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Mallikarjuna M.G.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Nepolean T.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Mittal S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Hossain F.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) are the key elements required for many of the biological process in plants and animals. Transporter proteins are essential for uptake, transport and accumulation for Fe and Zn in plants. The present investigation was undertaken to study and compare the structural and functional diversity and evolutionary significance of the yellow stripe-like (YSL) transporters through in-silico tools in five species (barley, Brachypodium, foxtail millet, maize and rice) of Poaceae. One hundred and two YSL transporters collected from public databases were used in the analysis. All YSL transporters possessed PF03169 domain which belongs to the oligo peptide transporters (OPT) super family. Molecular weight of YSL proteins ranged from 11.10 to 84.70 kDa while pI values ranged from 4.99 to 11.64. Scondary structure analysis identified that, alpha helix and random coils were the most common structures of the YSL proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the YSL transporters are highly conserved in these five grass species. Comparative mapping of genes of YSL transporters showed maximum synteny between Brachypodium and barley (30%) followed by Brachypodium and rice (25%). Neutrality test has in fact revealed the positive or Darwinian selection on YSL transporters. The results of the present investigation provided a significant understanding of the structural and biological role of YSL transporters as well as the evolutionary pattern in Poaceae family. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.

Ghosh D.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Ghosh D.,Banaras Hindu University | Ghosh D.,ICAR Directorate of Weed Research | Singh U.P.,Banaras Hindu University | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Pest Management | Year: 2016

An increasing water crisis as well as shortage of farm labor farmers in many Asian regions is forcing a shift from puddled transplanted rice to direct-seeded rice. The weeds, however, are a major constraint to the production of direct-seeded rice. In this perspective, a field study was carried out to evaluate various pre- and post-emergence herbicides and different possible integrated weed management practices in zero-till direct-seeded rice. Weed infestation decreased the rice yield by near about 75%. Co-culture rice with Sesbania followed by (fb) pendimethalin fb 2,4-D effectively reduced the total weed population (65.1%) and biomass (86.7%) at 30 days after sowing (DAS). The lowest total weed dry biomass at 60 DAS was recorded from bispyribac-sodium+azimsulfuron-treated plot and such tank mix application of herbicide performed better against diverse weed flora as compared to a single herbicide. Higher yield and more profit from zero-till direct-seeded rice were obtained with the application of bispyribac-sodium+azimsulfuron herbicides as a tank mixture or an integrated approach through cowpea green-manuring fb 2,4-D+glyphosate fb bispyribac-sodium by effective management of versatile weed flora. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Zunjare R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Hossain F.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Muthusamy V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Choudhary M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2015

A set of 21 popcorn hybrids were evaluated at multi-locations to study the effects of weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) infestation on popping quality traits. Wide genetic variation for percent popping expansion (PPE) and grain popping percentage (GPP) after weevil infestation were observed. PPE and GPP varied from 6.09-85.21% and 4.33-66.67%, across locations, respectively. The mean PPE was 52.90%, while same for GPP was 23.46%. Significant effects of environment and genotype x environment interactions were observed for both PPE and GPP. Strong positive correlation (r=0.89) across locations was recorded between PPE and GPP. Despite weevil infestation, popcorn hybrids viz., PH114 (PPE: 83.18%, GPP: 54.11%), PH110 (PPE: 69.27%, GPP: 33.11%), PH103 (PPE: 65.84%, GPP: 26.78%), PH112 (PPE: 64.91%, GPP: 29.22%) and PH109 (PPE: 64.48%, GPP: 29.00%) were identified as promising with desirable popping quality traits. Many of the popcorn hybrids possessed undesirable popping characteristics (12 hybrids with <60% PPE; 18 hybrids with <30% GPP) upon infestation. Despite having a common notion that popcorn genotypes are relatively resistant than other types of maize grain, many of the popcorn hybrids were highly susceptible to weevils leading to undesirable popping quality attributes. The study emphasizes the need for breeding weevil resistant popcorn genotypes possessing desirable popping quality attributes. © 2015, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.

Naresh R.K.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology | Rathore R.S.,Uttar Pradesh Council of Agricultural Research | Dhaliwal S.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | Yadav R.B.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Paddy and Water Environment | Year: 2015

