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Sarpsborg, Norway

Danner T.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Justnes H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Justnes H.,Sintef | Geiker M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Lauten R.A.,Borregaard
Cement and Concrete Research | Year: 2015

The influence of two Ca-lignosulfonates (LS), one softwood (LSs) and one hardwood (LSh) based, on the phase changes during the early hydration of ordinary Portland cements was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, in-situ XRD, and thermal analysis. In the presence of LS the hydration of C3S and C3A was retarded. LS was found to influence the solubility of the sulphate phase; in case of bassanite/gypsum the initial dissolution was accelerated. An acceleration of the initial ettringite formation was observed in the presence of LS. However, the second ettringite formation was retarded. The amounts of bound water (H) and calcium hydroxide (CH) formed were measured using TG/DTG on cement pastes hydrated for 90 min, 5, 12 and 24 h. At 90 min the amount of H was increased the higher the concentration of LS. The amount of CH formed between 5-24 h was decreased the higher the concentration of LS. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Ding P.,University of Birmingham | Garrett M.,Queens University of Belfast | Loe O.,Borregaard | Nienow A.W.,University of Birmingham | Pacek A.W.,University of Birmingham
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2012

The production of vanillin from sodium lignosulfonate under highly alkaline conditions, catalyzed by Cu 2+ and at elevated temperature and pressures, has been studied in two sizes of stirred reactors. The larger reactor (3 L) was operated in both the dead end and the gas throughflow modes; the sparged gas was nitrogen and "simulated air" in the former case and air in the latter. The smaller reactor (300 mL) was only operated in the batch mode with oxygen. In the 3 L reactor, with nitrogen gas alone in the dead end mode, vanillin was produced by hydrolysis. With the other conditions, both hydrolysis and oxidation occurred and the amount of vanillin produced was greater. In addition, for the first time since this process was first introduced in 1936, the composition of the gas phase produced by the reaction was investigated, too. The measurements were made on samples taken from the headspace of the 300 mL batch reactor and the headspace of the 3 L reactor in the dead end mode and in the exhaust gases in the throughflow mode. It was found that, whenever vanillin was produced, hydrogen was detected in the gas phase. In the 3 L reactor in the dead end mode, the amount of H 2 formed was so great (?7% by volume) in the case of "simulated air" that the production of vanillin ceased as no further air (oxygen) was able to enter the reactor. In the throughflow mode, the concentration of hydrogen detected in the exit gas was much lower as it was flushed out in the exhaust. As a result of the different levels of oxygen and hydrogen in the reactor in the dead end and throughflow modes, the amount of vanillin produced was greater in the latter case. Thus, it is difficult to use studies in the dead end mode to predict the behavior in throughflow, the mode generally used industrially. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Danner T.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Justnes H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Justnes H.,Sintef | Geiker M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Lauten R.A.,Borregaard
Cement and Concrete Research | Year: 2016

The early age phase development during the hydration of C3A-gypsum pastes with 1 and 4% Ca- or Na-lignosulfonate (CLS and NLS) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, in-situ XRD, thermogravimetry, mass spectroscopy, and SEM analysis. With 1% CLS or NLS neither retardation of C3A dissolution nor retardation of ettringite formation was observed. When LS was added in a concentration of 4%, C3A and gypsum dissolution were slightly retarded. Gypsum depletion was delayed in all pastes containing CLS or NLS. 1% CLS or NLS increased the amount of AFm-phases formed within 24 h, while the amount of AFm was reduced with 4% CLS or NLS. The initial heat flow increased and the heat flow in the gypsum depletion peak was reduced with 1 and 4% CLS. With 4% NLS no initial heat flow was measured and the heat developed slowly within the first 15 min of hydration in the C3A-gypsum paste. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Jonsson L.J.,Umea University | Alriksson B.,Processum Biorefinery Initiative AB | Nilvebrant N.-O.,Borregaard
Biotechnology for Biofuels | Year: 2013

