Bose Institute of India

Kolkata, India

Bose Institute of India

Kolkata, India
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Das J.,Bose Institute of India | Vasan V.,Bose Institute of India | Sil P.C.,Bose Institute of India
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120. mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Bhunia A.,Bose Institute of India | Bhattacharjya S.,Nanyang Technological University | Chatterjee S.,Bose Institute of India
Drug Discovery Today | Year: 2012

The method of saturation transfer difference (STD) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an indispensable NMR tool in drug discovery. It identifies binding epitope(s) at the atomic resolution of small molecule ligands (e.g. organic drugs, peptides and oligosaccharides), while interacting with their receptors, such as proteins and/or nucleic acids. The method is widely used to screen active drug molecules, simultaneously ranking them in a qualitative way. STD NMR is highly successful for a variety of high molecular weight systems, such as whole viruses, platelets, intact cells, lipopolysaccharide micelles, membrane proteins, recombinant proteins and dispersion pigments. Modifications of STD pulse programs using 13C and 15N nuclei are now used to overcome the signal overlapping that occurs with more complex structures. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kumar Dutta A.,Bose Institute of India
Annals of Hepatology | Year: 2013

Introduction. Indians are more likely to develop alcoholic cirrhosis compared to Caucasians, though the cause remains obscure. North Indians tend to consume more alcohol than other parts of the country. Genetic factors are likely to play a major role in these observations. This study investigated whether 10 different polymorphisms were associated with alcohol dependence and/or cirrhosis in North Indians. These were in ADH2*2 (rs1229984), ADH3*2 (rs698), CYP2E1*1D, CYP2E1*5 (rs3813867 and rs2031920), TNF-α (rs1800629), TNF-α (rs361525), IL-1β (rs3087258), CD-14 (rs2569190), IL-10 (rs1800872) and PNPLA3 (rs738409). Material and methods. Hundred healthy controls and 120 chronic alcoholics (60 alcoholic noncirrhotics and 60 alcoholic cirrhotics) attending various departments of PGIMER, Chandigarh were genotyped using PCR-RFLP methods. Results. Alcoholic cirrhotics compared to healthy individuals demonstrated a statistically significant increase in PNPLA3 (10109G) allele (p = 0.037, OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.29-3.4). Rest of the associations were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Conclusion. PNPLA3 10109G predisposed North Indian subjects to alcoholic cirrhosis.

Bandyopadhyay S.,Bose Institute of India
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

Quantum information is nonlocal in the sense that local measurements on a composite quantum system, prepared in one of many mutually orthogonal states, may not reveal in which state the system was prepared. It is shown that in the many copy limit this kind of nonlocality is fundamentally different for pure and mixed quantum states. In particular, orthogonal mixed states may not be distinguishable by local operations and classical communication, no matter how many copies are supplied, whereas any set of N orthogonal pure states can be perfectly discriminated with m copies, where m

Rashid K.,Bose Institute of India | Sil P.C.,Bose Institute of India
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The phytochemical, curcumin, has been reported to play many beneficial roles. However, under diabetic conditions, the detail mechanism of its beneficial action in the glucose homeostasis regulatory organ, pancreas, is poorly understood. The present study has been designed and carried out to explore the role of curcumin in the pancreatic tissue of STZ induced and cellular stress mediated diabetes in eight weeks old male Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of STZ (65. mg/kg body weight). Post to diabetes induction, animals were treated with curcumin at a dose of 100. mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanism was determined using various biochemical assays, DNA fragmentation, FACS, histology, immunoblotting and ELISA. Treatment with curcumin reduced blood glucose level, increased plasma insulin and mitigated oxidative stress related markers. In vivo and in vitro experimental results revealed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL1-β and IFN-γ), reduced level of cellular defense proteins (Nrf-2 and HO-1) and glucose transporter (GLUT-2) along with enhanced levels of signaling molecules of ER stress dependent and independent apoptosis (cleaved Caspase-12/9/8/3) in STZ administered group. Treatment with curcumin ameliorated all the adverse changes and helps the organ back to its normal physiology. Results suggest that curcumin protects pancreatic beta-cells by attenuating inflammatory responses, and inhibiting ER/mitochondrial dependent and independent pathways of apoptosis and crosstalk between them. This uniqueness and absence of any detectable adverse effect proposes the possibility of using this molecule as an effective protector in the cellular stress mediated diabetes mellitus. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Bandyopadhyay S.,Bose Institute of India
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

We consider the problem of unambiguous (error-free) discrimination of N linearly independent pure quantum states with prior probabilities, where the goal is to find a measurement that maximizes the average probability of success. We derive an upper bound on the optimal average probability of success using a result on optimal local conversion between two bipartite pure states. We prove that for any N≥2 an optimal measurement in general saturates our bound. In the exceptional cases we show that the bound is tight, but not always optimal. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Bandyopadhyay S.,Bose Institute of India
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