A 3-year field experiment was carried out with tillage crop establishment (TCE) and rice nourishment in north-western India to evaluate the effect of five crop establishment methods and seven fertility treatments on crop production, water productivity, profitability, and soil physical quality. Maximum panicle length (30.9 cm) was noted with F3 treatment and minimum (22.7 cm) with F0 treatment. Zinc application methods and timing had significantly effect on paddy yield. Maximum yield (5.22 t ha−1) was achieved in treatment F3 and minimum yield (2.65 t ha−1) was noted in F0 treatment. Results also revealed that root dry weight, root volume, and root length were recorded with higher values in F3 treatment and minimum in F0 treatment. TCE methods were recorded with higher values in raised beds system than T5 at all growth stages. Treatments T1 and T2 reduced the mean maximum soil temperature at transplanting zone depth by 3.6 and 2.7 °C compared to the T3. Paddy yield in T3 was always significantly less than in T5. On average, treatment T4 recorded about 13 % lower water use and 3.7 % higher water productivity compared to T5. Treatment T5 had higher bulk density. The cumulative infiltration for 498 min was about 2 times in treatment T1, 5 times in T3 and more than 8 times in T4 of the values in T5. Mean weight diameter of aggregates was higher in T4 followed by the T1 and lowest in T5. The study reveals that TCE methods T1 and T4 with F3 nourishment could be more viable options for rice crop in order to save input costs and enhance profitability. © 2015 The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering and Springer Japan

Naresh R.K.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology | Gupta R.K.,Borlaug Institute for South Asia | Jat M.L.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Singh S.P.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2016

Soil organic carbon is considered to be of central importance in maintaining soil quality. We assessed the adoption of different combinations of tillage, crop residue and irrigation on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in different sized soil aggregates and also on crop yield after 4 years in wheat monoculture field plot experiment in a sandy loam soil under subtropical climatic conditions. Results showed that tillage crop residue and irrigation significantly increased water stable aggregates and had profound effects in increasing the mean weight diameter as well as the formation of macro-aggregates, which were the highest in both surface (14.5 & 12.5%) and subsurface (13.4 & 12.1%) soil layers under FIRB and ZT with application rice straw and I5 treatments after 3 years. Hence, better aggregation was found with FIRB with 6t rice straw + I5 where macro-aggregates were greater than 30% of total soil mass. The same treatment also enhanced the labile C and N fractions such as water soluble C, particulate and light fraction organic matter from 7.1 mg·kg-1 conventional tillage to 17.6 mg·kg-1 in surface layer and from 6.5 to 16.3 mg·kg-1 in subsurface layer after 3 years leading to the 42% and 39% higher water soluble C stocks over CT in 0-15 cm soil layers, respectively. The changes in water soluble C stocks after 4 years were 45% and 40%. WUE increased as mulching increased for the I2, I3, and I4 treatments, but not for the I5 treatment. We conclude that variants of conservation tillage increase SOC stock in the sandy loam soils of subtropical climatic conditions of western U. P., India and are therefore more sustainable practices than those currently being used.

Sapkota T.B.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Jat M.L.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Aryal J.P.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Jat R.K.,Borlaug Institute for South Asia | Khatri-Chhetri A.,International Water Management Institute
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2015

Achieving sustainability of the cereal system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India under progressive climate change and variability necessitates adoption of practices and technologies that increase food production, adaptation and mitigation in a sustainable way. This paper examines conservation agriculture (CA) from the perspective of: (i) increased yield and farm income, (ii) adaptation to heat and water stresses, and (iii) reduction in greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions. The analyses and conclusions are based on the literature and evidences from a large number of on-station as well as farmers' field trials on CA in the cereal systems of IGP. Our analyses show that CA-based system substantially reduces the production cost (up to 23%) but produces equal or even higher than conventional system; thereby increasing economic profitability of production system. CA-based production systems also moderated the effect of high temperature (reduced canopy temperature by 1-4°C) and increased irrigation water productivity by 66-100% compared to traditional production systems thus well adapting to water and heat stress situations of IGP. Our continuous monitoring of soil flux of CO2, N2O and CH4 revealed that CA-based rice-wheat systems emit 10-15% less GHGs than conventional systems. This is the first time that CA and its components are synthesized and analyzed from food security-climate change nexus. From this holistic analysis, we suggest that wide-scale promotion of suitable CA practices by integrating into national agriculture development strategy is a way forward to address food security, climate change adaptation and mitigation challenges faced by present agriculture. © 2015 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Muthusamy V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Hossain F.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Thirunavukkarasu N.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Choudhary M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Development of vitamin A-rich cereals can help in alleviating the widespread problem of vitamin A deficiency. We report here significant enhancement of kernel β-carotene in elite maize genotypes through accelerated marker-assisted backcross breeding. A favourable allele (543 bp) of the β-carotene hydroxylase (crtRB1) gene was introgressed in the seven elite inbred parents, which were low (1.4 μg/g) in kernel β-carotene, by using a crtRB1-specific DNA marker for foreground selection. About 90% of the recurrent parent genome was recovered in the selected progenies within two backcross generations. Concentration of β-carotene among the crtRB1-introgressed inbreds varied from 8.6 to 17.5 μg/g - a maximum increase up to 12.6-fold over recurrent parent. The reconstituted hybrids developed from improved parental inbreds also showed enhanced kernel β-carotene as high as 21.7 μg/g, compared to 2.6 μg/g in the original hybrid. The reconstituted hybrids evaluated at two locations possessed similar grain yield to that of original hybrids. These β-carotene enriched high yielding hybrids can be effectively utilized in the maize biofortification programs across the globe. © 2014 Muthusamy et al.

