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Jokioinen, Finland

Fjellheim S.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Tanhuanpaa P.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Marum P.,Graminor AS | Manninen O.,Boreal Plant Breeding Ltd. | Rognli O.A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Crop Science | Year: 2015

Genebanks around the world represent a large source of genetic variation in both wild and crop species and may prove invaluable in the future. However, much of this is uncharacterized and this hampers both management and utilization, specifically of wild species and minor crops. In this paper we study a large genebank collection of wild populations of the cool-season forage grass timothy (Phleum pratense L.) to investigate different methods for characterization and their implications for conservation. Populations covering the entire geographic distribution range of timothy were analyzed for simple-sequence repeats (SSRs), chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequence, and phenotypic variation in 14 morphological and phenological characters. The east–west distribution of two major cpDNA haplotypes indicates a classic postglacial expansion pattern, with most populations originating from two refugia. No signs of geographic structuring of SSR variation were evident, indicating a large inherent effective population size, possibly in combination with extensive gene flow. In contrast to the lack of geographic structuring of variation in neutral markers, phenotypic variation was clearly structured, indicating natural selection and local adaptation. This study demonstrate the importance of using multiple characterization systems—both molecular and phenotypic—for assessing diversity in genebank collections, specifically when it comes to evaluating adaptive potential. © Crop Science Society of America. Source

Rotter R.P.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Palosuo T.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Pirttioja N.K.,Finnish Environment Institute | Dubrovsky M.,ASCR Institute of Physics Prague | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2011

In research to date, projected climate change has been considered to be beneficial for agriculture under Nordic conditions, where crop production is mainly limited by low temperatures resulting in short growing seasons. However, with the rapid increases in global mean temperature implied at the high end of the uncertainty range of current projections, which are typically amplified at high latitudes, conditions for crop production could change so dramatically that yields would be reduced, even accounting for the positive effects of CO2 fertilization.In this study, we used the WOFOST crop growth simulation model to examine crop yield responses to a set of plausible scenarios of climate change for Finland up to 2100, including some that exceed 4. °C global mean temperature increase relative to pre-industrial. We selected spring barley (. Hordeum vulgare L.) as an indicator crop and calculated water-limited yields for two Finnish locations, Jokioinen and Jyväskylä and for a clay and a sandy soil. Scenarios included systematic increases in temperatures, changes in precipitation distribution and altered daily climatic variability using the M&Rfi weather generator. We also examined the effectiveness of a few adaptation options, such as shifts in sowing dates and hypothetical new crop cultivars.Increasing temperature reduced total growth duration and yield considerably, even with adjusted earlier sowing. A reduced number of rainy days had marked negative effects only in combination with increases in temperature of 4°C or greater, leading to distinctly higher yield losses on the sandy soil than on the clay. Prolonged dry spells clearly increased yield variability. For scenarios with temperature increases of +6°C and +7°C, yield losses at Jokioinen were highest; losses at Jyväskylä were generally less pronounced. Neither CO2 fertilization nor adjusted sowing could compensate the yield losses from temperature changes exceeding +4°C. On clay soils, yield loss could be compensated by new cultivars. For sandy soils even with new cultivars, there would be yield loss at temperature increases exceeding +3°C.It can be concluded that the positive effects of climate warming and elevated CO2 concentrations on cereal production at high latitudes are likely to be reversed at temperature increases exceeding 4°C, with a high risk of marked yield loss. Only plant breeding efforts aimed at increasing yield potential jointly with drought resistance and adjusted agronomic practices, such as sowing, and adequate nitrogen fertilizer management and plant protection, holds a prospect of partly restoring yield levels and reducing the risks of yield shortfall. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Tanhuanpaa P.,Natural Resources Institute Finland Luke | Erkkila M.,Natural Resources Institute Finland Luke | Kalendar R.,Natural Resources Institute Finland Luke | Schulman A.H.,Natural Resources Institute Finland Luke | And 2 more authors.
Hereditas | Year: 2016

