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Cluse Z.N.,Metabolic Laboratory | Fudge A.N.,Metabolic Laboratory | Whiting M.J.,Metabolic Laboratory | Mcwhinney B.,HPLC LC MS MS Chromatography Section | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Background: We evaluated the recently released chemiluminescence assay for 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) on the Immunodiagnostic Systems iSYS (IDS-iSYS) automated analyser. Methods: The IDS-iSYS comparison was performed using patient samples previously measured for 25-OHD by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method (n =119) and an IDS enzyme immunoassy (IDS-EIA) method (n =64). Limit of detection and limit of quantification were determined from a precision profile. Imprecision was assessed using quality control material and pooled serum. External QAP material (Vitamin D External Quality Assessment Scheme, UK) was analysed to establish inaccuracy. Linearity was assessed by two dilution studies. Cross-reactivity was determined by three serial dilution studies of patient samples with known 25-OHD2 concentrations. Results: The IDS-iSYS correlated well with both established methods (iSYS =1.03LC-MS/MS 2 6.53, R2 =0.82 and iSYS =1.07IDS-EIA 2 1.61, R2 =0.86). Imprecision of the iSYS assay for IDS control material was 13.4% at 32 nmol/L, 10% at 78 nmol/L, 9.4% at 161 nmol/L, and for the pooled material 9.3% at 72 nmol/L and 5.6% at 158 nmol/L. The evaluation found the assay to be highly accurate (IDS-iSYS =0.93ALTM {thorn} 3.79, R2 =0.94) and linear (obs1 =0.93exp1 2 5.05, R2 =0.99 (P =0.256); and obs2 =0.97exp2 + 6.07, R2 =0.97 (P =0.654); ALTM, all-laboratory trimmed mean). Cross-reactivity studies demonstrated no significant difference to the calculated total 25-OHD as measured by LC-MS/MS. Conclusions: Even though the imprecision of the iSYS was found to be greater than that of the LC-MS/MS and EIA methods, the performance characteristics of the IDS-iSYS 25-OHD assay are suitable for routine diagnostic purposes on a high throughput automated analyser.

Jeyapalina S.,Bone and Joint Research Laboratory
Clinical orthopaedics and related research | Year: 2014

Percutaneous osseointegrated prosthetic (POP) devices have been used clinically in Europe for decades. Unfortunately, their introduction into the United States has been delayed, in part due to the lack of data documenting the progression of osseointegration and mechanical stability. We determined the progression of bone ingrowth into porous-coated POP devices and established the interrelationship with mechanical stability. After amputation, 64 skeletally mature sheep received a custom porous-coated POP device and were then randomized into five time groups, with subsequent measurement of percentage of bone ingrowth into the available pore spaces (n = 32) and the mechanical pullout force (n = 32). Postimplantation, there was an accelerated progression of bone ingrowth (~48% from 0 to 3 months) producing a mean pullout force of 5066 ± 1543 N. Subsequently, there was a slower but continued progression of bone ingrowth (~23% from 3 to 12 months) culminating with a mean pullout force of 13,485 ± 1855 N at 12 months postimplantation. There was a high linear correlation (R = 0.94) between the bone ingrowth and mechanical pullout stability. This weightbearing model shows an accelerated progression of bone ingrowth into the porous coating; the amount of ingrowth observed at 3 months after surgery within the porous-coated POP devices was sufficient to generate mechanical stability. The data document progression of bone ingrowth into porous-coated POP devices and establish a strong interrelationship between ingrowth and pullout strength. Further human data are needed to validate these findings.

Skedros J.G.,University of Utah | Skedros J.G.,Bone and Joint Research Laboratory | Sybrowsky C.L.,Bone and Joint Research Laboratory | Anderson W.E.,Bone and Joint Research Laboratory | Chow F.,Bone and Joint Research Laboratory
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2011

