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Sabak Bernam, Malaysia

Veron G.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Patou M.-L.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Debruyne R.,French Natural History Museum | Couloux A.,Center National Of Sequencage | And 5 more authors.
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society

Although recent molecular studies have clarified the phylogeny of mongooses, the systematics of the Southeast Asian species was incomplete as the collared mongoose Urva semitorquata and some debatable taxa (Hose's mongoose, Palawan mongoose) were missing in the analyses. We sequenced three mitochondrial (cytochrome b, ND2, control region) and one nuclear (beta-fibrinogen intron 7) fragments of the Southeast Asian mongooses to clarify the systematic position of the different species and populations occurring in this region. Our results showed that the collared mongoose is closely related to the crab-eating mongoose Urva urva, these two species forming a sister-group to the short-tailed mongoose Urva brachyura. Despite Sumatran collared mongooses having a peculiar orange phenotype, we showed that they exhibited very little genetic divergence to individuals from Borneo. In contrast, the populations of the short-tailed mongoose from Borneo were strongly divergent to those from Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra, and these might represent separate species. Within the crab-eating mongoose, we observed little geographical genetic structure. Our study suggests that Hose's mongoose is not a valid species. The Palawan mongooses did not cluster with the other populations of the short-tailed mongoose; they were closer to the collared mongoose and should be included in this species. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London. Source

Gitzen R.A.,Auburn University | Belant J.L.,Mississippi State University | Millspaugh J.J.,University of Missouri | Wong S.T.,Bornean Sun Bear Conservation Center | And 2 more authors.
Raffles Bulletin of Zoology

Radiotelemetry has become one of the most valuable fi eld techniques in wildlife ecology because it allows biologists to collect location and other data remotely. This method is an especially important tool for studying the behaviour and demography of species that are often secretive, traverse large areas, and occur at low densities. Although use of radiotelemetry for studying tropical carnivores has been limited, this is changing rapidly. However, to maximise the value of radiotelemetry for learning about and managing tropical carnivores, biologists need to understand this technique and important considerations in its application. Radiotelemetry studies can provide useful information when biologists clearly articulate their objectives, carefully select study designs, evaluate important assumptions, apply appropriate analytical methods, and interpret the results properly. The choice of equipment and methods often must consider challenges such as remote study areas dominated by dense vegetation. Appropriate methods of attaching transmitters are critical, as is the assumption that transmitters have no signifi cant effects on study animals. The development of GPS radiotelemetry allows investigators to examine movements at high resolution, but VHF systems often remain the most appropriate or only feasible option for many studies of tropical carnivores. Methods for analysing radiotelemetry data also have expanded greatly in sophistication and explanatory power. Some of the most important analytical developments are in the shift from simple descriptive statistical approaches to process-based models that directly incorporate mechanistic hypotheses. Throughout this overview, we outline general advantages and disadvantages of various study options and emphasise the importance of testing key biological and methodological assumptions appropriate for each technique at all stages in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of radio-tracking data. © National University of Singapore. Source

Veron G.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Willsch M.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research | Dacosta V.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Patou M.-L.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | And 8 more authors.
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society

The Malay civet Viverra tangalunga Gray, 1832 is a fairly large viverrid that has a wide distribution in both the Sundaic and Wallacea regions of Southeast Asia. We investigated the genetic diversity of V.tangalunga by analysing the mitochondrial DNA of 81 individuals throughout its range in order to elucidate the evolutionary history of this species and to test the hypotheses of natural dispersal and/or potential human introductions to some islands and regions. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that V.tangalunga has a low matrilinear genetic diversity and is poorly structured geographically. Borneo is likely to have served as the ancestral population source from which animals dispersed during the Pleistocene. Viverra tangalunga could have naturally dispersed to Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Belitung, and also to several other Sunda Islands (Bangka, Lingga, and Bintang in the Rhio Archipelago), and to Palawan, although there is possible evidence that humans introduced V.tangalunga to the latter islands. Our results strongly suggested that V.tangalunga was transported by humans across Wallace's Line to Sulawesi and the Moluccas, but also to the Philippines and the Natuna Islands. Our study has shown that human-mediated dispersal can be an important factor in understanding the distribution of some species in this region. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London. Source

Hanya G.,Kyoto University | Stevenson P.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | van Noordwijk M.,University of Zurich | Te Wong S.,Bornean Sun Bear Conservation Center | And 5 more authors.

We examine the effect of total annual food abundance and seasonal availability on the biomass and species richness for frugivorous primates on three continents (n=16 sites) by data on fruit fall. We reveal that the best-fit models for predicting primate biomass include total annual fruit fall (positive), seasonality (negative) and biogeography (Old World>New World and mainland>island) and that these factors explain 56-67% of the variation. For the number of species, the best-fit models include seasonality (negative) and biogeography (Old World>New World and mainland>island) but not total annual fruit fall. Annual temperature has additional effects on primate biomass when the effects of fruits and biogeography are controlled, but there is no such effect on species richness. The present results indicate that, measured on local scales, primate biomass and number of species is affected by the seasonal variation in food availability. © 2011 The Authors. Source

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