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Samad A.,Bombay Veterinary College | Murdeshwar P.,Infovet | Hameed Z.,National Institute of Technology Warangal
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture

In order to remain globally competitive and to ensure traceability, intensive and extensive livestock operations are adopting radio-frequency-based electronic identification (RFID) and data recording systems. Such integrated systems offer dual advantages of lowered labor costs due to automation and enhanced profits due to optimization of animal productivity, health and welfare. However, RFID-based systems might not be economically viable for small-hold livestock farmers unless there is considerable value advantage. Further, the set up and operation of a data recording system for small-hold farmers is also difficult due to size-constraints and distant farm units. We have developed an integrated system for small-hold dairy farmers to enable employing of RFID technology to ensure credibility of data recording, and avoidance of livestock insurance-related claim malpractices. The system can additionally be used to periodically collect performance records and to operate veterinary service delivery. The integrated system comprises of: (a) an RFID tag or insert; (b) an RFID reader; (c) a PDA/mini-laptop with custom software installed; (d) a USB modem internet connection; and (e) a central data server on web platform with dedicated server-level software. The unique feature of the system is that the veterinary health worker (VHW) is able to register and enter new records only when the RFID reader connected to a mini-laptop is within reading range of the associated RFID tag. This also authenticates the visit by the VHW. Other data management operations such as browsing, sorting, data analysis and report generation can be carried out when the VHW is away from the RFID field. We have deployed and validated the system in a cluster of 5000 dairy animals spread over more than 10 villages with an average of two to three animals per farmer in Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu, India. The system is user-friendly and easy to operate in that the animals' insurance registration and issuance of policy documents can be done in a single farm visit. The system can also be used for collecting periodic animal records and sending SMS 'alerts' to the farmers. Initial economic analysis suggests that the investment cost would be recovered even if fraudulent claims in around 0.5% of the insured animals can be prevented. The sustenance cost can be recovered from the improvised health and production management service delivery to the farmers. It is however emphasized that the system can only be implemented in organized dairy operations wherein the milk processing company can establish functional collaboration with veterinary service providers, insurance company micro-finance companies and this consortium can bear the cost of RFID in exchange for long term multilateral benefits to all the stakeholders. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Badgujar P.C.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Jain S.K.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Singh A.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Punia J.S.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology

Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide has been in use worldwide for several years in agriculture and veterinary medicine. It is possible that residue of this compound may be recycled in the food chain and thus information regarding effects from potential exposure to it is warranted. The objective of the present study was to evaluate immunotoxic effects of imidacloprid in female BALB/c mice. Imidacloprid was administered orally daily at 10, 5, or 2.5mg/kg over 28 days. Specific parameters of humoral and cellular immune response including hemagglutinating antibody (HA) titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC; T-dependent antigen), delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to SRBC, and T-lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were evaluated. The results showed that imidacloprid at high dose, specifically suppressed cell-mediated immune response as was evident from decreased DTH response and decreased stimulation index of T-lymphocytes to PHA. At this dose, there were also prominent histopathological alterations in spleen and liver. Histopathological analysis of footpad sections of mice revealed dose-related suppression of DTH response. Imidacloprid at low dose of 2.5mg/kg/day did not produce any significant alterations in cellular and humoral immune response and it seemed to be an appropriate dose for assessment of 'no observable adverse effects level' for immunotoxicity in BALB/c mice. The results also indicated that imidacloprid has immunosuppressive effects at doses >5mg/kg, which could potentially be attributed to direct cytotoxic effects of IMD against T cells (particularly TH cells) and that long-term exposure could be detrimental to the immune system. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mondal A.,West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences | Majee S.,Bombay Veterinary College
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease

Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) are novel group of small, nonenveloped, bisegmented and double stranded RNA viruses. PBVs have been identified in the faeces of a broad range of hosts by several international research groups. Since attempts to culture PBV in vitro have not been made to date and no animal model of infection and disease exists. Laboratory diagnosis relies upon electron microscopy, the detection of the double stranded RNA bisegmented genome by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PBVs have been identified in both normal and diarrheic faeces. Although their pathogenicity is still unclear, their potential needs further investigation. © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press. Source

Guhagarkar S.A.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Majee S.B.,Bombay Veterinary College | Samad A.,Veterinary Nuclear Medicine Center | Devarajan P.V.,Institute of Chemical Technology
Cancer Nanotechnology

The present study discusses evaluation of pullulan-functionalized doxorubicin nanoparticles for asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated uptake in the Hep G2 cell line. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) nanoparticles using polymers of different hydrophobic character, polyethylene sebacate (hydrophobic) and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (intermediate hydrophobicity) with high entrapment efficiency and particle size were prepared by modified nanoprecipitation, using Gantrez AN 119 as complexing agent. Nanoparticles of Gantrez AN 119 were also prepared to represent a hydrophilic polymer. Cell uptake of DOX nanoparticles was found to be comparable to DOX solution irrespective of DOX concentration, nanoparticles size, and pullulan concentration. Furthermore, uptake of nanoparticles functionalized with or without pullulan prepared with polymers of different hydrophobic character revealed comparable uptake. Comparable uptake of DOX solution and DOX nanoparticles functionalized with or without pullulan suggest extracellular release of DOX as the mechanism of uptake from the nanoparticles. In vivo evaluation in hepatic cancer model is therefore essential to confirm the role of pullulan as asialoglycoprotein receptors ligand. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Shinde R.L.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Bharkad G.P.,Bombay Veterinary College | Devarajan P.V.,Institute of Chemical Technology
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics

Intranasal Microemulsions (MEs) for nose to brain delivery of a novel combination of Albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO) and Curcumin (CUR) for Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a brain infection are reported. MEs prepared by simple solution exhibited a globule size <20 nm, negative zeta potential and good stability. The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ME revealed high and rapid ex vivo permeation of drugs through sheep nasal mucosa. Intranasal DHA ME resulted in high brain concentrations and 10.76 (ABZ-SO) and 3.24 (CUR) fold enhancement in brain area-under-the-curve (AUC) compared to intravenous DHA MEs at the same dose. Direct nose to brain transport (DTP) of >95% was seen for both drugs. High drug targeting efficiency (DTE) to the brain compared to Capmul ME and drug solution (P < 0.05) suggested the role of DHA in aiding nose to brain delivery. Histopathology study confirmed no significant changes. High efficacy of ABZ-SO: CUR (100:10 ng/mL) DHA ME in vitro on Taenia solium cysts was confirmed by complete ALP inhibition and disintegration of cysts at 96 h. Considering that the brain concentration at 24 h was 1400 ± 160.1 ng/g (ABZ-SO) and 120 ± 35.2 ng/g (CUR), the in vitro efficacy seen at a 10 fold lower concentration of the drugs strongly supports the assumption of clinical efficacy. The intranasal DHA ME is a promising delivery system for targeted nose to brain delivery. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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