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Smyth B.M.,University College Cork | Smyth H.,Bord Gais Eireann | Murphy J.D.,University College Cork
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

Grass biogas/biomethane has been put forward as a renewable energy solution and it has been shown to perform well in terms of energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions and policy constraints. Biofuel and energy crop solutions are country-specific and grass biomethane has strong potential in countries with temperate climates and a high proportion of grassland, such as Ireland. For a grass biomethane industry to develop in a country, suitable regions (i.e. those with the highest potential) must be identified. In this paper, factors specifically related to the assessment of the potential of a grass biogas/biomethane industry are identified and analysed. The potential for grass biogas and grass biomethane is determined on a county-by-county basis using multi-criteria decision analysis. Values are assigned to each county and ratings and weightings applied to determine the overall county potential. The potential for grass biomethane with co-digestion of slaughter waste (belly grass) is also determined. The county with the highest potential (Limerick) is analysed in detail and is shown to have ready potential for production of gaseous biofuel to meet either 50% of the vehicle fleet or 130% of the domestic natural gas demand, through 25 facilities at a scale of ca. 30ktyr-1 of feedstock. The assessment factors developed in this paper can be used in other resource studies into grass biomethane or other energy crops. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Conroy N.,Bord Gais Eireann | Deane J.P.,University College Cork | O Gallachoir B.P.,University College Cork
Renewable Energy | Year: 2011

This paper describes a method for quantifying wind farm availability using two different approaches and comparing the results. Wind turbine suppliers regularly guarantee turbine availability in terms of time. A typical value of 97% is generally taken as the industry standard. This paper shows that this guarantee can potentially under-compensate the wind farm operator for losses sustained depending on when the period of non-availability occurs. Here we present an alternative method to quantify wind farm availability based on energy, which relates the energy losses in an Irish wind farm in 2007 to periods of turbine non-availability. It is shown in this analysis completed at this operational wind farm that while the technical non-availability as a percentage of time is 3%, the percentage of energy lost during downtimes is actually 11%. Based on the financial analysis above, the financial losses are significant. To answer the question should wind turbine availability be time or energy based, this paper shows that it can be advantageous for wind turbine owners to have energy-based calculations as long as the developers have sufficient monitoring of not only wind speed but also SCADA data. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Smyth B.M.,University College Cork | Smyth H.,Bord Gais Eireann | Murphy J.D.,ERI
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining | Year: 2010

Farm incomes in Ireland are in decline and many farmers would operate at a loss in the absence of subsidies. Agriculture is responsible for 27% of Ireland's greenhouse gas emissions and is the largest contributing sector. Penetration of renewable energy in the heat and transport sectors is falling short of targets, and there is no clear plan for achieving them. The anaerobic digestion of grass to produce biogas or biomethane is put forward as a multifaceted solution, which could help meet energy and emissions targets, reduce dependence on imported energy, and provide additional farm income. This paper addresses the economic viability of such a system. Grass biogas/biomethane fares poorly under the current combined heat and power tariff structure, which is geared toward feedstock that attracts a gate fee. Tariff structures similar to those used in other countries are necessary for the industry to develop. Equally, regulation should be implemented to allow injection of biomethane into the gas grid in Ireland. Blends of natural gas and biomethane can be sold, offering a cost-competitive green fuel. Sale as a renewable transport fuel could allow profitability for the farmer and savings for the consumer, but suffers due to the lack of a market. Under current conditions, the most economically viable outlet for grass biomethane is sale as a renewable heating fuel. The key to competitiveness is the existing natural gas infrastructure that enables distribution of grass biomethane, and the renewable energy targets that allow renewable fuels to compete against each other. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.86M | Year: 2013

The ATBEST ITN will develop innovative research and training for the biogas industry in Europe. It comprises eight training sites located in the UK, Ireland, Germany and Sweden and is a multidisciplinary collaboration between internationally-renowned research teams and industrial partners, each with complementary expertise in a wide range of environmental technologies. 12 ESRs and 2 ERs will be recruited and each will participate in secondments, industrially relevant training and 3 Summer Schools. The aim is to establish long-term collaborations and develop structured research and training relevant to industry and academia along the biogas supply chain (biogas production from feedstock to its utilisation as energy). The project will reinforce and expand existing research links to standardise and advance biogas training. The Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) sets EU targets of a 20% share of energy from renewable sources in the overall energy mix by 2020. However, current technologies are not sufficient to reach these targets in a sustainable manner. ATBEST will develop new and innovative technologies for the biogas sector, to enable Europe to implement its Energy 2020 strategy and to address the challenges of increasing energy demand and energy generation costs. The young researchers will create new knowledge for the biogas industry, and will develop advanced technical and commercial skills to enhance their employment opportunities upon completion of the programme. ATBEST outputs will be disseminated across Europe to policy makers, applicable sectors (including energy, agri-food and transport), academia and to the general public. An Innovation, Exploitation and Employability Steering Group will input industrial and policy expertise from the Associate Partners to the training programme. The Associate Partners will also provide feedback to each fellow and provide additional industrial secondment opportunities.


