Bolivian Catholic University
La Paz, Bolivia
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Marti-Herrero J.,Center Internacional Of Metodes Numerics En Enginyeria Cimne | Paco G.,Bolivian Catholic University | Zymla B.,German Society for International Cooperation | Heising K.,German Society for International Cooperation
Renewable Energy | Year: 2014

This paper presents the results and lessons learned from four and a half years of implementing low cost tubular digesters in Bolivia. The selection of this technology is justified in comparison with other popular technologies such as fixed dome or floating drum digesters. The highlighted weakness of the tubular model (its short life expectancy), is transformed into a strength, making the low cost tubular digester an appropriate technology for widespread application. The experiences in Bolivia show that the success of biogas programs depend more on socio-economic factors than on the validated technology selected, suggesting that local circumstances are a critical, and often underestimated, factor to be taken into consideration in the praxis. Finally, some testimonies of the use of biol (bio-slurry or effluent) are reported, identifying the high potential of this anaerobic digestion product that provides a food sovereignty approach, reduced expansion of the agricultural frontier, increased agricultural productivity and hence family income, that other household energizing systems do not have. A brief report of lessons learned is also included. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | University of Michigan, QUANTICA Organizacion Profesional para el Avance de la Salud Mental, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System and Bolivian Catholic University
Type: | Journal: International journal of mental health systems | Year: 2016

Innovative, scalable solutions are needed to address the vast unmet need for mental health care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).We conducted a feasibility study of a 14-week automated telephonic interactive voice response (IVR) depression self-care service among Bolivian primary care patients with at least moderately severe depressive symptoms. We analyzed IVR call completion rates, the reliability and validity of IVR-collected data, and participant satisfaction.Of the 32 participants, the majority were women (78% or 25/32) and non-indigenous (75% or 24/32). Participants had moderate depressive symptoms at baseline (PHQ-8 score mean 13.3, SD=3.5) and reported good or fair general health status (88% or 28/32). Fifty-four percent of weekly IVR calls (approximately 7 out of 13 active call-weeks) were completed. Neither PHQ-8 scores nor IVR call completion differed significantly by ethnicity, education, self-reported depression diagnosis, self-reported overall health, number of chronic conditions, or health literacy. The reliability for IVR-collected PHQ-8 scores was good (Cronbachs alpha=0.83). Virtually every participant (97%) was mostly or very satisfied with the program. Many described the program as beneficial for their mood and self-care, albeit limited by some technological difficulties and the lack of human interaction.Findings suggest that IVR could feasibly be used to provide monitoring and self-care education to depressed patients in Bolivia. An expanded stepped-care service offering contact with lay health workers for more depressed individuals and expanded mHealth content may foster greater patient engagement and enhance its therapeutic value while remaining cost-effective. Trial registration ISRCTN ISRCTN 18403214. Registered 14 September 2016. Retrospectively registered.

Faber-Langendoen D.,NatureServe | Keeler-Wolf T.,Biogeographic Data Branch | Meidinger D.,British Columbia Ministry of forests | Tart D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 7 more authors.
Ecological Monographs | Year: 2014

A vegetation classification approach is needed that can describe the diversity of terrestrial ecosystems and their transformations over large time frames, span the full range of spatial and geographic scales across the globe, and provide knowledge of reference conditions and current states of ecosystems required to make decisions about conservation and resource management. We summarize the scientific basis for EcoVeg, a physiognomic-floristic-ecological classification approach that applies to existing vegetation, both cultural (planted and dominated by human processes) and natural (spontaneously formed and dominated by nonhuman ecological processes). The classification is based on a set of vegetation criteria, including physiognomy (growth forms, structure) and floristics (compositional similarity and characteristic species combinations), in conjunction with ecological characteristics, including site factors, disturbance, bioclimate, and biogeography. For natural vegetation, the rationale for the upper levels (formation types) is based on the relation between global-scale vegetation patterns and macroclimate, hydrology, and substrate. The rationale for the middle levels is based on scaling from regional formations (divisions) to regional floristic-physiognomic types (macrogroup and group) that respond to meso-scale biogeographic, climatic, disturbance, and site factors. Finally, the lower levels (alliance and association) are defined by detailed floristic composition that responds to local to regional topo-edaphic and disturbance gradients. For cultural vegetation, the rationale is similar, but types are based on distinctive vegetation physiognomy and floristics that reflect human activities. The hierarchy provides a structure that organizes regional/continental vegetation patterns in the context of global patterns. A formal nomenclature is provided, along with a descriptive template that provides the differentiating criteria for each type at all levels of the hierarchy. Formation types have been described for the globe; divisions and macrogroups for North America, Latin America and Africa; groups, alliances and associations for the United States, parts of Canada, Latin America and, in partnership with other classifications that share these levels, many other parts of the globe. © 2014 by the Ecological Society of America.

