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Singh M.,Punjab Agricultural University | Mahal J.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | Sidhu H.S.,Borlaug Institute for South Asia CIMMYT BISA | Manes G.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Applied Engineering in Agriculture | Year: 2016

Wheat planting after cotton is usually delayed due to late cotton picking and time necessary for seedbed preparation, resulting in low wheat yield. Few farmers sow wheat through broadcasting in standing cotton for timely sowing except on a small scale. This methodology also has limitations of poor germination and low fertilizer use efficiency. To study feasibility of relay seeding of wheat in cotton, two prototypes of innovative relay seeders (RSs) (suitable for 67.5 and 101 cm row spacing) with three types of furrow openers: strip till rotor (STR), zero till inverted T-type (ZTT), and zero till double disc (ZTDD) were developed and evaluated for their performance under two cotton genotypes. The average forward speed of travel of ZTDD openers was 9.3% and 16.6% more compared with STR and ZTT openers, respectively. STR openers consumed more fuel (12.36 L ha-1) than ZTT (8.57 L ha-1) and ZTDD openers (9.15 L ha-1). The field capacity for 12- and 15-row RS was 0.22 and 0.25 ha h-1, respectively. The average power consumption for operating the three types of furrow openers was 6.4 and 8.4 hp for 12- and 15-row RS, respectively. Number of cotton bolls detached from plants due to operation of tractor-mounted RS was significantly lower in 101 cm cotton row spacing compared with 67.5 cm row spacing. Overall loss of cotton bolls due to the movement of tractor and RSs was under 2%. The average number of bolls detached from the plant was about 29% less for ZTDD furrow openers compared with STR and ZTT openers. Germination count of relay seeded wheat with STR and ZTDD furrow openers was 23% and 26% more compared with ZTT openers, respectively. The breakeven point for RS was achieved when total area sown annually exceeded 5 ha and wheat yield gain over the conventional practice is 0.5 t ha-1. This study demonstrates that seeding of wheat in standing cotton is feasible with 4-wheel high clearance tractor-driven innovative RS with cotton damage under 2%. © 2016 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

SINGH M.,Punjab Agricultural University | SIDHU H.S.,Borlaug Institute for South Asia CIMMYT BISA | MAHAL J.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | MANES G.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2016

Cotton–wheat (CW) is an important cropping system in South Asia. Wheat yields under a conventional CW system are generally lower compared to a rice–wheat system due to delayed seeding. Relay seeding of wheat can help timely sowing, capturing residual soil moisture of last irrigation to cotton, and increase the productivity and profitability of CW system. The field experiment included two Bt-cotton genotypes having different canopy cover (RCH 776 and MRC 7017), two types of relay seeders (RSs) for cotton planted at 67.5-cm and 101-cm row spacing and four types of relay seeding methods (manual broadcast, strip rotor (SR) and zero-till double disc and conventional till). Relay planting of wheat allowed one additional boll picking, which increased seed cotton yield by 12% compared with conventional tillage wheat. Cotton genotypes and RSs had no effect on emergence and yield of wheat. The RSs with SR and zero till double disc furrow openers performed better in terms of wheat emergence and grain yield compared to zero-till tine openers. Under relay seeding, wheat sowing was advanced by 31 days, which increased grain yield by 18.8% compared with conventional tillage practice. Net returns from the CW system with relay seeding of wheat were higher by US$ 311 to 425 ha−1 compared with the conventional CW system. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016

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