The Bond University is a private not-for-profit university located in Robina, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Bond differs from other Australian universities as it schedules three semesters each year, commencing in January, May and September, allowing a six-semester degree to be completed in two years, instead of three, without increasing semester workloads. Wikipedia.
Glasziou P.,Bond University |
Houssami N.,University of Sydney
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2011
The history of breast cancer screening is littered with controversy. With 10 trials spanning 4 decades, we have a substantial body of evidence, but with different aims and flaws. Combined analysis of the intention-to-treat results gives an overall relative reduction in breast cancer mortality of 19% (95% CI 12%-26%), which, if adjusted for non-attendance gives an approximate 25% relative reduction for those who attend screening. However, given that 4% of all-cause mortality is due to breast cancer deaths, this translates into a less than 1% reduction in all-cause mortality. An emerging issue in interpretation is the improvements in treatment since these trials recruited women. Modern systemic therapy would have improved survival (models suggest between 12% and 21%) in both screened and non-screened groups, which would result in a lesser difference in. absolute risk reduction from screening but probably a similar, or slightly smaller, relative risk reduction. However benefits and harms, particularly over-diagnosis, need to balanced and differ by age-groups. The informed views of recipients of screening are needed to guide current and future policy on screening. © 2011.
Hoffmann T.C.,Bond University |
Hoffmann T.C.,University of Queensland
JAMA Internal Medicine | Year: 2015
IMPORTANCE Unrealistic patient expectations of the benefits and harms of interventions can influence decision making and may be contributing to increasing intervention uptake and health care costs. OBJECTIVE To systematically review all studies that have quantitatively assessed patients' expectations of the benefits and/or harms of any treatment, test, or screening test. EVIDENCE REVIEW A comprehensive search strategy was used in 4 databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO) up to June 2013, with no language or study type restriction.We also ran cited reference searches of included studies and contacted experts and study authors. Two researchers independently evaluated methodological quality and extracted participants' estimates of benefit and harms and authors' contemporaneous estimates. FINDINGS Of the 15 343 records screened, 36 articles (from 35 studies) involving a total of 27 323 patients were eligible. Fourteen studies focused on a screen, 15 on treatment, 3 a test, and 3 on treatment and screening. More studies assessed only benefit expectations (22 [63%]) than benefit and harm expectations (10 [29%]) or only harm (3 [8%]). Fifty-four outcomes (across 32 studies) assessed benefit expectations: of the 34 outcomes with overestimation data available, the majority of participants overestimated benefit for 22 (65%) of them. For 17 benefit expectation outcomes, we could not calculate the proportion of participants who overestimated or underestimated, although for 15 (88%) of these, study authors concluded that participants overestimated benefits. Expectations of harm were assessed by 27 outcomes (across 13 studies): underestimation data were available for 15 outcomes and the majority of participants underestimated harm for 10 (67%) of these. A correct estimation by at least 50% of participants only occurred for 2 outcomes about benefit expectations and 2 outcomes about harm expectations. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The majority of participants overestimated intervention benefit and underestimated harm. Clinicians should discuss accurate and balanced information about intervention benefits and harms with patients, providing the opportunity to develop realistic expectations and make informed decisions.
Dat A.D.,Bond University
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012
Aloe vera is a cactus-like perennial succulent belonging to the Liliaceae Family that is commonly grown in tropical climates. Animal studies have suggested that Aloe vera may help accelerate the wound healing process. To determine the effects of Aloe vera-derived products (for example dressings and topical gels) on the healing of acute wounds (for example lacerations, surgical incisions and burns) and chronic wounds (for example infected wounds, arterial and venous ulcers). We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (9 September 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE (2005 to August Week 5 2011), Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations 8 September 2011), Ovid EMBASE (2007 to 2010 Week 35), Ovid AMED (1985 to September 2011) and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 9 September 2011). We did not apply date or language restrictions. We included all randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effectiveness of Aloe vera, aloe-derived products and a combination of Aloe vera and other dressings as a treatment for acute or chronic wounds. There was no restriction in terms of source, date of publication or language. An objective measure of wound healing (either proportion of completely healed wounds or time to complete healing) was the primary endpoint. Two review authors independently carried out trial selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment, checked by a third review author. Seven trials were eligible for inclusion, comprising a total of 347 participants. Five trials in people with acute wounds evaluated the effects of Aloe vera on burns, haemorrhoidectomy patients and skin biopsies. Aloe vera mucilage did not increase burn healing compared with silver sulfadiazine (risk ratio (RR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70 to 2.85). A reduction in healing time with Aloe vera was noted after haemorrhoidectomy (RR 16.33 days, 95% CI 3.46 to 77.15) and there was no difference in the proportion of patients completely healed at follow up after skin biopsies. In people with chronic wounds, one trial found no statistically significant difference in pressure ulcer healing with Aloe vera (RR 0.10, 95% CI -1.59 to 1.79) and in a trial of surgical wounds healing by secondary intention Aloe vera significantly delayed healing (mean difference 30 days, 95% CI 7.59 to 52.41). Clinical heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. The poor quality of the included trials indicates that the trial results must be viewed with extreme caution as they have a high risk of bias. There is currently an absence of high quality clinical trial evidence to support the use of Aloe vera topical agents or Aloe vera dressings as treatments for acute and chronic wounds.