Frank B.,Sophia University | Torrico B.H.,Bolivian Catholic University | Schvaneveldt S.J.,Weber State University
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management | Year: 2016

In order for innovation to become sustainable, consumers need to actually purchase innovative products and services, even when these happen to be expensive. For these cases, this study addresses a gap in the literature by developing the concept of sustainable consumer innovativeness and by seeking to understand its determinants across countries. Based on data collected from more than 3,000 consumers across five countries, this study finds that sustainable consumer innovativeness tends to be influenced negatively by female sex and savings orientation, whereas it appears to be influenced positively by income satisfaction, financial expectations, curiosity, uncertainty avoidance, and status importance. It does not seem to depend on age. While most of these effects are generally valid, their magnitude tends to differ by country. These results may enable managers of innovative firms to identify lead users and thus to improve marketing strategy during the launch phase of innovative products and services. © 2015 IEEE.

Wetzel C.E.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Wetzel C.E.,Institute Botanica | Morales E.A.,Bolivian Catholic University | Hinz F.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | And 2 more authors.
Diatom Research | Year: 2013

The transfer of Fragilaria javanica Hustedt to the genus Fragilariforma D.M. Williams & Round is presented based on a detailed analysis of the type material from Java (Malay Archipelago) using light and scanning electron microscopy. The taxon is characterized by each areola covered externally with a rota, well-developed, simple apical pore fields composed of rounded poroids and located on both valve apices, denticulate spines with tips oriented towards the apices, and open girdle bands with valvocopulae bearing heavily silicified advalvar fimbriae. These features are all shared with species currently ascribed to Fragilariforma, although the spine shape and orientation, and girdle elements having two rows of areolae, along with valvocopulae with well-developed fimbriae are typical of F. javanica. Morphological, ecological and distribution data are presented and discussed based on available literature for this taxon. © 2013 The International Society for Diatom Research.

Morales E.A.,Bolivian Catholic University | Morales E.A.,Higher University of San Simón | Morales E.A.,Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia | Edlund M.B.,St. Croix Research | Spaulding S.A.,U.S. Geological Survey
Phycological Research | Year: 2010

Several populations identified and reported from North America and Mongolia under the names Fragilaria elliptica Schumann or Staurosira elliptica (Schumann) Williams et Round were analyzed in detail using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis yielded three variants that can not be ascribed to '. elliptica' of the type. Furthermore, two of the variants could not be related to published taxa and we describe them as new species, Staurosira ambigua sp. nov. and Staurosira dimorpha sp. nov. A third variant was identified as Pseudostaurosira trainorii Morales, a taxon originally reported from ponds and a river in the north-eastern USA. The combined LM and SEM analysis used here allowed for a more thorough circumscription of taxonomic boundaries among morphologically similar taxa and for better delimitation of their geographic distributions. A discussion of the taxonomy and ecology of these taxa based on literature and recent ecological data is presented. © 2010 Japanese Society of Phycology.

Morales E.A.,Bolivian Catholic University | Morales E.A.,Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia | Novais M.H.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Chavez G.,Higher University of San Simón | And 2 more authors.
Fottea | Year: 2012

Three new araphid diatom species, Pseudostaurosira decipiens E. Morales, G. Chávez et Ector, P. sajamaensis E. Morales et Ector and Staurosira kjotsunarum E. Morales, Novais et Ector are described from a single sample taken from the Desaguadero River in the Bolivian Altiplano. These species clearly belong in their respective genera as evidenced by their morphological features studied using light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Pseudostaurosira decipiens is unique in its genus because of the combination of lanceolate-shaped valves with central area, well-developed spines lacking ligulae, siliceous deposits on outer and inner areolar openings similar to flaps, and the inner rounded structure of the apical pore fields. Pseudostaurosira sajamaensis is different from other species of Pseudostaurosira due to its elliptic to lanceolate valves bearing a wide central sternum, spines with developed ligulae and bilobed flaps, robust volae and reduced or absent apical pore fields. Staurosira kjotsunarum is unique within Staurosira in having elevated costae on both external and internal views, narrowly spatulate spines that hold onto areolae of neighboring valves along a chain, and striae composed of round poroids underneath the apical pore fields on the valve mantle. The three species are compared with morphologically similar taxa and a brief analysis of the richness found in the studied sample in the context of previous publications on diatoms from the Andes and contiguous regions is presented. © Czech Phycological Society (2012).

