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Araujo O.,Halliburton Co. | Ramon Ortiz J.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | Hernandez J.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | Castillo H.,PEMEX | Basurto E.,PEMEX
SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference Proceedings | Year: 2014

In northern Mexico, from the Burgos basin to the Chicontepec field, horizontal wells have been a viable choice for exploiting hydrocarbons in tight gas and shale reservoirs. Successful drilling and completion of such wells has allowed goals in this complex operation to be reached. The learning curve trend means good knowledge has been acquired and difficulties encountered during completions can be addressed using new techniques available within the area. To achieve high performance when fracturing multiple zones, the application of an abrasive perforating technique using coiled tubing (CT) has proven a very effective alternative for acquiring optimum results. This has been particularly true for applications in highly deviated and horizontal wells. Although this technique has been applied in others regions since 1998, its implementation within this region has only become more common during the past three years. Using field experience with actual cases, this paper illustrates the available technologies and techniques that have become a new process in this region. Because of the undisputed completion and production results, pinpoint multistage fracturing is becoming the preferred completion technique used by the operator and will be used extensively as more horizontal wells are scheduled to be drilled and completed in upcoming years. Similarly, this has been the preferred choice when the formation is estimated to produce liquids. © 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Gilbert L.G.,National Oilwell Varco | Skyles L.P.,National Oilwell Varco | Smith L.M.,National Oilwell Varco | Davis G.W.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | Medlin K.G.,Halliburton Boots and Coots
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Coiled Tubing and Well Intervention Conference and Exhibition 2013 | Year: 2013

Once the decision is made to complete a well in order to begin producing, the operator wants to complete the task as soon as possible. One completion task is to drill through multiple completion plugs so the pay zones can begin producing. In the past, drilling these plugs has gone slower than desirable due to static friction build-up between the coiled tubing string and the hole wall. In addition, slower plug drilling results as the drill bit dulls after drilling several plugs. This paper introduces a friction breaking tool/drill bit combination that has shown to lessen plug drilling time by almost double what was previously possible. The friction physics between hole wall and coiled tubing will be presented in the initial portion of this paper. Then, the simple designs of the friction breaking tool and the drill bit will complete the design portion of the paper. Finally, a Case Study is provided to show the results of running these tools. The Case Study took place in Tarrant County, Texas while drilling out composite completion plugs to complete four wells. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Abdel Kareem E.,Khalda Petroleum | Salah M.,Khalda Petroleum | El Farran A.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | Conrad B.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | El Beltagy A.,Halliburton Boots and Coots
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Coiled Tubing and Well Intervention Conference and Exhibition 2015 | Year: 2015

Economic production from marginal reserves in mature fields has always been a major development challenge. Drilling horizontal wells and deploying coiled tubing (CT) multistage hydraulic fracturing stimulation treatments is now a proven solution for mature field development because it exposes more stimulated production zones. Khalda and Umbarka fields are two mature fields located in the Egyptian Western Desert. They are characterized by their low, depleted reservoir pressure and laminated shaley sands (Upper Bahariya formation). Their hydrocarbon reserve contents are significant. However, because of their relatively low permeability and thin layers, it is very difficult to produce economically from this formation without using hydraulic fracturing. Single-stage hydraulic fracturing treatments in vertically drilled wells resulted in a production of 25 to 40 B/D per well, which is uneconomic for field developments. Drilling horizontal wells into the best sand layer of the Upper Bahariya sand and performing seven isolated stages of hydraulic fracturing treatments by deploying CT technologies resulted in impressive production responses (1,800 B/D initial production) from this reservoir, which makes this development economical. Deploying CT to the operations exponentially improved its efficiency; seven isolated fracturing stages were performed along the lateral and more than one million lbm of proppant was pumped during three days through one single CT trip in the well. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the lessons learned from two case histories where CT fracturing techniques for multistage stimulation were applied to achieve maximum production in the field and improve the efficiency of multistage fracturing operations. Copyright © (2015) by the Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Wattanasuwankorn R.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | Hammer F.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | Christieson R.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | Song Y.,Brunei Shell Petroleum Co. | Long N.,Brunei Shell Petroleum Co.
Proceedings of the Annual Offshore Technology Conference | Year: 2014

