels of signaling molecules of ER stress dependent and independent apoptosis (cleaved Caspase-12/9/8/3) in STZ administered group. Treatment with curcumin ameliorated all the adverse changes and helps the organ back to its normal physiology. Results suggest that curcumin protects pancreatic beta-cells by attenuating inflammatory responses, and inhibiting ER/mitochondrial dependent and independent pathways of apoptosis and crosstalk between them. This uniqueness and absence of any detectable adverse effect proposes the possibility of using this molecule as an effective protector in the cellular stress mediated diabetes mellitus. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Bandyopadhyay S.,Bose Institute of India
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

We consider the problem of unambiguous (error-free) discrimination of N linearly independent pure quantum states with prior probabilities, where the goal is to find a measurement that maximizes the average probability of success. We derive an upper bound on the optimal average probability of success using a result on optimal local conversion between two bipartite pure states. We prove that for any N≥2 an optimal measurement in general saturates our bound. In the exceptional cases we show that the bound is tight, but not always optimal. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Bandyopadhyay S.,Bose Institute of India
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

It is shown that local distinguishability of orthogonal mixed states can be completely characterized by the local distinguishability of their supports irrespective of entanglement and mixedness of the states. This leads to two kinds of upper bounds on the number of locally distinguishable orthogonal mixed states. The first one depends only on pure-state entanglement within the supports of the states and therefore may be easy to compute in many instances. The second bound is optimal in the sense that it optimizes the bounding quantities, not necessarily the function of entanglement alone, over all orthogonal mixed-state ensembles (satisfying certain conditions) admissible within the supports of the density matrices. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Roy S.,Bose Institute of India
Systems and Synthetic Biology | Year: 2012

Modeling and topological analysis of networks in biological and other complex systems, must venture beyond the limited consideration of very few network metrics like degree, betweenness or assortativity. A proper identification of informative and redundant entities from many different metrics, using recently demonstrated techniques, is essential. A holistic comparison of networks and growth models is best achieved only with the use of such methods. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxic effect of arsenic (As) is mainly due to the depletion of glutathione (GSH) in liver. Taurine, on the other hand, enhances intracellular production of GSH. Little is known about the mechanism of the beneficial role of taurine in As-induced hepatic pathophysiology. Therefore, in the present study we investigated its beneficial role in As-induced hepatic cell death via mitochondria-mediated pathway. Rats were exposed to NaAsO(2) (2 mg/kg body weight for 6 months) and the hepatic tissue was used for oxidative stress measurements. In addition, the pathophysiologic effect of NaAsO(2) (10 microM) on hepatocytes was evaluated by determining cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS generation. As caused mitochondrial injury by increased oxidative stress and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL/Bad, Bax, Bim in association with increased level of Apaf-1, activation of caspase 9/3, cleavage of PARP protein and ultimately led to apoptotic cell death. In addition, As markedly increased JNK and p38 phosphorylation with minimal disturbance of ERK. Pre-exposure of hepatocytes to a JNK inhibitor SP600125 prevented As-induced caspase-3 activation, ROS production and loss in cell viability. Pre-exposure of hepatocytes to a p38 inhibitor SB2035, on the other hand, had practically no effect on these events. Besides, As activated PKCdelta and pre-treatment of hepatocytes with its inhibitor, rottlerin, suppressed the activation of JNK indicating that PKCdelta is involved in As-induced JNK activation and mitochondrial dependent apoptosis. Oral administration of taurine (50 mg/kg body weight for 2 weeks) both pre and post to NaAsO(2) exposure or incubation of the hepatocytes with taurine (25 mM) were found to be effective in counteracting As-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Results indicate that taurine treatment improved As-induced hepatic damages by inhibiting PKCdelta-JNK signalling pathways. Therefore taurine supplementation could provide a new approach for the reduction of hepatic complication due to arsenic poisoning.

Basu J.,Bose Institute of India
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology | Year: 2012

Studies over the past decade have helped to decipher molecular networks dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, in mycobacteria-infected macrophages. Stimulation of TLRs by mycobacteria and their antigenic components rapidly induces intracellular signaling cascades involved in the activation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, which play important roles in orchestrating proinflammatory responses and innate defense through generation of a variety of antimicrobial effector molecules. Recent studies have provided evidence that mycobacterial TLR-signaling cross talks with other intracellular antimicrobial innate pathways, the autophagy process and functional vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling. In this article we describe recent advances in the recognition, responses, and regulation of mycobacterial signaling through TLRs.

BACKGROUND: Vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri Race 1 (Foc1) is a serious disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) accounting for approximately 10-15% annual crop loss. The fungus invades the plant via roots, colonizes the xylem vessels and prevents the upward translocation of water and nutrients, finally resulting in wilting of the entire plant. Although comparative transcriptomic profiling have highlighted some important signaling molecules, but proteomic studies involving chickpea-Foc1 are limited. The present study focuses on comparative root proteomics of susceptible (JG62) and resistant (WR315) chickpea genotypes infected with Foc1, to understand the mechanistic basis of susceptibility and/or resistance.RESULTS: The differential and unique proteins of both genotypes were identified at 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h post Foc1 inoculation. 2D PAGE analyses followed by MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS identified 100 differentially (>1.5 fold<, p<0.05) or uniquely expressed proteins. These proteins were further categorized into 10 functional classes and grouped into GO (gene ontology) categories. Network analyses of identified proteins revealed intra and inter relationship of these proteins with their neighbors as well as their association with different defense signaling pathways. qRT-PCR analyses were performed to correlate the mRNA and protein levels of some proteins of representative classes.CONCLUSIONS: The differential and unique proteins identified indicate their involvement in early defense signaling of the host. Comparative analyses of expression profiles of obtained proteins suggest that albeit some common components participate in early defense signaling in both susceptible and resistant genotypes, but their roles and regulation differ in case of compatible and/or incompatible interactions. Thus, functional characterization of identified PR proteins (PR1, BGL2, TLP), Trypsin protease inhibitor, ABA responsive protein, cysteine protease, protein disulphide isomerase, ripening related protein and albumins are expected to serve as important molecular components for biotechnological application and development of sustainable resistance against Foc1.

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