Bombay Veterinary College

Mumbai, India

Bombay Veterinary College

Mumbai, India

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Abd Rani P.A.,University of Queensland | Abd Rani P.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Irwin P.J.,Murdoch University | Coleman G.T.,University of Queensland | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2011

Background: There are few published reports on canine Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Hepatozoon and haemotropic Mycoplasma infections in India and most describe clinical disease in individual dogs, diagnosed by morphological observation of the microorganisms in stained blood smears. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of canine tick-borne disease (TBD) pathogens using a combination of conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques in four cities in India. Results: On microscopy examination, only Hepatozoon gamonts were observed in twelve out of 525 (2.3%; 95% CI: 1.2, 4) blood smears. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a total of 261 from 525 dogs (49.7%; 95% CI: 45.4, 54.1) in this study were infected with one or more canine tick-borne pathogen. Hepatozoon canis (30%; 95% CI: 26.0, 34.0) was the most common TBD pathogen found infecting dogs in India followed by Ehrlichia canis (20.6%; 95% CI: 17.2, 24.3), Mycoplasma haemocanis (12.2%; 95% CI: 9.5, 15.3), Anaplasma platys (6.5%; 95% CI: 4.5, 8.9), Babesia vogeli (5.5%, 95% CI: 3.7, 7.8) and Babesia gibsoni (0.2%, 95% CI: 0.01, 1.06). Concurrent infection with more than one TBD pathogen occurred in 39% of cases. Potential tick vectors, Rhipicephalus (most commonly) and/or Haemaphysalis ticks were found on 278 (53%) of dogs examined. Conclusions: At least 6 species of canine tick-borne pathogens are present in India. Hepatozoon canis was the most common pathogen and ticks belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus were encountered most frequently. Polymerase chain reaction was more sensitive in detecting circulating pathogens compared with peripheral blood smear examination. As co-infections with canine TBD pathogens were common, Indian veterinary practitioners should be cognisant that the discovery of one such pathogen raises the potential for multiple infections which may warrant different clinical management strategies. © 2011 Abd Rani et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Samad A.,Bombay Veterinary College | Murdeshwar P.,Infovet | Hameed Z.,National Institute of Technology Warangal
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2010

In order to remain globally competitive and to ensure traceability, intensive and extensive livestock operations are adopting radio-frequency-based electronic identification (RFID) and data recording systems. Such integrated systems offer dual advantages of lowered labor costs due to automation and enhanced profits due to optimization of animal productivity, health and welfare. However, RFID-based systems might not be economically viable for small-hold livestock farmers unless there is considerable value advantage. Further, the set up and operation of a data recording system for small-hold farmers is also difficult due to size-constraints and distant farm units. We have developed an integrated system for small-hold dairy farmers to enable employing of RFID technology to ensure credibility of data recording, and avoidance of livestock insurance-related claim malpractices. The system can additionally be used to periodically collect performance records and to operate veterinary service delivery. The integrated system comprises of: (a) an RFID tag or insert; (b) an RFID reader; (c) a PDA/mini-laptop with custom software installed; (d) a USB modem internet connection; and (e) a central data server on web platform with dedicated server-level software. The unique feature of the system is that the veterinary health worker (VHW) is able to register and enter new records only when the RFID reader connected to a mini-laptop is within reading range of the associated RFID tag. This also authenticates the visit by the VHW. Other data management operations such as browsing, sorting, data analysis and report generation can be carried out when the VHW is away from the RFID field. We have deployed and validated the system in a cluster of 5000 dairy animals spread over more than 10 villages with an average of two to three animals per farmer in Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu, India. The system is user-friendly and easy to operate in that the animals' insurance registration and issuance of policy documents can be done in a single farm visit. The system can also be used for collecting periodic animal records and sending SMS 'alerts' to the farmers. Initial economic analysis suggests that the investment cost would be recovered even if fraudulent claims in around 0.5% of the insured animals can be prevented. The sustenance cost can be recovered from the improvised health and production management service delivery to the farmers. It is however emphasized that the system can only be implemented in organized dairy operations wherein the milk processing company can establish functional collaboration with veterinary service providers, insurance company micro-finance companies and this consortium can bear the cost of RFID in exchange for long term multilateral benefits to all the stakeholders. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Mahajan M.V.,Bombay Veterinary College | Gadekar Y.P.,Bombay Veterinary College | Dighe,National Health Research Institute | Kokane R.D.,Bombay Veterinary College | Bannalikar A.S.,Bombay Veterinary College
Meat Science | Year: 2011