Thamsiriroj T.,University College Cork | Smyth H.,Bord Gais Eireann | Murphy J.D.,University College Cork
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

Ireland is heavily dependent on imported transport fuel. The bill in 2008 was 5.9 billion. Because of the significant resources in organic residues and feedstocks there is readily available potential to substitute 8.4% of oil with indigenously produced biomethane, a renewable gaseous transport fuel. This level of oil replacement with biomethane would directly save 500 m a-1 from imports, provide an injection of 500 m a-1 into the Irish economy and save a further 22 m a-1 in the reduced damage cost of traffic-related pollutant. The EU Renewable Energy Directive allows a double credit for biofuels produced from residues or lignocellulosic material. Thus the biomethane industry will allow compliance with the renewable energy supply in transport target of 10% in 2020 and the EU Landfill Directive. Biomethane is predicated on a compressed natural gas (CNG) industry. The grid in Ireland is extensive reaching 40% of all houses. However, development of this industry in Ireland requires strong government commitment. Recommended supports include: policy dictating that all new buses run on gaseous fuel; setting a market penetration target for CNG vehicles; mandation of biomethane as a proportion of gaseous transport fuel, subsidies for biomethane facilities and grid injection. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SEC-2013.2.5-3 | Award Amount: 13.20M | Year: 2014

The protection of critical infrastructures increasingly demands solutions which support incident detection and management at the levels of individual CI, across CIs which are depending on each other, and across borders. An approach is required which really integrates functionalities across all these levels. Cooperation of privately operated CIs and public bodies (governments and EU) is difficult but mandatory. After about 10 years of analysis and research on partial effects in CIP and for individual infrastructure sectors, ECOSSIAN is supposed to be the first attempt to develop this holistic system in the sense portrayed above. A prototype system will be developed which facilitates preventive functions like threat monitoring, early indicator and real threat detection, alerting, support of threat mitigation and disaster management. In the technical architecture with an operations centre and the interfaces to legacy systems (e.g., SCADA), advanced technologies need to be integrated, including fast data aggregation and fusion, visualization of the situation, planning and decision support, and flexible networks for information sharing and coordination support, and the connection of local operations centres. This system will only be successful, if the technical solutions will be complemented by an effective and agreed organizational concept and the implementation of novel rules and regulations. And finally, the large spectrum of economically intangible factors will have significant influence on the quality and acceptance of the system. These factors of societal perception and appreciation, the existing and required legal framework, questions of information security and implications on privacy will be analyzed, assessed and regarded in the concept. The system will be tested, demonstrated and evaluated in realistic use cases. They will be developed with the community of stakeholders and cover the sectors energy, transportation and finance, and the ubiquitous sector of ICT.


O'Dwyer P.,Bord Gais Eireann | Tazedakis A.,Corinth Pipeworks S.A. | Boothby P.,MACAW Engineering Ltd.
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2010

The recently constructed Bord Gáis Éireann, Curraleigh West to Midleton pipeline runs due north from the Midleton compressor station near the city of Cork in Southern Ireland. The 47.5 km, 610mm outside diameter pipeline, comprises over 30 km of 9.5 mm and 17 km of 19.1 mm wall thickness L450MB (X65) grade pipe. The pipe for the project was produced by Corinth Pipeworks (CPW), at its state of the art HFW pipe mill at Thisvi, Greece and represents a first in terms of the quantity of 19.1 mm L450MB (X65) HFW pipe produced by the mill for a specific project. The paper outlines the engineering approach adopted for the pipeline before describing in detail the production challenges faced by the pipe mill in successfully completing this demanding pipe order. Production of the 9.5 mm wall thickness pipe was not anticipated to present any particular difficulties. However, the principal concern associated with the manufacture of the 19.1 mm pipe was that the combination of wall thickness and strength level was toward the upper end of the commercially supplied wall thickness-strength combinations for HFW produced linepipe, particularly as the actual strength of the starting coil was well above the minimum specified level for L450MB (X65). In addition, to accommodate the demanding drop weight tear test (DWTT) toughness requirement the chemical composition of the 19.1 mm coil strip was above the permitted limits of the parent pipe standard EN 10208-2 [1] for the elements Cu & Ni, and the yield to tensile ratio was also above the 0.87 maximum level required by EN 10208-2 for L450MB (X65) grade pipe. Potential risks were therefore identified prior to production and mitigated by several methods detailed in the paper, including for example; increased initial production test frequency, close monitoring during pipe production, duplicate testing to verify mill results, identification of potential construction issues and weldability testing. A summary of production experience including statistical data for the production of both 9.5 mm and 19.1 mm pipe is presented. Also covered are the results of a supplementary investigation which makes a further assessment of the influence of the welding and heat treatment cycles on the final pipe properties. The paper concludes by referring to the overall successful construction phase of the project. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.


