Bordeaux science Agro

Gradignan, France

Bordeaux science Agro

Gradignan, France
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Sitzia L.,University of Tarapacá | Bertran P.,INRAP | Bertran P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Sima A.,Paris-Sorbonne University | And 4 more authors.
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2017

Dune pattern, grain-size gradients and geochemistry were used to investigate the sources and dynamics of aeolian deposition during the last glacial in southwest France. The coversands form widespread fields of low-amplitude ridges (zibars), whereas Younger Dryas parabolic dunes mainly concentrate in corridors and along rivers. Spatial modelling of grain-size gradients combined with geochemical analysis points to a genetic relationship between coversands and loess, the latter resulting primarily from dust produced by aeolian abrasion of the coversands. The alluvium of the Garonne river provided also significant amounts of dust at a more local scale. The geochemical composition of loess shows much lower scattering than that of coversands, due to stronger homogenisation during transport in the atmosphere. Overall, sandy loess and loess deposits decrease in thickness away from the coversands. Dune orientation and grain-size gradients suggest that the efficient winds blew respectively from the W to the NW during the glacial, and the W-SW during the Younger Dryas. A comparison between the wind directions derived from the proxy data and those provided by palaeoclimatic simulations suggests a change of the main transport season. Ground surface conditions and their evolution throughout the year, i.e. the length of the season with snow and frozen or moist topsoil, and the seasonal distribution of wind speeds able to cause deflation are thought to have been the main factors that controlled the transport season in the study area. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Marguerit E.,Bordeaux science Agro | Marguerit E.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Marguerit E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Brendel O.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 8 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2012

• The stomatal control of transpiration is one of the major strategies by which plants cope with water stress. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of the rootstock control of scion transpiration-related traits over a period of 3yr. • The rootstocks studied were full sibs from a controlled interspecific cross (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon×Vitis riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier), onto which we grafted a single scion genotype. After 10d without stress, the water supply was progressively limited over a period of 10d, and a stable water deficit was then applied for 15d. Transpiration rate was estimated daily and a mathematical curve was fitted to its response to water deficit intensity. We also determined δ 13C values in leaves, transpiration efficiency and water extraction capacity. These traits were then analysed in a multienvironment (year and water status) quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. • Quantitative trait loci, independent of year and water status, were detected for each trait. One genomic region was specifically implicated in the acclimation of scion transpiration induced by the rootstock. The QTLs identified colocalized with genes involved in water deficit responses, such as those relating to ABA and hydraulic regulation. • Scion transpiration rate and its acclimation to water deficit are thus controlled genetically by the rootstock, through different genetic architectures. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

Augusto L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Delerue F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gallet-Budynek A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Achat D.L.,Bordeaux science Agro
Global Biogeochemical Cycles | Year: 2013

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) is the main natural source of nitrogen (N) in terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Previous studies have shown that fixation of N by plants can be limited by the availability of phosphorus (P) in soils. We used global meta-analysis to investigate how P availability controls SNF. In experiments in which plants were grown in an artificial medium, severe P deficiencies in the nutritive solution ([PO4] < 5-42 μM) depressed SNF flux through both a direct decrease in the plant fixation rate (i.e., decreased N fixed per unit of plant biomass) and an indirect effect (i.e., through plant biomass). In most experiments with plants grown in soils, SNF was proportional to plant biomass and was consequently only indirectly limited by P. Some cases using unfertilized and weathered soils (ultisols or oxisols), where plants were particularly P stressed, were an exception with both direct and indirect P limitations. Our global analysis of the P-SNF relationship indicated that P bioavailability commonly limited SNF flux. We conclude that the main driver of in situ P limitation is indirect via limitation of plant growth, except in certain cases where both indirect and direct constraints may play a role. These cases of severe P deficiency may be mainly found in weathered tropical soils of Africa and South America, probably in unfertilized croplands which are depleted in P due to repeated biomass harvests. Key Points Phosphorus (P) bioavailability limits symbiotic fixation of nitrogen (SNF)P limits N2-fixation through plant growth but has minor impact on fixation rateControl of global SNF by P is proportional to its effect on plant biomass ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Kremer N.J.,Bordeaux science Agro | Halpern C.B.,University of Washington | Antos J.A.,University of Victoria
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2014