The efficacy of PCR-RFLP analysis of mt 12S rRNA gene in identification of animal species from meat samples of known and unknown origin and adulterated meat samples was evaluated. In PCR, all the samples generated an amplicon of 456. bp. Restriction enzyme digestion of the PCR product with AluI, HhaI, BspTI and ApoI revealed characteristic RFLP patterns. Of the samples of unknown origin few were identified as cattle, few as buffalo and some were admixtures of two, suggesting adulteration. The RFLP pattern of one did not match any of species included in the study, which on sequencing was confirmed as camel meat. Application of this technique on adulterated meat samples could detect both animal species in proportion of 50:50 and 75:25 (except in case of goat. +. cattle). The technique however could not detect any of the two species when proportion of mixture was 90:10 (except in case of cattle. +. buffalo). © 2010 The American Meat Science Association.

Gawade L.,Bombay Veterinary College | Dadarkar S.S.,Piramal Life science Ltd | Husain R.,Piramal Life science Ltd | Gatne M.,Bombay Veterinary College
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

Human exposure to imidacloprid is likely to occur during its use as an acaricide or an ectoparasiticide. Accordingly, the developmental immunotoxic potential of imidacloprid was investigated. Oral exposure was initiated in timed pregnant female Wistar rats on gestation day 6 (GD 6) till GD 21. On GD 20, half of the gravid dams were sacrificed, and in utero fetal development was assessed. In the other half of the dams, administration was continued till weaning on postnatal day 21 (PND 21) and maternal toxicity was investigated. A subgroup of weaned pups was sacrificed to assess immunotoxicity parameters. The other half of the pups were exposed to imidacloprid till PND 42, and immunotoxicity was assessed. The findings revealed post-implantation loss in the highest dose group, indicating the risk of abortion. Soft tissue abnormalities and skeletal alterations were observed in the highest dose group. Humoral immunity was assessed by estimating hemagglutination titer and immunoglobulin production. Cell mediated immunity was assessed by Delayed Type Hypersensitivity, whereas, non-specific immunity was assessed by phagocytic index, and other phenotypic parameters. These data revealed that imidacloprid caused age-dependent adverse effects on the developing immunity which was aggravated when exposure continued throughout development, leading to a compromised immune system. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Date P.V.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Patel M.D.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Majee S.B.,Bombay Veterinary College | Samad A.,Bombay Veterinary College | Devarajan P.V.,Institute of Chemical Technology
Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology | Year: 2013

The present study discloses the design of folate anchored Rifampicin-Poly methylvinylether maleic anhydride copolymer (Gantrez AN-119, Gantrez) nanoparticles (RFMGzFa) by ionic complexation. Folic acid was anchored to the preformed drug loaded nanoparticles. Folic acid was anchored in different concentration by simply varying the amount of folic acid added during preparation. RFMGzFa nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method. Gantrez AN-119 rapidly hydrolyzes in aqueous medium releasing carboxylic acid groups, to create an acidic environment. This facilitates protonation and subsequent ionic complexation of folic acid with the carboxylic groups, to enable anchoring. FTIR spectra confirmed this interaction. Infrared imaging revealed distribution of folic acid across the nanoparticle surface. Nanoparticles were obtained in the size range 350-450 nm with RFM loading of 12-14% w/w. Zeta potential confirmed colloidal stability. TEM/SEM revealed spherical morphology. RFMGzFa nanoparticles exhibited sustained release of RFM and folic acid. Folic acid showed sustained release upto 12 h, which was ion exchange mediated. A 480% enhancement in RFM uptake with RFMGzFa nanoparticles compared to 300% with RFMGz nanoparticles in-vitro, in human macrophage cell line U-937, suggested the role of folic acid in folate receptor mediated uptake. Ionic complexation represents a simple non-covalent approach for anchoring folic acid on polymeric nanoparticles of Gantrez. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Shinde R.L.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Bharkad G.P.,Bombay Veterinary College | Devarajan P.V.,Institute of Chemical Technology
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics | Year: 2015