Natural loading of the calcanei of deer, elk, sheep and horses produces marked regional differences in prevalent/predominant strain modes: compression in the dorsal cortex, shear in medial-lateral cortices, and tension/shear in the plantar cortex. This consistent non-uniform strain distribution is useful for investigating mechanisms that mediate the development of the remarkable regional material variations of these bones (e.g. collagen orientation, mineralization, remodeling rates and secondary osteon morphotypes, size and population density). Regional differences in strain-mode-specific microdamage prevalence and/or morphology might evoke and sustain the remodeling that produces this material heterogeneity in accordance with local strain characteristics. Adult calcanei from 11 animals of each species (deer, elk, sheep and horses) were transversely sectioned and examined using light and confocal microscopy. With light microscopy, 20 linear microcracks were identified (deer: 10; elk: six; horse: four; sheep: none), and with confocal microscopy substantially more microdamage with typically non-linear morphology was identified (deer: 45; elk: 24; horse: 15; sheep: none). No clear regional patterns of strain-mode-specific microdamage were found in the three species with microdamage. In these species, the highest overall concentrations occurred in the plantar cortex. This might reflect increased susceptibility of microdamage in habitual tension/shear. Absence of detectable microdamage in sheep calcanei may represent the (presumably) relatively greater physical activity of deer, elk and horses. Absence of differences in microdamage prevalence/morphology between dorsal, medial and lateral cortices of these bones, and the general absence of spatial patterns of strain-mode-specific microdamage, might reflect the prior emergence of non-uniform osteon-mediated adaptations that reduce deleterious concentrations of microdamage by the adult stage of bone development. © Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

Isackson D.,University of Utah | Isackson D.,Bone and Joint Research Laboratory | McGill L.D.,Arup | Bachus K.N.,University of Utah | Bachus K.N.,Bone and Joint Research Laboratory
Medical Engineering and Physics | Year: 2011

Osseointegrated percutaneous implants are a promising prosthetic alternative for a subset of amputees. However, as with all percutaneous implants, they have an increased risk of infection since they breach the skin barrier. Theoretically, host tissues could attach to the metal implant creating a barrier to infection. When compared with smooth surfaces, it is hypothesized that porous surfaces improve the attachment of the host tissues to the implant, and decrease the infection risk. In this study, four titanium implants, manufactured with a percutaneous post and a subcutaneous disk, were placed subcutaneously on the dorsum of eight New Zealand White rabbits. Beginning at four weeks post-op, the implants were inoculated weekly with 108 CFU Staphylococcus aureus until signs of clinical infection presented. While we were unable to detect a difference in the incidence of infection of the porous metal implants, smooth surface (no porous coating) percutaneous and subcutaneous components had a 7-fold increased risk of infection compared to the implants with a porous coating on one or both components. The porous coated implants displayed excellent tissue ingrowth into the porous structures; whereas, the smooth implants were surrounded with a thick, organized fibrotic capsule that was separated from the implant surface. This study suggests that porous coated metal percutaneous implants are at a significantly lower risk of infection when compared to smooth metal implants. The smooth surface percutaneous implants were inadequate in allowing a long-term seal to develop with the soft tissue, thus increasing vulnerability to the migration of infecting microorganisms. © 2010.

Arthur A.,University of Adelaide | Panagopoulos R.A.,University of Adelaide | Cooper L.,University of Adelaide | Menicanin D.,University of Adelaide | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2013

Previous reports have identified a role for the tyrosine kinase receptor EphB4 and its ligand, ephrinB2, as potential mediators of both bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. In the present study, we examined the role of EphB4 during bone repair after traumatic injury. We performed femoral fractures with internal fixation in transgenic mice that overexpress EphB4 under the collagen type 1 promoter (Col1-EphB4) and investigated the bone repair process up to 12 weeks postfracture. The data indicated that Col1-EphB4 mice exhibited stiffer and stronger bones after fracture compared with wild-type mice. The fractured bones of Col1-EphB4 transgenic mice displayed significantly greater tissue and bone volume 2 weeks postfracture compared with that of wild-type mice. These findings correlated with increased chondrogenesis and mineral formation within the callus site at 2 weeks postfracture, as demonstrated by increased safranin O and von Kossa staining, respectively. Interestingly, Col1-EphB4 mice were found to possess significantly greater numbers of clonogenic mesenchymal stromal progenitor cells (CFU-F), with an increased capacity to form mineralized nodules in vitro under osteogenic conditions, when compared with those of the wild-type control mice. Furthermore, Col1-EphB4 mice had significantly lower numbers of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts within the callus site. Taken together, these observations suggest that EphB4 promotes endochondral ossification while inhibiting osteoclast development during callus formation and may represent a novel drug target for the repair of fractured bones. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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