Palo Alto, CA, United States
Palo Alto, CA, United States

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Smeriglio P.,Stanford University | Dhulipala L.,Stanford University | Lai J.H.,Stanford University | Goodman S.B.,Stanford University | And 6 more authors.
Tissue Engineering - Part A | Year: 2015

Regeneration of human cartilage is inherently inefficient. Current cell-based approaches for cartilage repair, including autologous chondrocytes, are limited by the paucity of cells, associated donor site morbidity, and generation of functionally inferior fibrocartilage rather than articular cartilage. Upon investigating the role of collagen VI (Col VI), a major component of the chondrocyte pericellular matrix (PCM), we observe that soluble Col VI stimulates chondrocyte proliferation. Interestingly, both adult and osteoarthritis chondrocytes respond to soluble Col VI in a similar manner. The proliferative effect is, however, strictly due to the soluble Col VI as no proliferation is observed upon exposure of chondrocytes to immobilized Col VI. Upon short Col VI treatment in 2D monolayer culture, chondrocytes maintain high expression of characteristic chondrocyte markers like Col2a1, agc, and Sox9 whereas the expression of the fibrocartilage marker Collagen I (Col I) and of the hypertrophy marker Collagen X (Col X) is minimal. Additionally, Col VI-expanded chondrocytes show a similar potential to untreated chondrocytes in engineering cartilage in 3D biomimetic hydrogel constructs. Our study has, therefore, identified soluble Col VI as a biologic that can be useful for the expansion and utilization of scarce sources of chondrocytes, potentially for autologous chondrocyte implantation. Additionally, our results underscore the importance of further investigating the changes in chondrocyte PCM with age and disease and the subsequent effects on chondrocyte growth and function. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015.

Pal S.,Stanford University | Besier T.F.,University of Auckland | Beaupre G.S.,Bone and Joint Rehabilitation Randnter | Beaupre G.S.,Stanford University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study is to determine if patellar maltracking is more prevalent among patellofemoral (PF) pain subjects with patella alta compared to subjects with normal patella height. We imaged 37 PF pain and 15 pain free subjects in an open-configuration magnetic resonance imaging scanner while they stood in a weightbearing posture. We measured patella height using the Caton-Deschamps, Blackburne-Peel, Insall-Salvati, Modified Insall-Salvati, and Patellotrochlear indices, and classified the subjects into patella alta and normal patella height groups. We measured patella tilt and bisect offset from oblique-axial plane images, and classified the subjects into maltracking and normal tracking groups. Patellar maltracking was more prevalent among PF pain subjects with patella alta compared to PF pain subjects with normal patella height (two-tailed Fisher's exact test, p < 0.050). Using the Caton-Deschamps index, 67% (8/12) of PF pain subjects with patella alta were maltrackers, whereas only 16% (4/25) of PF pain subjects with normal patella height were maltrackers. Patellofemoral pain subjects classified as maltrackers displayed a greater patella height compared to the pain free and PF pain subjects classified as normal trackers (two-tailed unpaired t-tests with Bonferroni correction, p < 0.017). This study adds to our understanding of PF pain in two ways - (1) we demonstrate that patellar maltracking is more prevalent in PF pain subjects with patella alta compared to subjects with normal patella height; and (2) we show greater patella height in PF pain subjects compared to pain free subjects using four indices commonly used in clinics. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

Arnsdorf E.J.,Bone and Joint Rehabilitation Randnter | Arnsdorf E.J.,Stanford University | Tummala P.,Bone and Joint Rehabilitation Randnter | Castillo A.B.,Bone and Joint Rehabilitation Randnter | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2010

Epigenetic regulation of gene expression occurs due to alterations in chromatin proteins that do not change DNA sequence, but alter the chromatin architecture and the accessibility of genes, resulting in changes to gene expression that are preserved during cell division. Through this process genes are switched on or off in a more durable fashion than other transient mechanisms of gene regulation, such as transcription factors. Thus, epigenetics is central to cellular differentiation and stem cell linage commitment. One such mechanism is DNA methylation, which is associated with gene silencing and is involved in a cell's progression towards a specific fate. Mechanical signals are a crucial regulator of stem cell behavior and important in tissue differentiation; however, there has been no demonstration of a mechanism whereby mechanics can affect gene regulation at the epigenetic level. In this study, we identified candidate DNA methylation sites in the promoter regions of three osteogenic genes from bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We demonstrate that mechanical stimulation alters their epigenetic state by reducing DNA methylation and show an associated increase in expression. We contrast these results with biochemically induced differentiation and distinguish expression changes associated with durable epigenetic regulation from those likely to be due to transient changes in regulation. This is an important advance in stem cell mechanobiology as it is the first demonstration of a mechanism by which the mechanical micro-environment is able to induce epigenetic changes that control osteogenic cell fate, and that can be passed to daughter cells. This is a first step to understanding that will be vital to successful bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, where continued expression of a desired long-term phenotype is crucial. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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