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Ostergaard P.,St Georges, University of London | Simpson M.A.,Kings College London | Connell F.C.,Guys and St. Thomas National Health Service NHS | Steward C.G.,Bone Marrow Transplant Unit | And 16 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2011

We report an allelic series of eight mutations in GATA2 underlying Emberger syndrome, an autosomal dominant primary lymphedema associated with a predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia. GATA2 is a transcription factor that plays an essential role in gene regulation during vascular development and hematopoietic differentiation. Our findings indicate that haploinsufficiency of GATA2 underlies primary lymphedema and predisposes to acute myeloid leukemia in this syndrome. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Kaminitz A.,Center for Stem Cell Research | Mizrahi K.,Center for Stem Cell Research | Stein J.,Bone Marrow Transplant Unit | Askenasy N.,Center for Stem Cell Research
Journal of Autoimmunity | Year: 2010

Mounting evidence indicates that immunosuppressive therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation are relatively inefficient approaches to treat autoimmune diabetes. In this study we assessed the impact of immunosuppression on inflammatory insulitis in NOD mice, and the effect of radiation on immunomodulation mediated by adoptive transfer of various cell subsets. Sublethal radiation of NOD females at the age of 14 weeks (onset of hyperglycemia) delayed the onset of hyperglycemia, however two thirds of the mice became diabetic. Adoptive transfer of splenocytes into irradiated NON and NOD mice precipitated disease onset despite increased contents of CD25+FoxP3+ T cells in the pancreas and regional lymphatics. Similar phenotypic changes were observed when CD25+ T cells were infused after radiation, which also delayed disease onset without affecting its incidence. Importantly, irradiation increased the susceptibility to diabetes in NOD and NON mice (71-84%) as compared to immunomodulation with splenocytes and CD25+ T cells in naïve recipients (44-50%). Although irradiation had significant and durable influence on pancreatic infiltrates and the fractions of functional CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells were elevated by adoptive cell transfer, this approach conferred no protection from disease progression. Irradiation was ineffective both in debulking of pathogenic clones and in restoring immune homeostasis, and the consequent homeostatic expansion evolves as an unfavorable factor in attempts to restore self-tolerance and might even provoke uncontrolled proliferation of pathogenic clones. The obstacles imposed by immunosuppression on abrogation of autoimmune insulitis require replacement of non-specific immunosuppressive therapy by selective immunomodulation that does not cause lymphopenia. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Askenasy N.,Center for Stem Cell Research | Mizrahi K.,Center for Stem Cell Research | Askenasy E.M.,Center for Stem Cell Research | Stein J.,Bone Marrow Transplant Unit
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2013

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can be prevented by Fas-mediated selective depletion of host-sensitized donor lymphocytes ex vivo. We tested the hypothesis that Fas-mediated depletion of lymphocytes in the absence of host-specific antigenic stimulation can alleviate GVHD. Brief exposure (24 hours) of unstimulated donor lymphocytes to Fas ligand (FasL) ex vivo results in balanced apoptosis of CD8+ and CD4+ subsets with preferential depletion of CD62L and CD69, increased T regulatory fractions, and sustained responses to stimulation. This procedure ameliorates weight loss and improves the clinical and histologic score of skin and gastrointestinal GVHD with and without concurrent transplantation of hematopoietic progenitors and irrespective of conditioning-induced tissue injury. Although FasL-resistant donor T cells are less potent effectors of GVHD, they facilitate hematopoietic progenitor engraftment when infused with or after the graft and retain the potential to elaborate graft-versus-tumor reactions. These findings in a preclinical model together with the known trophic effects of FasL on primitive hematopoietic progenitors suggest that brief ex vivo incubation of hematopoietic grafts with FasL may improve the outcome and safety of clinical T cell-replete allogeneic and haploidentical transplants. © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Source

Peffault de Latour R.,Bone Marrow Transplant Unit
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2011

Information is scarce on outcomes after unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) for patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). We retrospectively analyzed 71 patients (median age, 13 years; 28 adults) with SAA (9 with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria [PNH]) who received a single-unit (n = 57; 79%) or double-unit UCBT (n = 14; 19%) in 32 centers between 1996 and 2009. A reduced-intensity conditioning regimen was provided in 68% of the patients. The cumulative incidence (CI) of neutrophil recovery was 51% ± 6% at day 60, with significantly better engraftment seen in recipients of higher prefreezing total nucleated cell (TNC) dose (>3.9 10(7)/kg; hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; P = .05). The CI of platelet engraftment at day 180 posttransplantation was 37% ± 7%, that of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 20% ± 5%, and that of chronic GVHD at 3 years was 18% ± 5%. At a median follow-up of 35 months (range, 3-83 months), the estimated probability of 3-year overall survival (OS) was 38% ± 6%. Significantly improved OS was seen in recipients of >3.9 10(7) TNCs/kg prefreezing (45%, compared with 18% for recipients of ≤ 3.9 10(7) TNC/kg; HR, 0.4; P = .007). These results highlight the fundamental role of cell dose for both engraftment and OS in patients with SAA undergoing UCBT. 2011 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Mizrahi K.,Center for Stem Cell Research | Stein J.,Bone Marrow Transplant Unit | Askenasy N.,Center for Stem Cell Research
Bone Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2014

Mobilized peripheral blood (mPB) is a prevalent source of hematopoietic progenitors for transplantation; however, allogeneic and haploidentical transplants are often accompanied by severe GVHD. Following the observation that murine GVHD is ameliorated by pretransplant donor cell exposure to Fas-ligand (FasL) without host-specific sensitization, we assessed the susceptibility of mPB cells to spontaneous and receptor-induced apoptosis as a possible approach to GVHD prophylaxis. Short incubation for 4 h resulted in spontaneous apoptosis of 50% of the T and B lymphocytes and 60% myeloid cells. Although expression of Fas and TNF-R1 was proportionate to fractional apoptosis, cell death was dominated by spontaneous apoptosis. Functional assays revealed that the death receptors modulated mPB graft composition as compared with incubation in medium, without detectable quantitative variations. Removal of dead cells increased the frequency of mPB myeloid progenitors (P<0.001 vs medium), and recipients of mPB exposed to death ligands displayed reduced GVHD (P<0.01 vs medium) and improved survival following lipopolysacharide stimulation. mPB grafts exposed to the apoptotic challenge retained SCID reconstituting potential and graft versus tumor activity. These data emphasize that short-term exposure of mPB grafts to an apoptotic challenge is effective in reduction of GVHD effector activity. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

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