Wetzel C.E.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo | Wetzel C.E.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Lange-Bertalot H.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Morales E.A.,Bolivian Catholic University | And 3 more authors.
Phytotaxa | Year: 2012

Bicudoa amazonica C.E. Wetzel, Lange-Bertalot & Ector gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described using light and scanning electron microscopy. It differs from 'araphid' genera by a unique combination of characters such as the absence of a raphe system, helictoglossae, rimoportulae, apical pore fields and linking spines, while other features including striae, areolae apparently without occlusion on valve and girdle elements, structure of the cingulum, and displacement of axial area place Bicudoa close to Eunotia. The taxonomic placement of the new organism at the class and family levels is discussed and it is concluded that placing Bicudoa in any of the current Fragilariophyceae families would be inappropriate. Instead, we place Bicudoa in the Bacillariophyceae and reserve the decision to place it in a family until further evidence is gathered. Based on ultrastructure, it is proposed that Bicudoa is a rather recent result of a complete loss of the raphe system and associated structures in a relatively recent eunotioid ancestor. Bicudoa amazonica was found in the upper reaches of the Rio Negro basin (Brazilian Amazon), a low pH, black water river (oligotrophic and humic). While the taxon was rare in plankton and benthic samples, it was rather common in excrement samples of the turtle Podocnemis erythrocephala (Testudines, Podocnemididae). The discovery of Bicudoa amazonica besides to the recent description of several new eunotioid taxa from Rio Negro basin suggests that speciation and isolation leading to endemism in Amazonian oligotrophic/dystrophic habitats is remarkable. © 2012 Magnolia Press.

Morales E.A.,Bolivian Catholic University | Guerrero J.M.,National University of La Plata | Wetzel C.E.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Sala S.,National University of La Plata | Ector L.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann
Cryptogamie, Algologie | Year: 2013

Fragilaria pinnata Ehrenberg is one of the most commonly reported taxa in floristic and ecological works from around the world. Yet, the images published for this taxon reveal that its identity is not well defined and that several morphological variants have been ascribed to it. The present manuscript includes a preliminary analysis of the literature and type material housed in the Ehrenberg Collection, Berlin, Germany. The nomenclatural history of the taxon, a critical examination of original drawings, and results of the examination of type material lead to the conclusion that Fragilaria pinnata (current synonym: Staurosirella pinnata (Ehrenberg) D.M.Williams & Round) is not an araphid diatom, but rather an organism with links to the genus Denticula Kützing. The history of another taxon, Staurosira pinnata Ehrenberg, was also investigated to determine its actual relationship to Fragilaria pinnata since recent publications present these two names as synonyms. Staurosira pinnata also has an entangled history and a dubious current concept. Although, we have not examined type material for this taxon yet, based on examination of the nomenclatural history and original drawings, we were able to conclude that it is indeed an araphid diatom, but that the current synonymy with Fragilaria pinnata is incorrect. © 2013 Adac. Tous droits réservés.

Loza-Murguia M.,Bolivian Catholic University | Noireau F.,Institute Francais Of Recherche Scientifique Pour Le Developpement En Cooperation Orstom Ird
Neotropical Entomology | Year: 2010

Triatoma guasayana (Wygodzinsky & Abalos) is a peridomestic triatomine with epidemiological importance in Bolivia, that may play an important role in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas). In this study, two parameters of vectorial capacity were evaluated: the interval of feeding-defecation time and metacyclogenesis, in adult males and females and nymphal instars II to V of T. guasayana with comparisons with Triatoma infestans (Klug) and T. sordida (Stal). The results showed a close relationship between ingestion of blood and beginning of defecation. Values were negative in T. infestans, and T. sordida for instars II, III, IV, and V and also males and females but were positive in female T. sordida. Triatoma guasayana showed only negative values for instar II. Adults and nymphs began defecation as soon as they had finished feeding and required an average of 29.8 min. The analysis of metacyclogenesis showed that T. guasayana was superior to T. infestans and T. sordida. However, the vectorial effectiveness of T. guasayana was significantly affected regarding the percentage of metacyclic trypomastigotes during instars III to V and showed a progressive increase. Females had higher proportions despite their ingestion being half that of T. infestans. The different instars of T. guasayana had a higher parasitic load than those of T. sordida and, although ingestion was 1/3 of that of female T. infestans, there was a progressive increase in metacyclic trypomastigotes in the different nymphal stages of T. guasayana that decreased in adults.

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