Valentine N.,Bond University
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent complication of type 2 diabetes with an estimated 65% of people with type 2 diabetes dying from a cause related to atherosclerosis. Adenosine-diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists like clopidogrel, ticlopidine, prasugrel and ticagrelor impair platelet aggregation and fibrinogen-mediated platelet cross-linking and may be effective in preventing CVD. To assess the effects of adenosine-diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (issue 2, 2011), MEDLINE (until April 2011) and EMBASE (until May 2011). We also performed a manual search, checking references of original articles and pertinent reviews to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled trials comparing an ADP receptor antagonist with another antiplatelet agent or placebo for a minimum of 12 months in patients with diabetes. In particular, we looked for trials assessing clinical cardiovascular outcomes. Two review authors extracted data for studies which fulfilled the inclusion criteria, using standard data extraction templates. We sought additional unpublished information and data from the principal investigators of all included studies. Eight studies with a total of 21,379 patients with diabetes were included. Three included studies investigated ticlopidine compared to aspirin or placebo. Five included studies investigated clopidogrel compared to aspirin or a combination of aspirin and dipyridamole, or compared clopidogrel in combination with aspirin to aspirin alone. All trials included patients with previous CVD except the CHARISMA trial which included patients with multiple risk factors for coronary artery disease. Overall the risk of bias of the trials was low. The mean duration of follow-up ranged from 365 days to 913 days.Data for diabetes patients on all-cause mortality, vascular mortality and myocardial infarction were only available for one trial (355 patients). This trial compared ticlopidine to placebo and did not demonstrate any statistically significant differences for all-cause mortality, vascular mortality or myocardial infarction. Diabetes outcome data for stroke were available in three trials (31% of total diabetes participants). Overall pooling of two (statistically heterogeneous) studies showed no statistically significant reduction in the combination of fatal and non-fatal stroke (359/3194 (11.2%) versus 356/3146 (11.3%), random effects odds ratio (OR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44 to 1.49) for ADP receptor antagonists versus other antiplatelet drugs. There were no data available from any of the trials on peripheral vascular disease, health-related quality of life, adverse events specifically for patients with diabetes, or costs. The available evidence for ADP receptor antagonists in patients with diabetes mellitus is limited and most trials do not report outcomes for patients with diabetes separately. Therefore, recommendations for the use of ADP receptor antagonists for the prevention of CVD in patients with diabetes are based on available evidence from trials including patients with and without diabetes. Trials with diabetes patients and subgroup analyses of patients with diabetes in trials with combined populations are needed to provide a more robust evidence base to guide clinical management in patients with diabetes.
