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Gradignan, France

Dehnen-Schmutz K.,Coventry University | Foster G.L.,Coventry University | Owen L.,Coventry University | Persello S.,Bordeaux science Agro
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2016

Citizen science is the involvement of citizens, such as farmers, in the research process. Citizen science has become increasingly popular recently, supported by the proliferation of mobile communication technologies such as smartphones. However, citizen science methodologies have not yet been widely adopted in agricultural research. Here, we conducted an online survey with 57 British and French farmers in 2014. We investigated (1) farmer ownership and use of smartphone technologies, (2) farmer use of farm-specific management apps, and (3) farmer interest and willingness to participate in agricultural citizen science projects. Our results show that 89 % respondents owned a smartphone, 84 % used it for farm management, and 72 % used it on a daily basis. Fifty-nine percent engaged with farm-specific apps, using on average four apps. Ninety-three percent respondents agreed that citizen science was a useful methodology for data collection, 93 % for real-time monitoring, 83 % for identification of research questions, 72 % for experimental work, and 72 % for wildlife recording. Farmers also showed strong interest to participate in citizen science projects, often willing to commit substantial amounts of time. For example, 54 % of British respondents were willing to participate in farmland wildlife recording once a week or monthly. Although financial support was not always regarded as necessary, experimental work was the most likely activity for which respondents thought financial support would be essential. Overall, this is the first study to quantify and explore farmers’ use of smartphones for farm management, and document strong support for farm-based citizen science projects. © 2016, INRA and Springer-Verlag France.

Kremer N.J.,Bordeaux science Agro | Halpern C.B.,University of Washington | Antos J.A.,University of Victoria
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2014

Tree invasion of mountain grasslands and meadows, pervasive throughout western North America, has become a management concern. Restoration of these systems requires tree removal and possibly prescribed burning; however, subsequent reinvasion by trees may compromise these efforts. In this study, we assess patterns of tree seedling establishment 8. years after tree removal (with and without burning) from 1-ha experimental plots in conifer-invaded meadows in the Oregon Cascades. We quantify variation in the timing, spatial distribution, and density of establishment of species with differing seral roles; compare effects of burning; and explore relationships with distance to and characteristics of adjacent, residual forests. Seedlings established continuously after tree removal, dominated by late-seral Abies grandis (cumulative plot densities of 116-460/ha). Early-seral Pinus contorta and Pseudotsuga menziesii were much less abundant (0-25 and 1-52/ha, respectively). Frequency (percentage of 5. ×. 5. m subplots) and density of seedlings did not differ between treatments (burned vs. unburned), nor did seedling growth rates (inferred from height-age relationships). Seedling spatial distributions and relationships with distance to adjacent forest varied both within and among plots. On average, however, seedlings were concentrated along edges. In the 5-m outer band of subplots, frequency averaged 37% and density, 682/ha, compared to 18% and 140/ha in the remaining cores of the plots. Density of Abies was significantly greater along more shaded southern edges (north-facing) than along more exposed northern edges (south-facing), but it declined steeply with distance from edge, especially for southern edges. Plot-level density of Abies seedlings was also correlated with basal area of Abies in the adjacent forest (but not with tree density or summed height). Strong relationships of seedlings with distance, exposure, and characteristics of adjacent forests suggest that conifer reinvasion can be minimized by targeting tree removal to maximize distances to residual trees. However, absence of a treatment effect suggests that burning-critical for reducing woody residues-does not increase the probability of seedling establishment, particularly in systems in which late-seral species are the principal colonists. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Saidane D.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences | Barbe J.-C.,Bordeaux science Agro | Barbe J.-C.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Birot M.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences | Deleuze H.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2013

Alkaline lignin extracted from oak wood cooperage wastes was chemically modified to prepare beads by suspension polymerization on water without the use of organic solvents. These beads were macroporous and swelled in hydrophilic solvents. They were functionalized under microwaves to be used as scavenging agents in winery applications. The beads prepared by this approach have the advantage of being more acceptable by winemakers than synthetic polymer supports previously reported. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

El Hadri H.,University of Pau and Pays de lAdour | Lespes G.,University of Pau and Pays de lAdour | Chery P.,Bordeaux science Agro | Potin-Gautier M.,University of Pau and Pays de lAdour
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to show that on-line asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation (AFFFF)-multidetection coupling is useful for studying environmental colloids in a qualitative and quantitative way. The utility of the technique was illustrated by assessing the colloidal fraction of the copper that was extracted from the soil, transferred to an aqueous phase and then transported by drain waters in a wine-growing area. To determine the size and composition of the colloids, AFFFF was coupled to UV, multi-angle light scattering and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detectors. Colloidal copper represents between 20 and 60 % of the total copper in the sub 450 nm of drain waters. Copper is mainly associated with organic-rich colloids with a size below 10 nm. It is also found in organo-mineral populations (as clay or (oxy)hydroxides), with sizes ranging between 10 and 450 nm. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Barna K.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Sziranyi T.,MTA SZTAKI | Borda M.,Technical University of Cluj Napoca | Lavialle O.,Bordeaux science Agro
Journal of Applied Geophysics | Year: 2015

In this paper we present a new method for fault extraction in seismic blocks, using marked point processes. Our goal is to increase the detection accuracy of the state of the art fault attributes by computing them on a system of objects based on an a priori knowledge about the faults.An original curved support has been developed to describe the faults in vertical sections of the seismic blocks. The results are compared with the previous models used for linear network extraction, such as the Candy model. Synthetic blocks were used to compare the results obtained thanks to the point processes with the classical attributes.To segment the whole blocks, a multi-2D approach was used. Several modifications of the algorithm were necessary in order to make the results easier to interpret for geologists.One interest of the high-level approach offered by the marked point processes is the possibility of using the objects as a common support for various fault detection operators. A whole detection framework can be proposed which acts like a decision fusion process. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

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