Boothby P.,MACAW Engineering Ltd | Canty G.,Bord Gais eireann | Andrews R.,MACAW Engineering Ltd | Slater S.,MACAW Engineering Ltd
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2014

A previous IPC conference paper (1) described the technical challenges associated with the installation of a new hot tap connection, supplementary to an existing hot tap connection, on the Bord Gáis Éireann Brighouse Bay high pressure gas export terminal in the UK. Work carried out to verify that the hot tap connection would be fit for purpose included a pipe stress analysis, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA). These assessments were performed because the split tee shell thickness and consequently also the circumferential fillet weld leg lengths did not achieve the 2 x carrier pipe thickness criterion required by UK specifications for applications where design stress levels exceed 30% specified minimum yield strength. Subsequently, it was identified that the existing hot tap connection installed in 2001 also did not meet the 2 x carrier pipe thickness criterion. Furthermore the material grade was lower than that for newer hot tap, i.e. P355 compared with P460 and the tee had been chamfered down from 50 mm to 40 mm at the ends, leading to reduced section circumferential fillet welds. This resulted in a leaner design than that for the newer hot tap and an ASME B31.3 area replacement calculation revealed that the area replacement ratio barely achieved the 1.0 requirement of the code suggesting a limited tolerance to system loading. Consequently similar stress analysis, FEA and ECA assessments to those previously undertaken were also subsequently performed for the existing hot tap connection. This paper provides details of the analyses and results obtained to determine the integrity of the existing hot tap split tee assembly which required a bespoke approach and a need to challenge conventional thinking. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.


Cotter A.,Bord Gais Eireann | Boothby P.,MACAW Engineering Ltd.
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2012

The UK onshore high pressure gas export terminal at Brighouse Bay in south west Scotland is a key strategic facility for Bord Gáis Éireann currently providing the predominant source of gas supply to Ireland via two interconnector pipelines that cross the Irish sea. A high design pressure of 150 barg combined with a low minimum design temperature (-30°C) has led to the use of heavy wall thickness station pipework, i.e. 508 mm outside diameter x 38.1 mm wall thickness ASTM A333 grade 6 (240MPa yield strength) seamless pipe. A requirement for a new hot tap connection at Brighouse Bay to improve security of supply identified several issues that needed to be addressed. Firstly, the normal UK requirement for 2 x carrier pipe thickness for the shell of the full encirclement split tee for the main branch connection could not be achieved due to the impracticality of rolling 76.2 mm thickness material to an internal diameter of only 508 mm to match the carrier pipe. Consequently there was concern that the area replacement ratio achieved by use of a thinner fitting may not be adequate for any additional site specific system loading despite meeting the ASME B31.3 code. Furthermore, the pressurised circumferential fillet welds made between the split tee and the carrier pipe may not be of sufficient size in view of the restricted leg length and hence resultant reduced fillet weld throat thickness. The parameters for the Brighouse Bay pipework in term of pipe material specification, pipe wall thickness and design pressure were also outside the range for which the existing UK hot tap welding procedure had been qualified. Hence a hot tap simulation assembly would need to be fabricated to qualify the welding procedure. In addition, the 38.1mm thickness Brighouse Bay pipework required PWHT in accordance with the ASME B 31.3 design code, but PWHT was not feasible for the hot tap connection. Hence there would be a need to demonstrate adequate toughness and fitness for purpose in the as welded condition. The paper describes the detailed approach taken to address these concerns which included preliminary on-site material sampling and NDE, evaluation and assessment of the project pipe and fitting materials requirements, pipework stress analysis, finite element analysis and engineering critical assessment of the split tee connection, and hot tap weld procedure qualification. The paper concludes by describing the successful hot tap installation phase of the project. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

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