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Nuche-Berenguer B.,Nutrition and Hormones | Moreno P.,Nutrition and Hormones | Portal-Nunez S.,Bone and Mineral Metabolism Laboratory | Dapia S.,Empresa de Base Tecnologica S.L. | And 2 more authors.
Regulatory Peptides | Year: 2010

Poor control of glucose homeostasis accounts for diabetes-related bone loss. Incretins - GLP-1 and GIP - have been proposed to affect bone turnover. GLP-1, apart from its anti-diabetic and other actions, has shown to exert a bone anabolic effect in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) and fructose-induced insulin-resistant (IR) rats. Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a peptide of non-mammalian nature, is sharing with GLP-1 part of its structural sequence, and also several glucoregulatory effects in mammals in an even more efficient manner. We have explored the effect of continuous administration (3 days by osmotic pump) of Ex-4 or saline (control) on bone turnover factors and bone structure in T2D and IR rats, compared to N, and the possible interaction of Ex-4 with the Wnt signalling pathway. Blood was taken before and after treatment for plasma measurements; tibiae and femurs were collected for gene expression of bone markers (RT-PCR) and structure (μCT) analysis; we also measured the mRNA levels of LRP5 - an activator of the Wnt pathway - and those of DKK1 and sclerostin (SOST) - both blockers of LRP5 activity. Compared to N-control, plasma glucose and insulin were respectively higher and lower in T2D; osteocalcin (OC) and tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b) were lower; after Ex-4, these turnover markers were further reduced in T2D and IR, while TRAP5b increased in N. Bone OC, osteoprogeterin (OPG) and receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) mRNA were lower in T2D and IR; Ex-4 increased OC in all groups and OPG in N and IR, reduced RANKL in N and T2D but increased it in IR; the LRP5/DKK1 and LRP5/SOST mRNA ratios were similarly decreased in T2D, but in IR, the latter ratio was reduced while the former was increased; after Ex-4, both ratios augmented in N, and that of LRP5/DKK1 tended to normalize in T2D and IR. In conclusion, Ex-4 exerts osteogenis effects in T2D and IR models, and interacts with the Wnt pathway to promote bone formation. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Ardura J.A.,Bone and Mineral Metabolism Laboratory | Rayego-Mateos S.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Ramila D.,Bone and Mineral Metabolism Laboratory | Ruiz-Ortega M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Esbrit P.,Bone and Mineral Metabolism Laboratory
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2010

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process that contributes to renal fibrogenesis. TGF-β1 and EGF stimulate EMT. Recent studies suggested that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) promotes fibrogenesis in the damaged kidney, apparently dependent on its interaction with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but whether it also interacts with TGF-βand EGF to modulate EMT is unknown. Here, PTHrP(1-36) increased TGF-β1 in cultured tubuloepithelial cells and TGF-β blockade inhibited PTHrP-induced EMT-related changes, including upregulation of β-smooth muscle actin and integrin-linked kinase, nuclear translocation of Snail, and downregulation of E-cadherin and zonula occludens-1. PTHrP(1-36) also induced EGF receptor (EGFR) activation; inhibition of protein kinase C and metalloproteases abrogated this activation. Inhibition of EGFR activation abolished these EMT-related changes, the activation of ERK1/2, and upregulation of TGF-β1 and VEGF by PTHrP(1-36). Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2 blocked EMT induced by either PTHrP(1-36), TGF-β1, EGF, or VEGF. In vivo, obstruction of mouse kidneys led to changes consistent with EMT and upregulation of TGF-β1 mRNA, p-EGFR protein, and PTHrP. Taken together, these data suggest that PTHrP, TGF-β, EGF, and VEGF might cooperate through activation of ERK1/2 to induce EMT in renal tubuloepithelial cells. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source

Nuche-Berenguer B.,Nutrition and Hormones | Portal-Nunez S.,Bone and Mineral Metabolism Laboratory | Moreno P.,Nutrition and Hormones | Gonzalez N.,Nutrition and Hormones | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2010

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) controls glucose metabolism in extrapancreatic tissues through receptors other than the pancreatic cAMP-linked GLP-1 receptor; also, GLP-1 induces an insulin- and PTH-independent bone anabolic action in insulin-resistant and type-2 diabetic rats. Here we searched for the presence and characteristics of GLP-1 receptors in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. [125I]-GLP-1 specific binding to MC3T3-E1 cells was time- and temperature-dependent, reaching maximal value at 30 min at 25°C; in these conditions, [125I]-GLP-1 binding was dissociable, and displaced by GLP-1, partially by GLP-2, but not by exendin-4 (Ex-4), exendin-9 (Ex-9), glucagon or insulin; Scatchard analysis of the unlabeled GLP-1 data showed high and low affinity binding sites; cross-linking of GLP-1 binding revealed an estimated 70 kDa band, almost undetectable in the presence of 10-6 M GLP-1. GLP-1, Ex-9, insulin or glucagon failed to modify cellular cAMP content, while GLP-2 and Ex-4 increased it. However, GLP-1 induced an immediate hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) generating short-lived inositolphosphoglycans (IPGs), and an increase in phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities; Ex-4 also affected GPIs, but its action was delayed with respect to that of GLP-1. This incretin was found to decrease Runx2 but increased osteocalcin gene expression, without affecting that of osteoprotegerin or the canonical Wnt pathway activity in MC3T3-E1 cells which do not express the pancreatic GLP-1 receptor. Our data demonstrate for the first time that GLP-1 can directly and functionally interact with osteoblastic cells, possibly through a GPI/IPG-coupled receptor. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

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