Intranasal Microemulsions (MEs) for nose to brain delivery of a novel combination of Albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO) and Curcumin (CUR) for Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a brain infection are reported. MEs prepared by simple solution exhibited a globule size <20 nm, negative zeta potential and good stability. The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ME revealed high and rapid ex vivo permeation of drugs through sheep nasal mucosa. Intranasal DHA ME resulted in high brain concentrations and 10.76 (ABZ-SO) and 3.24 (CUR) fold enhancement in brain area-under-the-curve (AUC) compared to intravenous DHA MEs at the same dose. Direct nose to brain transport (DTP) of >95% was seen for both drugs. High drug targeting efficiency (DTE) to the brain compared to Capmul ME and drug solution (P < 0.05) suggested the role of DHA in aiding nose to brain delivery. Histopathology study confirmed no significant changes. High efficacy of ABZ-SO: CUR (100:10 ng/mL) DHA ME in vitro on Taenia solium cysts was confirmed by complete ALP inhibition and disintegration of cysts at 96 h. Considering that the brain concentration at 24 h was 1400 ± 160.1 ng/g (ABZ-SO) and 120 ± 35.2 ng/g (CUR), the in vitro efficacy seen at a 10 fold lower concentration of the drugs strongly supports the assumption of clinical efficacy. The intranasal DHA ME is a promising delivery system for targeted nose to brain delivery. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Guhagarkar S.A.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Majee S.B.,Bombay Veterinary College | Samad A.,Veterinary Nuclear Medicine Center | Devarajan P.V.,Institute of Chemical Technology
Cancer Nanotechnology | Year: 2011

The present study discusses evaluation of pullulan-functionalized doxorubicin nanoparticles for asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated uptake in the Hep G2 cell line. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) nanoparticles using polymers of different hydrophobic character, polyethylene sebacate (hydrophobic) and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (intermediate hydrophobicity) with high entrapment efficiency and particle size were prepared by modified nanoprecipitation, using Gantrez AN 119 as complexing agent. Nanoparticles of Gantrez AN 119 were also prepared to represent a hydrophilic polymer. Cell uptake of DOX nanoparticles was found to be comparable to DOX solution irrespective of DOX concentration, nanoparticles size, and pullulan concentration. Furthermore, uptake of nanoparticles functionalized with or without pullulan prepared with polymers of different hydrophobic character revealed comparable uptake. Comparable uptake of DOX solution and DOX nanoparticles functionalized with or without pullulan suggest extracellular release of DOX as the mechanism of uptake from the nanoparticles. In vivo evaluation in hepatic cancer model is therefore essential to confirm the role of pullulan as asialoglycoprotein receptors ligand. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Badgujar P.C.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Jain S.K.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Singh A.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Punia J.S.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide has been in use worldwide for several years in agriculture and veterinary medicine. It is possible that residue of this compound may be recycled in the food chain and thus information regarding effects from potential exposure to it is warranted. The objective of the present study was to evaluate immunotoxic effects of imidacloprid in female BALB/c mice. Imidacloprid was administered orally daily at 10, 5, or 2.5mg/kg over 28 days. Specific parameters of humoral and cellular immune response including hemagglutinating antibody (HA) titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC; T-dependent antigen), delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to SRBC, and T-lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were evaluated. The results showed that imidacloprid at high dose, specifically suppressed cell-mediated immune response as was evident from decreased DTH response and decreased stimulation index of T-lymphocytes to PHA. At this dose, there were also prominent histopathological alterations in spleen and liver. Histopathological analysis of footpad sections of mice revealed dose-related suppression of DTH response. Imidacloprid at low dose of 2.5mg/kg/day did not produce any significant alterations in cellular and humoral immune response and it seemed to be an appropriate dose for assessment of 'no observable adverse effects level' for immunotoxicity in BALB/c mice. The results also indicated that imidacloprid has immunosuppressive effects at doses >5mg/kg, which could potentially be attributed to direct cytotoxic effects of IMD against T cells (particularly TH cells) and that long-term exposure could be detrimental to the immune system. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Hemade M.V.,Bombay Veterinary College | Gandge R.S.,Bombay Veterinary College
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