Mallikarjuna M.G.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Thirunavukkarasu N.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Hossain F.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Bhat J.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Deficiency of iron and zinc causes micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger, which severely affects ∼25% of global population. Genetic biofortification of maize has emerged as cost effective and sustainable approach in addressing malnourishment of iron and zinc deficiency. Therefore, understanding the genetic variation and stability of kernel micronutrients and grain yield of the maize inbreds is a prerequisite in breeding micronutrient-rich high yielding hybrids to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. We report here, the genetic variability and stability of the kernel micronutrients concentration and grain yield in a set of 50 maize inbred panel selected from the national and the international centres that were raised at six different maize growing regions of India. Phenotyping of kernels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) revealed considerable variability for kernel minerals concentration (iron: 18.88 to 47.65 mg kg-1; zinc: 5.41 to 30.85 mg kg-1; manganese: 3.30 to17.73 mg kg-1; copper: 0.53 to 5.48 mg kg-1) and grain yield (826.6 to 5413 kg ha-1). Significant positive correlation was observed between kernel iron and zinc within (r = 0.37 to r = 0.52, p < 0.05) and across locations (r = 0.44, p < 0.01). Variance components of the additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) model showed significant genotype and genotype × environment interaction for kernel minerals concentration and grain yield. Most of the variation was contributed by genotype main effect for kernel iron (39.6%), manganese (41.34%) and copper (41.12%), and environment main effects for both kernel zinc (40.5%) and grain yield (37.0%). Genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE) biplot identified several mega environments for kernel minerals and grain yield. Comparison of stability parameters revealed AMMI stability value (ASV) as the better representative of the AMMI stability parameters. Dynamic stability parameter GGE distance (GGED) showed strong and positive correlation with both mean kernel concentrations and grain yield. Inbreds (CM-501, SKV-775, HUZM-185) identified from the present investigation will be useful in developing micronutrient-rich as well as stable maize hybrids without compromising grain yield. Copyright: © 2015 Mallikarjuna et al.

Gupta H.S.,Borlaug Institute for South Asia | Hossain F.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Muthusamy V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2015

Micronutrient malnutrition particularly prevalent in resource poor families in the developing world has emerged as a major health challenge. Billions of people worldwide suffer from impaired growth and development owing to insufficient supply of essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals leading to significant economic losses. India is home to a large number of undernourished people warranting immediate interventions. Maize is a staple crop with diverse end uses; thus micronutrient enriched maize holds immense promise for sustainable and cost-effective solutions to overcome malnutrition. We present here a review on status, constraints and opportunities in developing biofortified maize cultivars with enhanced protein quality, provitamin A, and kernel -Fe and -Zn. Quality protein maize possessing higher lysine and tryptophan is a classical example of how its successful adoption has resulted in significantly reducing malnutrition. Novel genetic variants of crtRB1 and lcyE genes have opened up new avenues for food-based solution to vitamin A deficiency. Availability of variation for kernel -Fe and -Zn and the possibility for manipulation of anti-nutritional- and promoting- factors offer distinct opportunity to deliver bioavailable minerals through diet. Development of multi-nutrient rich maize would help in achieving nutritional security in a more holistic way. Possible interventions to overcome the challenges of slow dissemination of biofortified crops have also been discussed. © 2015, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.

Tiwari S.,ICAR Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan | Agrawal P.K.,ICAR Headquarters KAB 1 | Pande V.,Kumaun University | Gupta H.S.,Borlaug Institute for South Asia
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2015

Thirteen sub-tropical maize genotypes were evaluated for in vitro callus induction and whole plant regeneration. Seeds were germinated on MS-based medium supplemented with 10 mg l–1 picloram and 3.0 mg l–1 BAP which induced the formation of nodes. The developed nodes were excised about 0.25 cm above and below and were split longitudinally into two halves. The split nodes were placed on the callusing medium supplemented with 2.2 mg l–1 picloram and 0.5 mg l–1 2, 4-D, the cut surface facing down and touching the media. Among the thirteen genotypes, embryogenic calli were induced in seven genotypes ranging between 10.78-65.65%. Out of seven genotypes, only one genotype i.e., VQL 2 regenerated in to a whole plant with a frequency of 34% on MS basal medium under 80 μM m–2 s–1 of light intensity. Regeneration medium and light intensity played key role for the initiation of somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of whole plants. Survival efficiency of in vitro regenerated plantlets was found to be 95% out of which 85% of the plants grew normally without any morphological abnormality. © 2015, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.

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