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Loosli F.,University of Geneva | Le Coustumer P.,Bordeaux Montaigne University | Le Coustumer P.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Stoll S.,University of Geneva
Water Research | Year: 2013

The behavior of manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles is studied in a systematic way in presence of alginate and Suwannee River humic acids at variable concentrations. TiO2 nanoparticles aggregation, disaggregation and stabilization are investigated using dynamic light scattering and electrophoretic experiments allowing the measurement of z-average hydrodynamic diameters and zeta potential values. Stability of the TiO2 nanoparticles is discussed by considering three pH-dependent electrostatic scenarios. In the first scenario, when pH is below the TiO2 nanoparticle point of zero charge, nanoparticles exhibit a positively charged surface whereas alginate and Suwannee River humic acids are negatively charged. Fast adsorption at the TiO2 nanoparticles occurs, promotes surface charge neutralization and aggregation. By increasing further alginate and Suwannee River humic acids concentrations charge inversion and stabilization of TiO2 nanoparticles are obtained. In the second electrostatic scenario, at the surface charge neutralization pH, TiO2 nanoparticles are rapidly forming aggregates. Adsorption of alginate and Suwannee River humic acids on aggregates leads to their partial fragmentation. In the third electrostatic scenario, when nanoparticles, alginate and Suwannee River humic acids are negatively charged, only a small amount of Suwannee River humic acids is adsorbed on TiO2 nanoparticles surface. It is found that the fate and behavior of individual and aggregated TiO2 nanoparticles in presence of environmental compounds are mainly driven by the complex interplay between electrostatic attractive and repulsive interactions, steric and van der Waals interactions, as well as concentration ratio. Results also suggest that environmental aquatic concentration ranges of humic acids and biopolymers largely modify the stability of aggregated or dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Leguillon D.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Martin E.,Bordeaux Montaigne University
International Journal of Fracture | Year: 2013

The final aim of the two parts of this study is to quantify the gain in strength of a layered heterogeneous structure caused by the elastic contrast between the layers, especially if no crack deflection is observed at the interface. In part I, the analysis focus on an example, the 3 point-bending of a bimaterial made of a compliant and a stiff layer; whereas part II is dedicated to the 3-point bending of a homogeneous beam embedding a thin stiff film. Baptized "step-over" and "jump-through", two original mechanisms of crack crossing the interface are proposed herein. They rely on a coupled criterion involving both energy requirement and stress condition. It is established from asymptotic expansions and the theory of singularities. This criterion is able to respond to the paradox posed by the traditional tools of brittle fracture mechanics which might carelessly conclude to a quasi infinite strength enhancement. The subtitle of this first part might be: can a crack pass through an interface? © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-IF-EF-ST | Phase: MSCA-IF-2014-EF | Award Amount: 185.08K | Year: 2016

The RecRoad project aims to reconstruct the Roman road going from Aquileia, in the north-east of Italy, to Singidunum, on the Danube river. This was one of the main road axes of the Empire and it connected the Venetian area with the Pannonia Superior and the Danubian limes: the road was longer than 450 miles, passing through the Alps, it ran along the river Sava, crossing its course several times. The roads general layout can be followed in the itinerary sources but an attempt to accurately reconstruct the course of the road on the ground has never been tried before and may greatly improve our knowledge of the evolution of the territories that it crossed over the time. After an in-depth study of the original itinerary of the road, the project aims also at the analysis of the consequences of its construction on the landscape from different point of view (culture, settlement dynamics, religion, trade, ), so that better comprehension of the territorial and cultural connections, will be possible. To reach these goals, the project will consider and use all the sources and the new technologies avalaible to archaeologists, in a multi-disciplinary approach. All the collected and generated information will be geo-referenced and published in an online Atlas. The main output of the project will be an interactive atlas available online, where it will be possible to visualize the reconstructed route in its geographical context, the reliability degree of the individual segments and the sources that were identified with reference to the single stretch of the road to which they pertain. In addition, new strategies and initiatives for the protection and knowledge dissemination will be developed. For the first time, all the sources today avalaible to archaeologists will be used to identify the original track of a Roman road and to study the importance of the consequences that its presence had on the territory and on the way ancient people conceived the landscape where they lived.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-IF-EF-ST | Phase: MSCA-IF-2014-EF | Award Amount: 185.08K | Year: 2015

The main goal of this project is to investigate out-of-equilibrium Cu-As alloys, i.e. 0-10 wt.% As in the range used in the transition period between Stone and Metal ages. The research protocol is made of several steps: equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium phase diagrams in the above mentioned range, evaluation of mechanical properties of Cu-As alloys in the most common metallurgical states (as-cast, annealed, cold-hardened, recrystallized), and estimation of the loss of As during metallurgical transformations (melting/casting, homogenisation and recrystallisation annealing) according to the number of iterations and of the treatment temperature and dwell time. The fulfilment of these objectives is of high importance for materials science applied to archaeology dealing with development and usage of this very first alloy produced by human kind. The applicant will acquire and share with the scientific community new knowledge in the production, thermomechanical treatment and consequent properties of the misknown arsenical bronzes. She will use her metallurgical experience and archaeological knowledge (both matured in the field of tin-bronzes) applied to production, treatment and analyses of arsenical bronze. The additional knowledge the applicant will obtain within the project is related to the domain of phase diagrams creation and the usage of DTA, DSC and XRPD, under the supervision of experienced researchers from inorganic chemistry and metallurgy. The project as a whole will provide for the first time: 1) out-of-equilibrium phase diagrams for the Cu-As system 2) determination of chemical, physical and mechanical properties of arsenical bronze in the range of 0-10 wt.% arsenic 3) a comprehensive overview on the actual loss of arsenic during metallurgical transformations. The proposed project constitutes an excellent career-springboard for the applicant, being then the sole expert on the usage of arsenical bronze in the field of European archaeometallurgy.

Schmutz M.,Bordeaux Montaigne University | Blondel A.,Bordeaux Montaigne University | Revil A.,Colorado School of Mines | Revil A.,University of Savoy
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2012

We have investigated the complex conductivity of oil-bearing sands with six distinct oil types including sunflower oil, silicone oil, gum rosin, paraffin, engine oil, and an industrial oil of complex composition. In all these experiments, the oil was the non-wetting phase. The in-phase (real) conductivity follows a power law relationship with the saturation (also known as the second Archie's law) but with a saturation exponent n raging from 1.1 to 3.1. In most experiments, the quadrature conductivity follows also a power law relationship with the water saturation but with a power law exponent p can be either positive or negative. For some samples, the quadrature conductivity first increases with saturation and then decreases indicating that two processes compete in controlling the quadrature conductivity. One is related to the insulating nature of the oil phase and a second could be associated with the surface area of the oil/water interface. The quadrature conductivity seems to be influenced not only by the value of the saturation exponent n (according to the Vinegar and Waxman model, p = n-1), but also by the surface area between the oil phase and the water phase especially for very water-repellent oil having a fractal oil-water interface. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

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