PCR-RFLP and PCR-SSCP help to understand variabilities in Brucella spp. genome which in turn assist in planning epidemiological strategies for control of brucellosis in animal population and thereby human transmission. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was carried out for BCSP31 (223 bp) gene of 15 isolates using restriction enzyme HaeII and BsaBI. All isolates yielded a similar restriction pattern as that of reference strains i.e. 189 + 34 bp and 164 + 60 bp fragments with HaeII and BsaBI restriction enzyme, respectively. PCR-SSCP analysis of BCSP 31 gene of 33 Brucella spp. isolates was carried out. Seven different SSCP band patterns designated from "A" to "F" were observed. Out of 33 isolates of Brucella spp., 19 isolates showed SSCP profile similar to ATCC reference strains of Brucella spp. designated as band pattern "A" indicating no polymorphism. Whereas, 14 isolates showed polymorphism in SSCP band pattern designated from "B" to "G". Band pattern "A" was the most common in 19 (57.58 %) isolates followed by "B" in 6 (18.18 %) isolates and "G" in 4 (12.12 %) isolates, whereas "C","D","E", and "F" band patterns were found in each of 1 (3.03 %) isolate. SSCP band pattern "A" was observed most commonly in buffalo (10) followed by human (6) and cattle (3). The SSCP band pattern "B" was found in equal proportion in cattle and buffalo (3 each). The "C" and "E" SSCP band patterns were observed in cattle, whereas "D" and "F" SSCP band pattern was noticed in buffalo and human isolates, respectively. The "G" SSCP band pattern was observed in 3 cattle and 1 goat isolate. In cattle-ABCEG, buffalo-ABD, goat-G and in human-AF band patterns were seen. Comparative results of RFLP and SSCP in 15 isolates showed that, PCR-SSCP is more sensitive than RFLP for detection of polymorphism in BCSP31 gene. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.

Dahe G.J.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Kadam S.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Sabale S.S.,Bombay Veterinary College | Kadam D.P.,Bombay Veterinary College | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Polysulfone (Psf) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) have been widely used in blood purification but their biocompatibility remains a concern. To enhance their biocompatibility, Psf/TPGS (d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate) composite HFMs and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) coated Psf HFMs have been prepared. They have been evaluated for in vivo biocompatibility and graft acceptance and compared with sham and commercial membranes by intra-peritoneal implantation in rats at day 7 and 21. Normal body weights, tissue formation and angiogenesis indicate acceptance of implants by the animals. Hematological observations show presence of post-surgical stress which subsides over time. Serum biochemistry results reveal normal organ function and elevated liver ALP levels at day 21. Histological studies exhibit fibroblast recruitment cells, angiogenesis and collagen deposition at the implant surface indicating new tissue formation. Immuno-histochemistry studies show non-activation of MHC molecules signifying biocompatibilty. Additionally, Psf/TPGS exhibit most favorable tissue response as compared with other HFMs making them the material of choice for HFM preparation for hemodialysis applications. © 2011 Dahe et al.

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