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Bhat N.V.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Netravali A.N.,Cornell University | Gore A.V.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Sathianarayanan M.P.,Bombay Textile Research Association | And 2 more authors.
Textile Research Journal | Year: 2011

The present paper reports the effect of plasma treatments on the surface properties of textile fibers. In the present investigations mainly air plasma and dichlorodifluoromethane (DCFM) plasmas were used. Measurement of the contact angle, wicking properties, and dyeability of cotton fabrics subjected to various conditions of plasma treatments have been carried out. It was observed that while air plasma produced enhanced water wicking, DCFM plasma resulted in producing a highly water-repellent, hydrophobic surface. The contact angle increased dramatically for the DCFM plasma-treated fabrics up to 140°. It was also observed that plasma treatment has improved the dyeing behavior of cotton fabrics when reactive and natural dyes were used. On the other hand, the dyeability was found to have slightly decreased when direct dye was used. © The Author(s) 2011.


Bhat N.V.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Bharati R.N.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Gore A.V.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Patil A.J.,Bombay Textile Research Association
Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research | Year: 2011

Atmospheric pressure air plasma has been used to treat grey cotton fabrics and the effect of treatment on their desizing and wettability properties is studied using the dielectric barrier discharge plasma with air and helium gas mixture. The weight loss due to etching has been determined by gravimetric method, the surface structure observed by SEM, the wettability studied by wicking action and the angle of contact test using water. It is observed that the rate of desizing increases when the fabric is pre-treated with plasma. This phenomenon of surface etching and chemical modifications can be used advantageously for industrial processing.


Palaskar S.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Kale K.H.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Nadiger G.S.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Desai A.N.,Bombay Textile Research Association
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2011

Continuous treatment of polyester/cotton blended fabric samples was carried with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) plasma on the pilot scale atmospheric pressure plasma reactor. The mixture of helium and argon was used as carrier gas for generating dielectric barrier discharge plasma. The effect of discharge power and treatment time on the water repellent properties of samples were evaluated with contact angle (CA) and spray test measurements. Spray test and CA results showed improved resistance to wetting with water. The effect of discharge conditions on the surface morphology and surface chemistry of plasma treated samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, respectively. The presence of Si-O-Si and Si-CH 3 groups in the structure of plasma polymer deposited at the surface of P/C samples was revealed by FTIR spectroscopy. Further, structural differences in HMDSO plasma polymer deposited under different discharge conditions were reported with reference to organic/inorganic nature of plasma polymer. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Kale K.H.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Palaskar S.S.,Bombay Textile Research Association
Journal of the Textile Institute | Year: 2012

Plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition of two monomers, namely tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) was carried out on nylon 66 fabrics. Pulsed discharge at variable duty cycle was used for analysing the effect of different pulse parameters on the structural properties of plasma polymers. HMDSO plasma yielded more hydrophobic surfaces than TEOS plasma. The surface chemical composition of plasma-treated fabrics was investigated by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Both duty cycle and treatment time were found to play a substantial role in determining the structural properties of plasma polymers. Organic content, of HMDSO plasma polymers (pp-HMDSO) showed comparatively better retention of the original monomer groups at shorter treatment durations and at lower duty cycles. TEOS plasma polymers (pp-TEOS) obtained under pulsed discharge exhibited higher carbon content when compared to continuous wave (CW) plasma. The effect of pulsed discharge conditions on the tensile properties was also investigated. A slight but significant increase in the elastic modulus of nylon fabric was observed after treatment with the HMDSO plasma under CW discharge. The durability of plasma polymers to washing demonstrated that HMDSO is superior to TEOS for obtaining hydrophobic surface with good durability in nylon 66 fabrics. © 2012 Copyright The Textile Institute.


Deogaonkar S.C.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Patil A.J.,Bombay Textile Research Association
Colourage | Year: 2012

The present work describes a novel approach for in-situ chemical polymerization of polyaniline on polyester fabric by a process similar to textile dyeing/finishing. The concentration of monomer was varied at three levels. The deposition of polyaniline was confirmed by the decreased electrical surface resistivity. The tensile strength of polyaniline/polyester composite fabric was not significantly affected by the deposition. The deposition of polyaniline was analyzed by FTIR-ATR analysis and SEM characterization.