An operator requiring an offshore coiled tubing (CT) intervention in the South China Sea, Brunei, encountered challenging monsoon weather conditions, as well as limited and aging offshore facilities. This, combined with a desire to improve operational efficiency, led to the design of novel improvements to the CT intervention vessel. Innovative technologies from various applications were combined to provide the operator with a successful solution for CT intervention improvement. The CT intervention vessel concepts consisted of a full catenary CT system, dynamic positioning (DP) vessel, knuckle boom crane, and a heave-compensated gangway. The full catenary system was selected for this CT operation to help minimize the potential for lifting hazards, reduce offshore installation lead times, and improve the operating efficiency of the CT intervention vessel. The DP vessel eliminated anchoring requirements and provided enhanced efficiency for evacuation. The knuckle boom crane provided the capability to lift at different angles to reach equipment placement in difficult positions, even underneath the platform helideck. The heave-compensated gangway delivered improved crew transportation between the vessel and offshore facilities, as well as provided a means for improved emergency response and evacuation during the occurrence of sudden severe offshore weather conditions. Use of these novel concepts significantly improved the safety and operation of the CT intervention vessel. Copyright 2014, Offshore Technology Conference.

Buali M.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | Ginest N.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | Leal J.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | Sambo O.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | And 3 more authors.
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Oilfield Scale 2014 | Year: 2014

The carbonate gas producing zones of the Ghawar field have been impacted by extensive FeS scale deposition, reducing overall gas production and significantly increasing risks of well interventions. Previous remediation included the use of workover rigs, which can be costly because of the time necessary for workovers and lost production. H2S levels (2 to 5%) found in the reservoir also contribute to higher costs and risks when using workover rigs. A chemical solution was also considered, but the FeS could not be 100% dissolved with HCl and the chemical reaction generated large amounts of H2S in addition to existing high levels of H2S in the reservoir. This poses a safety concern with the returns at surface along with potential corrosion of the coiled tubing (CT) and completion. Therefore, the safest and most economical method was deemed to be mechanical descaling with CT. This paper discusses two wells where mechanical descaling was applied using CT. Each well involved four major challenges that included low reservoir pressure, increased reservoir temperature, horizontal openhole completion, and scale with high specific gravity (3.7 to 4.3). The low reservoir pressure required pay zone isolation to allow for returns to circulate out the heavy scale and to minimize fluid losses to the formation. The fact that the wells had long, openhole sections created another challenge for isolation and cleanout. With a bottomhole temperature (BHT) as high as to 310°F, the operational envelope of temporary chemical packers in combination with loss circulation materials (LCMs) to isolate the openhole section had to be expanded. Following mechanical descaling with CT, the final challenge discussed in this paper is the process to clean out the LCM in the horizontal openhole and bring the well back to maximum gas production using pinpoint stimulation techniques. Copyright 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Sredensek E.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | Bruin E.,Halliburton Boots and Coots
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Coiled Tubing and Well Intervention Conference and Exhibition 2014 | Year: 2014