Background: Timothy (Phleum pratense L.), a cool-season hexaploid perennial, is the most important forage grass species in Nordic countries. Earlier analyses of genetic diversity in a collection of 96 genebank accessions of timothy with SSR markers demonstrated high levels of diversity but could not resolve population structure. Therefore, we examined a subset of 51 accessions with REMAP markers, which are based on retrotransposons, and compared the diversity results with those obtained with SSR markers. Results: Using four primer combinations, 533 REMAP markers were analyzed, compared with 464 polymorphic alleles in the 13 SSR loci previously. The average marker index, which describes information obtained per experiment (per primer combination or locus) was over six times higher with REMAPs. Most of the variation found was within accessions, with somewhat less, 89 %, for REMAPs, than for SSR, with 93 %. Conclusions: SSRs revealed differences in the level of diversity slightly better than REMAPs but neither marker type could reveal any clear clustering of accessions based on countries, vegetation zones, or different cultivar types. In our study, reliable evaluation of SSR allele dosages was not possible, so each allele had to be handled as a dominant marker. SSR and REMAP, which report from different mechanisms of generating genetic diversity and from different genomic regions, together indicate a lack of population structure. Taken together, this likely reflects the outcrossing and hexaploid nature of timothy rather than failures of either marker system. © 2016 Tanhuanpää et al. Source

Kontturi M.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Laine A.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Niskanen M.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Hurme T.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | And 2 more authors.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2011

Locally produced crop protein is urgently needed in Europe. Pea is a good protein source and is well adapted to northern conditions. Pea can fix nitrogen that the following crop in rotation can benefit from. In cereal-dominated cropping systems pea is a break crop disrupting the life cycle of cereal diseases, leading to less fungicide application and thereby minimizing off farm inputs and benefiting the environment. Grain legumes provide animals with protein and energy, and the seeds of pulse crops are complementary to those of cereals. Field peas can be cultivated in most parts of Scandinavia and interest in peas has increased for inclusion in organic farming. Growing pea as a sole crop is a challenge since its stem is prone to lodging thereby resulting in harvesting difficulties, reduced yield and decreased profits. Intercropping of pea with oat could minimize the above listed problems but to our knowledge proportion of seeds mixture of the two crops and selection of pea cultivars without compromising the pea yield, especially protein production, at high latitudes conditions is limited. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate performance of sole cropped pea (Karita, Perttu, Hulda) and oat (seed proportions 7.5% and 15%) and their intercrop combinations and establish an appropriate seed mixture for a pea oat intercropping systems that prevents lodging without markedly reducing pea yield. Field experiments were conducted at three locations (Jokioinen, Mietoinen, Ylistaro) of the Agrifood Research Finland in 2002-2004. Intercropping peas with oats prevented peas from lodging and made their harvest easier. Optimal numbers of oats in pea intercrops were difficult to determine, varying according to pea cultivar and local growth conditions. Excess oats in the seed mixture or conditions favouring oat growth prevented peas from lodging but pea yield was decreased. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

Rajala A.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Niskanen M.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Isolahti M.,Boreal Plant Breeding Ltd. | Peltonen-Sainio P.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland
Agricultural and Food Science | Year: 2011

Seed viability and vigour play important roles in seedling emergence, plant stand establishment and yield potential. The majority of cereal fields in Finland are typically sown with farm saved seed (FSS). If the quality of the seed is not known, there can be insidious yield reduction. This research was conducted to study the effects of seed quality on seedling emergence rate, seedling number and yielding capacity. The study comprised three-year field experiments conducted during 2007-2009, established at three sites: Jokioinen, Nousiainen and Ylistaro. Spring barley cultivars Saana (2007) and Annabell (2008-2009) were sown at rate of 500 germinating seeds m -2. Five seed lots were included as treatments: Farm saved seed (FSS); Downgraded seed <2.5 mm (FSS <2.5 mm); Upgraded seed >2.7 mm (FSS >2.7 mm); Upgraded seed >2.7 mm with disinfection (FSS >2.7 mm + dis); And commercial certified seed with disinfection (CCS). Up- and down-graded seed lots (FSS <2.5 mm', FSS >2.7 mm', and FSS >2.7 mm + dis) all originated from the FSS. Seedling emergence rate was measured from the time when coleoptiles started to break through the soil surface. The number of seedlings (3 × 1 m row per plot) was recorded at five-day intervals four times from the same rows. Plots were harvested at physiological maturity and grain yield (kg ha -1), hectolitre weight (HLW, kg) single grain weight (SGW, mg) and grain protein content (%) were recorded. Seed lots of CCS and FSS >2.7 mm + dis enhanced seedling emergence rate and increased the number of plants compared with other treatments. These two seed lots also produced the highest grain yield and had the lowest grain protein. Seed quality had an apparent effect on plant stand establishment and grain yield. A seed lot effect was evident despite identical targeted sowing rates that took into account germination rate and seed weight. Therefore, differences in seedling emergence and yielding capacity were likely outcomes of variation in seed vigour among the five treatments. © Agricultural and Food Science. Source

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