Tree invasion of mountain grasslands and meadows, pervasive throughout western North America, has become a management concern. Restoration of these systems requires tree removal and possibly prescribed burning; however, subsequent reinvasion by trees may compromise these efforts. In this study, we assess patterns of tree seedling establishment 8. years after tree removal (with and without burning) from 1-ha experimental plots in conifer-invaded meadows in the Oregon Cascades. We quantify variation in the timing, spatial distribution, and density of establishment of species with differing seral roles; compare effects of burning; and explore relationships with distance to and characteristics of adjacent, residual forests. Seedlings established continuously after tree removal, dominated by late-seral Abies grandis (cumulative plot densities of 116-460/ha). Early-seral Pinus contorta and Pseudotsuga menziesii were much less abundant (0-25 and 1-52/ha, respectively). Frequency (percentage of 5. ×. 5. m subplots) and density of seedlings did not differ between treatments (burned vs. unburned), nor did seedling growth rates (inferred from height-age relationships). Seedling spatial distributions and relationships with distance to adjacent forest varied both within and among plots. On average, however, seedlings were concentrated along edges. In the 5-m outer band of subplots, frequency averaged 37% and density, 682/ha, compared to 18% and 140/ha in the remaining cores of the plots. Density of Abies was significantly greater along more shaded southern edges (north-facing) than along more exposed northern edges (south-facing), but it declined steeply with distance from edge, especially for southern edges. Plot-level density of Abies seedlings was also correlated with basal area of Abies in the adjacent forest (but not with tree density or summed height). Strong relationships of seedlings with distance, exposure, and characteristics of adjacent forests suggest that conifer reinvasion can be minimized by targeting tree removal to maximize distances to residual trees. However, absence of a treatment effect suggests that burning-critical for reducing woody residues-does not increase the probability of seedling establishment, particularly in systems in which late-seral species are the principal colonists. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Withers P.J.A.,Bangor University | van Dijk K.C.,Wageningen University | Neset T.-S.S.,Linköping University | Nesme T.,Bordeaux science Agro | And 5 more authors.
Ambio | Year: 2015

The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R stewardship (Re-align P inputs, Reduce P losses, Recycle P in bioresources, Recover P in wastes, and Redefine P in food systems) to help identify and deliver a range of integrated, cost-effective, and feasible technological innovations to improve P use efficiency in society and reduce Europe’s dependence on P imports. Their combined adoption facilitated by interactive policies, co-operation between upstream and downstream stakeholders (researchers, investors, producers, distributors, and consumers), and more harmonized approaches to P accounting would maximize the resource and environmental benefits and help deliver a more competitive, circular, and sustainable European economy. The case of Europe provides a blueprint for global P stewardship. © 2015, The Author(s).

PubMed | Bordeaux science Agro, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and CAS Institute of Botany
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in plant science | Year: 2016

The soluble sugar concentration of fleshy fruit is a key determinant of fleshy fruit quality. It affects directly the sweetness of fresh fruits and indirectly the properties of processed products (e.g., alcohol content in wine). Despite considerable divergence among species, soluble sugar accumulation in a fruit results from the complex interplay of three main processes, namely sugar import, sugar metabolism, and water dilution. Therefore, inter-species comparison would help to identify common and/or species-specific modes of regulation in sugar accumulation. For this purpose, a process-based mathematical framework was used to compare soluble sugar accumulation in three fruits: grape, tomato, and peach. Representative datasets covering the time course of sugar accumulation during fruit development were collected. They encompassed 104 combinations of species (3), genotypes (30), and growing conditions (19 years and 16 nutrient and environmental treatments). At maturity, grape showed the highest soluble sugar concentrations (16.5-26.3 g/100 g FW), followed by peach (2.2 to 20 g/100 g FW) and tomato (1.4 to 5 g/100 g FW). Main processes determining soluble sugar concentration were decomposed into sugar importation, metabolism, and water dilution with the process-based analysis. Different regulation modes of soluble sugar concentration were then identified, showing either import-based, dilution-based, or import and dilution dual-based. Firstly, the higher soluble sugar concentration in grape than in tomato is a result of higher sugar importation. Secondly, the higher soluble sugar concentration in grape than in peach is due to a lower water dilution. The third mode of regulation is more complicated than the first two, with differences both in sugar importation and water dilution (grape vs. cherry tomato; cherry tomato vs. peach; peach vs. tomato). On the other hand, carbon utilization for synthesis of non-soluble sugar compounds (namely metabolism) was conserved among the three fruit species. These distinct modes appear to be quite species-specific, but the intensity of the effect may significantly vary depending on the genotype and management practices. These results provide novel insights into the drivers of differences in soluble sugar concentration among fleshy fruits.