The gas caverns in Europe require dewatering strings with outside diameters (ODs) from 4.5 to 6 5/8 in. to be installed and removed under high pressure conditions. Snubbing units are typically used to perform gas cavern work on land. However, typical offshore snubbing units often take considerable time to rig up because they are not optimized to fully use larger crane capacities available for land applications. Specialized fit-for-purpose snubbing equipment designed for land applications offers substantially improved efficiency and safety. This paper explores advances in snubbing unit designs that focus on Europe land application requirements. Rigup performance greatly improves when modular preassembled equipment is delivered to the jobsite. Quick rig type snubbing units are rigged up with fewer crane lifts and fewer connections to make up, thus greatly reducing operation personnel exposure to rigup/rigdown hazards. Transport cradles are used to lift equipment safely from horizontal to vertical positions. Transportation is achievable anywhere in Europe without the requirement to apply for special overweight permits. This paper also elaborates on safety system advances, such as slip bowl interlock system technology, to help ensure proper slip bowl operation and help prevent operator error, emergency egress systems, and improved pipe handling safety. Copyright 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Thomson I.,Halliburton Boots and Coots
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Coiled Tubing and Well Intervention Conference and Exhibition 2014 | Year: 2014

To meet the demand for energy, operators are turning to development of unconventional resources. It is estimated that there are more than 750 trillion cubic feet of technically recoverable shale gas and 24 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in discovered shale plays in the US alone. Tight rock in the longer horizontal shale-oil plays requires both longer lateral wells and multistage fracturing to maximize oil recovery. Coiled tubing (CT) plays an essential role in post-frac cleanup, requiring both safe and efficient equipment. Unconventional shale well construction has taken on a factory construction approach, with more than 20,000 horizontal wells being drilled each year in the US. These long lateral lengths require larger CT units (CTUs) with larger outside diameter (OD) strings, which often increases the number and size of the equipment loads necessary to service the wells. Service providers are being challenged with ways to increase the speed and efficiency of these larger service packages, while maintaining or improving safety performance. This paper discusses how the unique design of a mast unit trailer and associated equipment meets this challenge with its 5 1/8-in. preassembled well control equipment (WCE) stack and its ability to contain a full milling assembly combined with a fluidic oscillator in its riser stack. The system has also been designed to be versatile and enables a variety of WCE sizes and configurations to be mounted on the trailer to help ensure customized solutions to many operational challenges. The system offers substantial improvements in terms of rig-up time compared to a conventional CTU. Field trails have shown the preassembled WCE stack can significantly reduce rigup time by as much as 50% by reducing the number of bolts required to be made up and torqued on site. The paper also explains how the unique design improves operational safety. With the reduced number of bolts required to be made up onsite, hand and finger injuries associated with hammer wrenches and dropped objects can be vastly reduced. When the trolley is raised and latched into position, dangers associated with making up a bottom-hole assembly (BHA) directly under a suspended crane load have been removed. Even if the crane were to fail, the mast and trolley is designed to sustain the entire load of the injector, stripper, riser, and blowout preventer (BOP). Copyright 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Machado F.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | Souza R.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | Fonseca R.,Halliburton Boots and Coots
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Coiled Tubing and Well Intervention Conference and Exhibition 2015 | Year: 2015

Offshore pipeline pre-commissioning activities normally involve the use of downline to permit the communication between surface equipment (normally rigged up in a vessel or rig) and the subsea pipeline injection/vent point. Recently, a major operator in Brazil deployed a 1 3/4-in. coiled tubing (CT) string as downline at sea using a methodology to maintain a smooth bend radius to help reduce fatigue issues during operations. Using CT as downline for this operation saved the operator USD millions by eliminating the need to replace a pipeline section. The 40-kilometer (km) pipeline had a blockage composed of pigs, debris, and hydrates. After two failed interventions, the operator decided to install a subsea hot tap on each side of the plug, displace the hydrocarbon, and clean the pipeline to cut the section and replace it with new pipe. The blockage was located 6 km from the center of the pipeline. CT string was deployed to the seabed (1400 m) and was attached using soft sling in a deployed 8-ton clump weight positioned next to the pipeline. A 25-m flying lead hose was used in the bottomhole assembly (BHA) to connect the CT to the pipeline subsea hot tap near the plugged section and compensate vessel movement. After attaching the CT string on the clump weight, the vessel was moved away from this point to deploy 40 m of the CT on the seabed, forming a smooth bend radius. A Nitrogen generator unit (NGU) was used to displace gas in the pipeline to the production unit flare. Cleaning operations were completed using a pig propelled with filtered seawater provided by pumping equipment located on the production unit. The execution plan required that all fluids be recovered onboard the support vessel through the CT attached to the subsea hot tap. Using CT and established best practices, the team was not only able to clean the pipeline section as planned but also eliminate the need to cut and replace the pipeline section. The CT string was kept under water for more than 170 hours, demonstrating its capability to satisfactorily function as downline equipment during this operation. Copyright © (2015) by the Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Pawar B.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | Hriscu J.,Halliburton Boots and Coots | Brand S.,Halliburton Co.
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Coiled Tubing and Well Intervention Conference and Exhibition 2015 | Year: 2015

