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Bozkurt M.,Poultry Research Institute | Aysul N.,Adnan Menderes University | Kucukyilmaz K.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University | Aypak S.,Adnan Menderes University | And 6 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2014

The efficacies of 5 widely used dietary supplements were investigated on performance indices, fecal oocyst excretion, lesion score, and intestinal tract measurements in healthy and Eimeria spp.-infected birds by using a comparative model. This study included 2,400 sexed Ross 308 broiler chicks that were equally divided in 2 groups: the infected group, experimentally infected with oocysts of mixed Eimeria spp. at 14 d of age, and the healthy controls. The birds in both groups were further divided equally into 6 groups, of which one was fed a basal diet and served as control without treatment and the other 5 served as experimental treatments. These 5 groups were fed 5 diets containing preparations of 60 mg/kg of anticoccidial salinomycin (SAL), 1 g/kg of multienzyme (ENZ), 1 g/kg of probiotic (PRO), 1 g/kg of prebiotic (PRE), and 40 mg/kg of an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM). Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed significant improvement in the infected animals, which indicates that dietary supplemental regimens with SAL, ENZ, PRO, and PRE initiated in 1-d-old chicks reduced adverse effects after challenge with coccidiosis; however, chicks that were administered EOM failed to show such improvement. Uninfected chickens showed significant improvement in FCR with supplements SAL, PRE, and EOM, which signifies significant (P < 0.01) infection by supplement interactions for BW gain and FCR. In the infected group, all of the supplements reduced the severity of coccidiosis lesions (P < 0.01) induced by mixed Eimeria spp. through the middle and lower regions of the small intestines, whereas supplementation with SAL or EOM alone was effective (P < 0.01) in reducing oocyst excretion compared with the control treatment. The data indicated that use of these subtherapeutically efficacious supplements (except EOM) in broiler production can lessen the depression in growth due to coccidial challenge. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source


Avsever M.L.,Bornova Veterinary Control Institute | U n C.,Ege University
Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists | Year: 2015

Vibrio anguillarum, is the cause of haemorrhagic septicemia in marine and freshwater fish of various ages. Losses caused by this disease are among the most important problems in the Turkish aquaculture sector. This study characterised 51 V. anguillarum isolates obtained from sea bass, sea bream and alternative marine species cultivated in the Aegean region between 2006-2013. Isolates were identified with conventional bacteriological methods, confirmed with PCR and analysed for the presence of hemolysin genes (vah 1-5) using a multiplex PCR. Based on whole cell O antigen serotyping, a total of 42 isolates were serotype O1 and 9 serotype O2. The prevalence of hemolysin genes were found to be 72.54% for vah 1, 100% for vah 2, 86.27% for vah 3, 82.35% for vah 4 and 17.64% for vah 5 respectively. Variation in serotype did not necessarily correlate with genotype. In particular, distribution of prevalence of vah genes appeared to somewhat independent of serotype, with differing numbers of hemolysin genes (vah 2,3 in 1 isolate; vah 3,4 in 1 isolate; vah 2, 4 in 3 isolates; vah 1,2,3,4 in 4 isolates) found in the 9 V. anguillarum (O 2) isolates. This data provides a useful indication of the phenotypic and genetic diversity of the V. anguillarum isolates circulating in farmed marine fish reared in the Aegean region. © 2015, FRS Marine Laboratory. All rights reserved. Source


In this study, infectious bronchitis (IB)-suspect problems were observed in 2 broiler and 8 breeder chicken flocks vaccinated with H120 strain, and a total of 220 tracheal swabs were taken from 60 broiler chickens of 2 flocks (30 swabs/flock), and 160 breeder chickens of 8 flocks (20 swabs/flock) to detect infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and to isolate IBV from chickens showing respiratory sings and nephritis lesions. Detection of 8 Turkish IBVs from the tracheal swab samples directly by RT-PCR was confirmed by both IBV isolation from allantoic fluids of embryonated eggs and by the same RT-PCRs from these samples. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) results revealed that all 8 sequences from our Turkish IBV isolates were related to that of EU780077 (IS/1494/06 IBV strain) with a 99% identity. Phylogenetic and alignment analyses of the sequences of two representative isolates as TR_IS1494_06_B12011 from one broiler flock and TR_1494_06_7201 from one breeder flock also confirmed this close relation to IS/1494/06 IBV genotype. As a result, Turkish IBVs have been isolated for the first time from chickens, which were not protected from IB despite IBV H120 strain vaccination, and genotyped as IS/1494/06 in Turkey suggesting the transfer of this IBV from the countries of Middle East. Source


Avci H.,Adnan Menderes University | Birincioglu S.S.,Adnan Menderes University | Tanrikul T.T.,Ege University | Epikmen E.T.,Adnan Menderes University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to induce Lactococcus garvieae infection in young and adult fish through different routes [intraperitoneal (IP) and immersion (IM)] and to investigate the pathogenesis and histopathological and immunohistochemical findings comparatively. For this purpose, a total of 180 rainbow trout (90 young, 20 ± 5 g and 90 adult, 80 ± 10 g) obtained from a commercial fish farm were used. The fish were divided into eight groups, four experimental groups (Young-Adult IP groups and Young-Adult IM groups, each contain 30 fish) and four control groups (Young-Adult IP Control groups and Young-Adult IM control groups, each contain 15 fishes). The experimental study was conducted using L. garvieae, and confirmatory identification was performed by PCR. The sequence result of the PCR amplicon of 16S rDNA from isolate L. garvieae LAC1 was determined and deposited in the GenBank database under accession number KC883976. Fish in the IP groups were intraperitoneally administered an inoculate containing 106 cfu mL-1 bacteria 0.1 mL. In the IM groups, fish were kept in inoculated water containing 108 cfu mL-1 bacteria for 20 min. Mortality as well as clinical and pathological findings was recorded daily, and significant differences in macroscopic and microscopic results were observed between the IP and IM administration groups. All tissue samples were immunohistochemically stained by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and immunofluorescence (IF) methods using polyclonal antibody to detect L. garvieae antigens. In immunoperoxidase staining in the IP groups, positive reactions to bacterial antigens were most commonly seen in the spleen, kidney, heart, liver, peritoneum and swim bladder. In the IM groups, bacterial antigens were most commonly found in the eye, gill, spleen and kidney. In the IF method, the distribution of antigens in tissue and organs was similar to the reactions with immunoperoxidase staining. Finally, in this experimental study, an important correlation was seen between the distribution of L. garvieae antigens and lesions developing in many organ and tissues. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Avsever M.L.,Bornova Veterinary Control Institute | Tunalgil S.,Suleyman Demirel University of Turkey | Didinen B.I.,Bornova Veterinary Control Institute | Metin S.,Bornova Veterinary Control Institute
Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh | Year: 2015

In this work, 51 V. anguillarum isolates (42/51 of O1 serotype, 9/51 of O2) obtained from cultivated marine fish by Avsever and Ün (2015) were used. These isolates were confirmed with universal primers specific to amiB genes. They were also detected successfully at a rate of 100% with a new primer couple designed according to 16S ribosomal RNA sequence. The new primers were found to have a high sensitivity and specificity but were liable to give a cross-reaction with Vibrio ordalii. © 2015, Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh. All rights reserved. Source

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