Dehnen-Schmutz K.,Coventry University | Foster G.L.,Coventry University | Owen L.,Coventry University | Persello S.,Bordeaux science Agro
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2016

Citizen science is the involvement of citizens, such as farmers, in the research process. Citizen science has become increasingly popular recently, supported by the proliferation of mobile communication technologies such as smartphones. However, citizen science methodologies have not yet been widely adopted in agricultural research. Here, we conducted an online survey with 57 British and French farmers in 2014. We investigated (1) farmer ownership and use of smartphone technologies, (2) farmer use of farm-specific management apps, and (3) farmer interest and willingness to participate in agricultural citizen science projects. Our results show that 89 % respondents owned a smartphone, 84 % used it for farm management, and 72 % used it on a daily basis. Fifty-nine percent engaged with farm-specific apps, using on average four apps. Ninety-three percent respondents agreed that citizen science was a useful methodology for data collection, 93 % for real-time monitoring, 83 % for identification of research questions, 72 % for experimental work, and 72 % for wildlife recording. Farmers also showed strong interest to participate in citizen science projects, often willing to commit substantial amounts of time. For example, 54 % of British respondents were willing to participate in farmland wildlife recording once a week or monthly. Although financial support was not always regarded as necessary, experimental work was the most likely activity for which respondents thought financial support would be essential. Overall, this is the first study to quantify and explore farmers’ use of smartphones for farm management, and document strong support for farm-based citizen science projects. © 2016, INRA and Springer-Verlag France.

Saidane D.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences | Barbe J.-C.,Bordeaux science Agro | Barbe J.-C.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Birot M.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences | Deleuze H.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2013

Alkaline lignin extracted from oak wood cooperage wastes was chemically modified to prepare beads by suspension polymerization on water without the use of organic solvents. These beads were macroporous and swelled in hydrophilic solvents. They were functionalized under microwaves to be used as scavenging agents in winery applications. The beads prepared by this approach have the advantage of being more acceptable by winemakers than synthetic polymer supports previously reported. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Martins G.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Vallance J.,Bordeaux science Agro | Mercier A.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Albertin W.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

Grape berries are colonized by a wide array of epiphytic microorganisms such as yeast and filamentous fungi. This microbiota plays a major role in crop health and also interferes with the winemaking process. In this study, culture-dependent and -independent methods were used to investigate the dynamics and diversity of the yeast and yeast-like microorganisms on the grape berry surface during maturation and the influence of cropping systems in this microflora. The results showed a significant impact of both the farming system and the maturity stage on the epiphytic yeast and yeast-like community. A quantitative approach based on counting cultivable populations indicated an increase in the yeast and yeast-like population during the grape ripening process, reaching a maximum when the berries became overripe. The cultivable yeast and yeast-like population also varied significantly depending on the farming system. Microorganism counts were significantly higher for organically- than conventionally-farmed grapes. The yeast and yeast-like community structures were analysed by culture independent methods, using CE-SSCP. The results revealed changes in the genetic structure of the yeast and yeast-like community throughout the ripening process, as well as the impact of the farming system. Copper-based fungicide treatments were revealed as the main factor responsible for the differences in microbial population densities between samples of different farming systems. The results showed a negative correlation between copper levels and yeast and yeast-like populations, providing evidence that copper inhibited this epiphytic community. Taken together, our results showed that shifts in the microbial community were related to changes in the composition of the grape-berry surface, particularly sugar exudation and the occurrence of copper residues from pesticide treatments. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

El Hadri H.,University of Pau and Pays de l'Adour | Chery P.,Bordeaux Science Agro | Jalabert S.,Bordeaux Science Agro | Lee A.,Bordeaux Science Agro | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

A long-term application of copper-based fungicides to fight against downy mildew has led to soil contamination by copper particularly in Aquitaine region where viticulture is important. This work aims to statistically validate the origin of diffuse contamination of Aquitaine agricultural soils and show that contamination is closely related to wine-growing in this region. For this purpose, several national databases have been used. From the French National Soil Monitoring Network (Réseau de Mesures de la Qualité des sols RMQS) data, an Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) was performed to bring out the copper contamination. The French test soil database (Base de Données des Analyses de Terre BDAT) and the national census of agriculture (Recensement Général Agricole RGA) have been crossed. A statistical approach has been used to determine the relationship between the median concentration of copper extracted by Ethylene Diamine Tetra-acetic Acid (EDTA) referred to as CuEDTA in cultivated topsoils of the Aquitaine region and the ratio between winegrowing area (Svine) and the Used Agricultural Area (UAA) expressed as the form Svine/UAA. The results revealed a strongly significant exponential correlation between these two variables. They allow concluding that at cantonal scale, when vines cover more than 80% of the UAA, an overexposure of soils to the diffuse contamination by copper can occur. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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