Kale K.H.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Palaskar S.S.,Bombay Textile Research Association
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2012

The article reports plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of SiO xC yH z polymers on polyester fabric using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) precursors. Modulated discharge was used to study the effect of duty cycle on the hydrophobic properties of plasma treated-polyester fabrics. T on and T off periods in modulated discharge were adjusted in such a way to get duty cycle values of 0.25, 0.50, 0.83, and 1.00, respectively. The hydrophobicity of the treated samples was evaluated by static contact angle measurement. Incorporation of Sii-O, Sii-CH 3 groups on the surface of polyester fabric was evidenced in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis. In addition, organic-inorganic character of HMDSO plasma polymer derived under modulated discharge and continuous wave discharge was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. For equal treatment durations (T total), the plasma polymer deposited under pulsed discharge at lower duty cycle showed relatively higher organic content indicating comparatively greater structural retention of the original monomer in modulated discharge. However, structural analysis showed that treatment duration is more critical factor than duty cycle in determining organic character of SiO xC yH z plasma polymers. Ash content results indicated that plasma polymerization proceeds even during T off period. Evaluation of mechanical properties of polyester fabrics showed decrease in tear strength in both TEOS and HMDSO plasma-treated samples. The durability of plasma polymers to washing showed promising prospects of use of PECVD for functional finishing of polyester fabrics. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Patil A.J.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Pandey A.K.,Bombay Textile Research Association
Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research | Year: 2012

The present paper reports a novel approach for in situ polymerization of polypyrrole on cotton fabric using conventional wet processing method, i.e. jigger machine which is primarily used for textile fabric dyeing. The addition of oxidant in the polymerization bath is controlled to obtain regular and linear polypyrrole polymer. Cotton fabrics (100%, plain weave) have been treated with pyrrole monomer at three concentrations and three durations of polymerization under low temperature conditions. The resultant polypyrrole coated cotton (PPy-CT) fabrics are characterized for electrical conductivity, morphology and fine structure. The surface resistivity in the range 15 - 5000 ohm/square is achieved on cotton fabrics. Naphthalene-2- sulfonic acid (NSA) as dopant is also studied to observe its effect on the reduction in surface resistivity and atmospheric ageing. The polymerization duration of 3 h is found to be optimum. The conductivity as well as atmospheric stability of NSA-doped PPy-CT fabrics is improved as compared to only Cl- ion dopants.


Sathianarayanan M.P.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Bhat N.V.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Kokate S.S.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Walunj V.E.,Bombay Textile Research Association
Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research | Year: 2010

An ecofriendly natural antibacterial finish has been prepared from the plant extracts for textile application. Herbal extracts from Ocimum sanctum (tulsi leaf) and rind of Punica granátům (pomegranate) have been applied to cotton fabric by the method of direct application, micro-encapsulation, resin cross-linking and their combinations. All the treatments show good antibacterial properties for the fabrics. Except the method of direct application, all other treatments show good washing durability up to 15 washes. The surface morphological studies using SEM show the surface coating, microcapsules and some fibrillation. The GC-MS studies reveal that the major components responsible for the antibacterial properties are Eugenol, Germacrene and Phytol. A small decrease in tensile strength and crease recovery angle is observed for resin treated and micro-encapsulated fabrics respectively. But in the combined processes no significant changes are observed.


Khare S.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Deogaonkar S.C.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Savadekar N.,Bombay Textile Research Association
AATCC Journal of Research | Year: 2015

In this study, electrically conductive polypropylene (PP) and jute nonwoven fabrics were synthesized by a chemical oxidative polymerization process using pyrrole as a monomer and iron chloride hexahydrate as an oxidant. After fabric production, electrical, morphological, and electromagnetic properties were determined. The deposition of polypyrrole (PPy) on nonwoven fabrics was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Electrical properties were evaluated as surface resistivity using two probe flat plate electrode systems. The electromagnetic interference shielding of PPy-coated fabrics (PP and jute nonwovens) and composites was measured as shielding effectiveness (SE) in the frequency range of 100 MHz to 1.5 GHz using the co-axial transmission line method. © 2015 American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists. All rights reserved.


Deogaonkar S.C.,Bombay Textile Research Association | Bhat N.V.,Bombay Textile Research Association
Fibers and Polymers | Year: 2015

Chemically synthesized Intrinsically conductive Polymers (ICP’s), mainly Polypyrrole (PPy) and Polyaniline, coated cotton fabrics has been utilized as transducers in ammonia and ethanol sensing in broad range of concentrations. The response, in terms of decrease or increase in dc current on exposure to ammonia, ethanol and moisture is observed. It is found that, PPy coated fabric shows exactly opposite responses to each other when used for ammonia (decrease in current) and ethanol gas (increase in current) detection. Its response and recovery rate toward ethanol gas is higher as compared to ammonia gas. PANi coated fabric shows effective sensing towards ethanol vapor and less response towards ammonia sensing. The effect of variation in monomer concentrations and use of different sulphonic acid dopants on sensing mechanism of PPy and PANi coated cotton is studied towards one fixed concentration of ammonia and ethanol gas. Threshold concentration for ammonia and ethanol detection by PPy and PANi coated fabric is studied. Rate of change of conduction with time is analyzed for both PPy and PANi coated fabrics for deciding the selectivity of gas. © 2015, The Korean Fiber Society and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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