Bioconversion of lignocellulose by microbial fermentation is typically preceded by an acidic thermochemical pretreatment step designed to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Substances formed during the pretreatment of the lignocellulosic feedstock inhibit enzymatic hydrolysis as well as microbial fermentation steps. This review focuses on inhibitors from lignocellulosic feedstocks and how conditioning of slurries and hydrolysates can be used to alleviate inhibition problems. Novel developments in the area include chemical in-situ detoxification by using reducing agents, and methods that improve the performance of both enzymatic and microbial biocatalysts. © 2013 Jonsson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

News Article
Site: phys.org

According to the OECD, bioeconomics will represent the guiding principle of the European economy by 2055. This means that focus will be centred on the production and transformation of renewable biological resources from the agricultural, forestry and marine aquaculture sectors, and biomass will represent the major source of raw materials. If the experts are to be believed, we are in many ways on the brink of a new industrial revolution. The Norwegian government is currently developing a national strategy in this field, and researchers will now be carrying out fundamental analytical work aimed at promoting a higher level of sustainable innovation in Norway. "As part of the Biosmart project we'll be carrying out a futures analysis to identify stakeholders and others that will play a part in a bioeconomy, and to find out where the various resources will be found", says Magnar Forbord at the Norwegian Centre for Rural Research (NCRR). "If such ideas are to be profitable, we'll have to start thinking in terms of coordination and industrial clusters", adds Vibeke Stærkebye Nørstebø at SINTEF. "An incredible amount of marine and land-based resources currently remain unexploited because no-one is facilitating their development", she says. The idea of using resources derived from nature is nothing new to Norwegians, who have always exploited their natural resources. And this is set to continue. Exploitation will be smarter, and value will be added by means of refining processes and innovative applications. For example, the company Borregaard manufactured paper and paper products from timber for many years. In the course of a 20-year period, the company has succeeded in developing a range of high-value products from tree components that were previously regarded as waste. These products are currently making a significant contribution to the company's revenues. Another example is the company Biokraft Skogn, which was established in connection with Norske Skog's paper factory. The company manufactures liquid biogas from biological waste derived from the fish farming and forestry sectors. Among other things, the gas is used as fuel for public transport buses in Trondheim. "These examples could be among the first of many", says Forbord. "Biomass is made up of trees, grass and different varieties of seaweed, as well as foodstuffs such as fish, maize, meat and milk. What we currently regard as unwanted remains and waste can be transformed into new products which will subsequently contribute towards a new, biologically-based, industrial sector. Over the three-year project period, researchers from the NCRR, SINTEF, NIBIO, NTNU and Norut, as well as a number of international research institutes, will be working with a total of eleven topics or so-called 'work packages'. Furthermore, a series of scientific studies will be carried out looking into issues such as biotechnological transitions, legal rights, and the levels and scope at which wealth generation can be anticipated. The researchers are now starting a survey of 1500 companies in the agricultural, forestry, fisheries, industrial and bioscience sectors to find out what they envisage for themselves in the future. What do they currently us resources for, and what are their views on opportunities for change? When all the data have been collected, the researchers will hopefully have acquired a picture of where resources such as forests, maize and fisheries products are produced, where the people with the know-how are located, and what kind of products it might be possible to develop. With this as a springboard, it will be possible to develop projects and manufacturing processes that bring together economics, resource exploitation, levels of expertise and acceptance within the community as an integrated whole. "All bio-resources will be mapped and set in the context of the local population, transport networks, existing industries and suchlike", says Nørstebø. "This will provide a basis for identifying where it may be feasible to locate the industrial clusters", she says. "We'll need different sectors to work together, and this means breaking down the current barriers between the agricultural, forestry and aquaculture sectors. There are many questions", she says. "For example, where will the industries establish themselves, and what products should they focus on? What resources will supply the input and what will the products be? For example, will waste products be used at locations other than those at which they are produced? Where can we establish an integrated industrial cluster, and which companies should participate?" says Nørstebø. One of the work packages will address the issues of innovation, regulatory frameworks, and the policies the public authorities should adopt in terms of resource allocation and regulations. Another project will be a comparative study involving Norway, New Zealand and Germany. "This will be carried out in order to understand how societies change at national level", explains Forbord. "It's vital to look into what factors may act as incentives for change towards a bioeconomy," he says.

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