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Huang R.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Vider J.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Vider J.,Griffith University | Kovar J.L.,Li-Cor Biosciences, Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: Integrin αvβ3 plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis, growth, and metastasis. We have tested a targeted probe to visualize integrin receptor expression in glioblastomas using near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging. Experimental design: A transgenic glioblastoma mouse model (RCAS-PDGF-driven/tv-a glioblastoma, which mimics the infiltrative growth pattern of human glioblastomas) and two human orthotopic glioblastoma models (U-87MG with high integrin β3 expression and TS543 with low integrin β3 expression) were studied. An integrin-targeting NIRF probe, IRDye 800CW-cyclic-RGD peptide (IRDye 800CW-RGD), was tested by in vivo and ex vivo NIRF imaging. Results: We show that the IRDye 800CW-RGD peptide: (i) specifically binds to integrin receptors; (ii) is selectively localized to glioblastoma tissue with overexpressed integrin receptors and is retained over prolonged periods of time; (iii) is associated with minimal autofluorescence and photobleaching because of imaging at 800 nm; (iv) provides delineation of tumor tissue with high precision because of a high tumor-to-normal brain fluorescence ratio (79.7 ± 6.9, 31.2 ± 2.8, and 16.3 ± 1.3) in the U-87 MG, RCAS-PDGF, and TS543 models, respectively; P < 0.01); and (v) enables fluorescence-guided glioblastoma resection. Importantly, small foci of residual fluorescence were observed after resection was completed using white light imaging alone, and these fluorescent foci were shown to represent residual tumor tissue by histology. Conclusions: NIRF imaging with the IRDye 800CW-RGD probe provides a simple, rapid, low-cost, nonradioactive, and highly translatable approach for improved intraoperative glioblastoma visualization and resection. It also has the potential to serve as an imaging platform for noninvasive cancer detection and drug efficacy evaluation studies. ©2012 AACR. Source

Wilmot A.,University of Pennsylvania | Gieschler S.,Bone Cell Biology and Imaging Laboratory | Behera D.,Stanford University | Gade T.P.,University of Pennsylvania | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Roentgenology | Year: 2013

Objective. A review of the innovative role molecular imaging plays in musculoskeletal radiology is provided. Musculoskeletal molecular imaging is under development in four key areas: imaging the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, imaging of molecular and cellular biomarkers of arthritic joint destruction, cellular imaging of osteomyelitis, and imaging generators of musculoskeletal pain. Conclusion. Together, these applications suggest that next-generation musculoskeletal radiology will facilitate quantitative visualization of molecular and cellular biomarkers, an advancement that appeared futuristic just a decade ago. © American Roentgen Ray Society. Source

Balogh Z.J.,University of Newcastle | Reumann M.K.,Monash University | Gruen R.L.,Monash University | Mayer-Kuckuk P.,Bone Cell Biology and Imaging Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Musculoskeletal injuries are the most common reason for operative procedures in severely injured patients and are major determinants of functional outcomes. In this paper, we summarise advances and future directions for management of multiply injured patients with major musculoskeletal trauma. Improved understanding of fracture healing has created new possibilities for management of particularly challenging problems, such as delayed union and non union of fractures and large bone defects. Optimum timing of major orthopaedic interventions is guided by increased knowledge about the immune response after injury. Individual treatment should be guided by trading off the benefits of early definitive skeletal stabilisation, and the potentially life-threatening risks of systemic complications such as fat embolism, acute lung injury, and multiple organ failure. New methods for measurement of fracture healing and function and quality of life outcomes pave the way for landmark trials that will guide the future management of musculoskeletal injuries. Source

Gade T.P.,Bone Cell Biology and Imaging Laboratory | Gade T.P.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Gade T.P.,University of Pennsylvania | Motley M.W.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to develop a paradigm for quantitative molecular imaging of bone cell activity. We hypothesized the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of the osteoblast enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using a small imaging molecule in combination with 19Flourine magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ( 19FMRSI). 6, 8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (DiFMUP), a fluorinated ALP substrate that is activatable to a fluorescent hydrolysis product was utilized as a prototype small imaging molecule. The molecular structure of DiFMUP includes two Fluorine atoms adjacent to a phosphate group allowing it and its hydrolysis product to be distinguished using 19Fluorine magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 19FMRS) and 19FMRSI. ALP-mediated hydrolysis of DiFMUP was tested on osteoblastic cells and bone tissue, using serial measurements of fluorescence activity. Extracellular activation of DiFMUP on ALP-positive mouse bone precursor cells was observed. Concurringly, DiFMUP was also activated on bone derived from rat tibia. Marked inhibition of the cell and tissue activation of DiFMUP was detected after the addition of the ALP inhibitor levamisole. 19FMRS and 19FMRSI were applied for the non-invasive measurement of DiFMUP hydrolysis. 19FMRS revealed a two-peak spectrum representing DiFMUP with an associated chemical shift for the hydrolysis product. Activation of DiFMUP by ALP yielded a characteristic pharmacokinetic profile, which was quantifiable using non-localized 19FMRS and enabled the development of a pharmacokinetic model of ALP activity. Application of 19FMRSI facilitated anatomically accurate, non-invasive imaging of ALP concentration and activity in rat bone. Thus, 19FMRSI represents a promising approach for the quantitative imaging of bone cell activity during bone formation with potential for both preclinical and clinical applications. © 2011 Gade et al. Source

Reumann M.K.,Bone Cell Biology and Imaging Laboratory | Nair T.,Bone Cell Biology and Imaging Laboratory | Strachna O.,Bone Cell Biology and Imaging Laboratory | Boskey A.L.,Mineralized Tissue Laboratory | Mayer-Kuckuk P.,Bone Cell Biology and Imaging Laboratory
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2010

Physio-logical disturbances, including temporary hypoxia, are expected to drive angiogenesis during bone repair. Evidence suggests that the angiogenic ligand vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A plays an important role in this process. We characterized the expression of two receptors that are essential for mediating VEGF signaling, VEGFR1/Flt-1 and VEGFR2/Flk-1/KDR, in a mouse rib fracture model. Their mRNA and protein levels were assessed in four healing phases, which were characterized histologically as hemorrhage formation on postfracture day (PFD) 1, inflammatory response on PFD 3, initiation of callus development on PFD 7, and the presence of a mature callus on PFD 14. Transcript was detected for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, as well as VEGF. While mRNA expression of VEGFR1 was monophasic throughout all healing phases, VEGFR2 showed a biphasic profile with significantly increased mRNA expression during callus formation and maturation. Expression of VEGF mRNA was characterized by a more gradual increase during callus formation. The protein level for VEGFR1 was below detection sensitivity during the initial healing phase. It was then restored to a stable level, detectable through the subsequent healing phases. Hence, the VEGFR1 protein levels partially mirrored the transcript expression profile. In comparison, the protein level of VEGFR2 increased gradually during the healing phases and peaked at callus maturation. This correlated well with the transcriptional expression of VEGFR2. Intact bone from age-matched male mice had considerable protein levels of VEGFR1 and VEGF, but no detectable VEGFR2. Together, these findings uncovered expression signatures of the VEGF-VEGFR axis in endochondral bone repair. Copyright© 2010 the American Physiological Society. Source

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