The global demand for energy has led to an industry focused on increasing process efficiency with respect to innovative techniques for hydraulic fracturing stimulation. One such innovative process is coiled tubing (CT) deployed pinpoint stimulation. Pinpoint multistage fracturing with hydrajetting perforation technique is a solution that enables fracture placement in virtually an unlimited number of fracturing stages in long lateral sections, with a single trip into the wellbore. The evolution of pinpoint stimulation technology and its benefits have been recognized in many papers published along the years. In some variations of the pinpoint stimulation technique, the bottomhole assembly (BHA) is activated by ball drop and reverse circulation of the ball. This process has been improved with a new generation design of the BHA, which renders the operation capable of being entirely controlled remotely from the surface using movement of the CT string. The ball drop activation is eliminated. This allows real-time, on-demand control of the tool setting. Based on traditional proven pinpoint solutions and adopting this new way of well stimulation, the pinpoint multistage fracturing method has become more efficient. This improved BHA, in conjunction with a proprietary pinpoint stimulation process, can help reduce water consumption on location and horsepower requirements, reduce idle time between fracturing treatments, reduce pump time per stage, and help prevent ball drop difficulties, all without having to make changes to the fracturing spread, equipment, and CT on location. The improved BHA enables hydrajet perforation, hydraulic fracturing using real-time downhole proppant concentration control, and proppant plugs to be set for zonal isolation. Additionally, multicycle sequences can be repeated in long lateral and vertical wells. It also helps assist centralization of the BHA during perforating operations to help maintain appropriate jet standoff distance. This paper presents the development approach of the aforementioned improved BHA, and a means to manipulate it from the surface. Validation during field testing is also outlined. Copyright © (2015) by the Society of Petroleum Engineers.

McDaniel R.,Halliburton Boots and Coots
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Coiled Tubing and Well Intervention Conference and Exhibition 2015 | Year: 2015

This paper examines techniques necessary to fish coiled tubing (CT) with internal weld seams in a live well environment without back pressure valves (BPVs) using a hydraulic workover unit (HWO). The challenges of placing barriers in internal seamed CT verses using the slip and shear method is addressed. The discussed onshore operation was completed August 2013 in North America. Using the techniques described, a 14,000-ft (4267 m) 2-in. (50.8-mm) CT fish was successfully removed from a well with an average surface pressure of 5,500 psi. This was achieved by first opening the blind rams, snubbing in, and dressing off the CT fish. Next, the CT fish was latched with an overshot and a pull test was performed, pressure was equalized, and the slip and pipe rams were opened. Following, the CT fish was picked up and moved to a desired location in the blowout preventer (BOP) stack (approximately 51 ft 4 in.). The slip rams were then closed and a weight check was performed. The pipe rams and inverted rams were then closed. The CT fish was shear/cut, the pipe was picked up and the blind rams were closed. This was concluded by laying down the fish and the process was repeated 276 times with an average cut of 50 ft. The HWO fishing procedures consisted of 541 hours without any health, safety, or environment (HSE) incidents, accidents, injuries, or job failures. Copyright © (2015) by the Society of Petroleum Engineers.

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