It is shown that local distinguishability of orthogonal mixed states can be completely characterized by the local distinguishability of their supports irrespective of entanglement and mixedness of the states. This leads to two kinds of upper bounds on the number of locally distinguishable orthogonal mixed states. The first one depends only on pure-state entanglement within the supports of the states and therefore may be easy to compute in many instances. The second bound is optimal in the sense that it optimizes the bounding quantities, not necessarily the function of entanglement alone, over all orthogonal mixed-state ensembles (satisfying certain conditions) admissible within the supports of the density matrices. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Roy S.,Bose Institute of India
Systems and Synthetic Biology | Year: 2012

Modeling and topological analysis of networks in biological and other complex systems, must venture beyond the limited consideration of very few network metrics like degree, betweenness or assortativity. A proper identification of informative and redundant entities from many different metrics, using recently demonstrated techniques, is essential. A holistic comparison of networks and growth models is best achieved only with the use of such methods. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxic effect of arsenic (As) is mainly due to the depletion of glutathione (GSH) in liver. Taurine, on the other hand, enhances intracellular production of GSH. Little is known about the mechanism of the beneficial role of taurine in As-induced hepatic pathophysiology. Therefore, in the present study we investigated its beneficial role in As-induced hepatic cell death via mitochondria-mediated pathway. Rats were exposed to NaAsO(2) (2 mg/kg body weight for 6 months) and the hepatic tissue was used for oxidative stress measurements. In addition, the pathophysiologic effect of NaAsO(2) (10 microM) on hepatocytes was evaluated by determining cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS generation. As caused mitochondrial injury by increased oxidative stress and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL/Bad, Bax, Bim in association with increased level of Apaf-1, activation of caspase 9/3, cleavage of PARP protein and ultimately led to apoptotic cell death. In addition, As markedly increased JNK and p38 phosphorylation with minimal disturbance of ERK. Pre-exposure of hepatocytes to a JNK inhibitor SP600125 prevented As-induced caspase-3 activation, ROS production and loss in cell viability. Pre-exposure of hepatocytes to a p38 inhibitor SB2035, on the other hand, had practically no effect on these events. Besides, As activated PKCdelta and pre-treatment of hepatocytes with its inhibitor, rottlerin, suppressed the activation of JNK indicating that PKCdelta is involved in As-induced JNK activation and mitochondrial dependent apoptosis. Oral administration of taurine (50 mg/kg body weight for 2 weeks) both pre and post to NaAsO(2) exposure or incubation of the hepatocytes with taurine (25 mM) were found to be effective in counteracting As-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Results indicate that taurine treatment improved As-induced hepatic damages by inhibiting PKCdelta-JNK signalling pathways. Therefore taurine supplementation could provide a new approach for the reduction of hepatic complication due to arsenic poisoning.

BACKGROUND: Vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri Race 1 (Foc1) is a serious disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) accounting for approximately 10-15% annual crop loss. The fungus invades the plant via roots, colonizes the xylem vessels and prevents the upward translocation of water and nutrients, finally resulting in wilting of the entire plant. Although comparative transcriptomic profiling have highlighted some important signaling molecules, but proteomic studies involving chickpea-Foc1 are limited. The present study focuses on comparative root proteomics of susceptible (JG62) and resistant (WR315) chickpea genotypes infected with Foc1, to understand the mechanistic basis of susceptibility and/or resistance.RESULTS: The differential and unique proteins of both genotypes were identified at 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h post Foc1 inoculation. 2D PAGE analyses followed by MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS identified 100 differentially (>1.5 fold<, p<0.05) or uniquely expressed proteins. These proteins were further categorized into 10 functional classes and grouped into GO (gene ontology) categories. Network analyses of identified proteins revealed intra and inter relationship of these proteins with their neighbors as well as their association with different defense signaling pathways. qRT-PCR analyses were performed to correlate the mRNA and protein levels of some proteins of representative classes.CONCLUSIONS: The differential and unique proteins identified indicate their involvement in early defense signaling of the host. Comparative analyses of expression profiles of obtained proteins suggest that albeit some common components participate in early defense signaling in both susceptible and resistant genotypes, but their roles and regulation differ in case of compatible and/or incompatible interactions. Thus, functional characterization of identified PR proteins (PR1, BGL2, TLP), Trypsin protease inhibitor, ABA responsive protein, cysteine protease, protein disulphide isomerase, ripening related protein and albumins are expected to serve as important molecular components for biotechnological application and development of sustainable resistance against Foc1.

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