Zlatevska N.,Bond University |
Dubelaar C.,Bond University |
Holden S.S.,Bond University
Journal of Marketing | Year: 2014
Food marketing is facing increasing challenges in using portion size (e.g., "supersizing") as a marketing tool. Marketers have used portion size to attract customers and encourage purchase, but social agencies are expressing concern that larger portion sizes encourage greater consumption, which can cause excessive consumption and obesity. This article addresses two questions that are central to this debate: (1) How much effect does portion size have on consumption? and (2) Are there limits to this effect? A meta-analytic review reveals that, for a doubling of portion size, consumption increases by 35% on average. However, the effect has limits. An extended analysis shows that the effect of portion size is curvilinear: as portions become increasingly larger, the effect diminishes. In addition, although the portion-size effect is widespread and robust across a range of individual and environmental factors, the analysis shows that it is weaker among children, women, and overweight individuals, as well as for nonsnack food items and in contexts in which more attention is given to the food being eaten. © 2014, American Marketing Association
Cooke G.P.,Bond University
BMC medical education | Year: 2013
Burnout and intolerance of uncertainty have been linked to low job satisfaction and lower quality patient care. While resilience is related to these concepts, no study has examined these three concepts in a cohort of doctors. The objective of this study was to measure resilience, burnout, compassion satisfaction, personal meaning in patient care and intolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice (GP) registrars. We conducted a paper-based cross-sectional survey of GP registrars in Australia from June to July 2010, recruited from a newsletter item or registrar education events. Survey measures included the Resilience Scale-14, a single-item scale for burnout, Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) scale, Personal Meaning in Patient Care scale, Intolerance of Uncertainty-12 scale, and Physician Response to Uncertainty scale. 128 GP registrars responded (response rate 90%). Fourteen percent of registrars were found to be at risk of burnout using the single-item scale for burnout, but none met the criteria for burnout using the ProQOL scale. Secondary traumatic stress, general intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety due to clinical uncertainty and reluctance to disclose uncertainty to patients were associated with being at higher risk of burnout, but sex, age, practice location, training duration, years since graduation, and reluctance to disclose uncertainty to physicians were not.Only ten percent of registrars had high resilience scores. Resilience was positively associated with compassion satisfaction and personal meaning in patient care. Resilience was negatively associated with burnout, secondary traumatic stress, inhibitory anxiety, general intolerance to uncertainty, concern about bad outcomes and reluctance to disclose uncertainty to patients. GP registrars in this survey showed a lower level of burnout than in other recent surveys of the broader junior doctor population in both Australia and overseas. Resilience was also lower than might be expected of a satisfied and professionally successful cohort.
Hays R.,Bond University
Medical Teacher | Year: 2014
Background: The World Federation of Medical Education has released a revised version of their Basic Medical Education Standards. This paper compares the original and revised versions following an external review of a medical school based on the original version, and indicates potential implications of the changes for making judgements about the quality of medical education. Methods: A comparative analysis was conducted of the original and revised standards, producing a list of changes, through either "strengthened" or "new" standards or guidance for their interpretation. The potential impact of the changes on the writing of a report for this external review was then considered. Results: The revised standards have more specific requirements for curriculum design, clinical placements, research training and the support and participation of students. In order to meet the revised standards, medical schools may need to invest substantially in acquiring in-house medical education expertise and better prepared teaching and research staff. Conclusion: The bar appears to have been raised substantially in the revised standards document. While individually the changes appear sound, the overall impact, particularly in the developing world, may be substantial © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.
Beller E.M.,Bond University
Systematic reviews | Year: 2013
Systematic reviews provide a synthesis of evidence for practitioners, for clinical practice guideline developers, and for those designing and justifying primary research. Having an up-to-date and comprehensive review is therefore important. Our main objective was to determine the recency of systematic reviews at the time of their publication, as measured by the time from last search date to publication. We also wanted to study the time from search date to acceptance, and from acceptance to publication, and measure the proportion of systematic reviews with recorded information on search dates and information sources in the abstract and full text of the review. A descriptive analysis of published systematic reviews indexed in Medline in 2009, 2010 and 2011 by three reviewers, independently extracting data. Of the 300 systematic reviews included, 271 (90%) provided the date of search in the full-text article, but only 141 (47%) stated this in the abstract. The median (standard error; minimum to maximum) survival time from last search to acceptance was 5.1 (0.58; 0 to 43.8) months (95% confidence interval = 3.9 to 6.2) and from last search to first publication time was 8.0 (0.35; 0 to 46.7) months (95% confidence interval = 7.3 to 8.7), respectively. Of the 300 reviews, 295 (98%) stated which databases had been searched, but only 181 (60%) stated the databases in the abstract. Most researchers searched three (35%) or four (21%) databases. The top-three most used databases were MEDLINE (79%), Cochrane library (76%), and EMBASE (64%). Being able to identify comprehensive, up-to-date reviews is important to clinicians, guideline groups, and those designing clinical trials. This study demonstrates that some reviews have a considerable delay between search and publication, but only 47% of systematic review abstracts stated the last search date and 60% stated the databases that had been searched. Improvements in the quality of abstracts of systematic reviews and ways to shorten the review and revision processes to make review publication more rapid are needed.
Bond University | Date: 2013-04-17
The present invention relates to a customised composition comprising three-dimensional (3D) nanofibre webbing. The present invention further relates to the process of producing the composition comprising 3D nanofibre webbing and uses thereof such as treatment of age-related macular degeneration or regeneration/repair of tissue.
Bond University | Date: 2012-10-11
The present invention relates to a customized composition comprising three-dimensional (3D) nanofiber webbing. The present invention further relates to the process of producing the composition comprising 3D nanofiber webbing and uses thereof such as treatment of age-related macular degeneration or regeneration/repair of tissue.