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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of female sexual hormones on the intestinal NF-κB levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI) induction. Materials and methods: Diffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 10 groups: intact, sham+OVX, TBI, TBI+OVX, vehicle, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), E2+P, PPT and DPN (estrogen receptor alpha and beta agonists, respectively). The intestinal NF-κB p50 and p65 levels were measured by ELISA method 5 days after TBI. Results: The intestinal levels of NF-κB p65 were decreased in TBI group vs intact group (P<0.001). All treatment groups had caused a significant reduction in intestinal levels of NF- κB p65 (P<0.001) vs OVX + TBI. The trauma induction doesn't have any effect on the intestinal NF-κB p50 levels. The OVX+TBI animals treated with estrogen, progesterone and estrogen+ progesterone showed a significant reduction (P<0.05) vs OVX + TBI (P<0.001). PPT had caused a significant reduction in intestinal levels of NF-κB p50 (P <0.05) compared to OVX + TBI. PPT and DPN significantly increased the intestinal levels of NF-κB p50 vs vehicle group (P <0.05). Conclusion: The binding activity of different subunits of NF-κB (p50 and p65) varies following traumatic brain injury. Also, because the NF-κB binding activity reduced in intestinal tissue after treatment with steroids, it is possible that steroids do their performance by reducing the activity of NF-κB and thereby reduce the production of intestinal inflammatory cytokines.

Yekrangi A.,Islamic Azad University | Afrasiabi M.,University of Sistan and Baluchestan | Langari A.,Bojnurd University of Medical science | Hafshejani M.K.,Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2014

Rubber/Titanium oxide nanocomposites might be considered as potential materials in medical and industrial applications due to the flexibility of the polymer and antibacterial properties of nanometric additive. In this research paper, the morphology and physical properties of nanocomposites based on Styrene Butadiene rubber have been investigated in the presence of nano titanium oxide additive. The nanocomposites have been prepared by mechanical blending using two roll mills. Nano Titanium oxide particles have been added to Styrene Butadiene rubber and the abrasion and thermal properties have been surveyed. Optical microscopic observation and scanning electron microscopic pictures have been used to investigate the morphology of nanocomposites based on rubber. Abrasion test results showed that the nano Titanium oxide particles could enhance the abrasion resistance of Styrene Butadiene rubber matrix due to appropriate properties of nano Titanium oxide particles. © 2006-2014 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

Shokuhifard R.,Islamic Azad University at Andimeshk | Ojakeh M.,Islamic Azad University at Dezful | Langari A.,Bojnurd University of Medical science | Hafshejani M.K.,Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2014

Carbon nanotube (CNT) is one the most important nano-elements in fabrication of probes, sensors and other ultrasmall devices that have a wide usage in engineering and medicine. In this paper, the deflection and instability of a freestanding CNT probe/sensor in the vicinity of the graphene layers are investigated. A nano-scale continuum model in conjunction with Euler beam theory is employed to obtain nonlinear constitutive equation of freestanding CNT by considering the effect of Casimir dispersion force. A numerical finite difference method is employed to solve the nonlinear governing equation. © 2006-2014 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

Langari A.,Bojnurd University of Medical science | Yekrangi A.,Islamic Azad University | Soroush R.,Islamic Azad University at Lahijan | Fakhraei M.,Islamic Azad University at Lahijan | Hafshejani M.K.,Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2014

Nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) sensors are recently used as powerful medical detectors for detection of disease. In this research paper, the modified couple stress non-classic continuum theory is applied to examine the size effect on the pull-in instability of beam-type NEMS sensor at submicron separations considering the van der Waals attraction. The proposed model takes the non-classic support conditions into account using rotational springs at supported end of the simply supported nano-beam. In order to solve the nonlinear constitutive equation of the nano-beams, finite difference numerical solution employed. The results reveal significant influence of the size dependency, elastic support conditions and van der Waals attraction on the pull-in characteristics of beam-type NEMS. © 2006-2014 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

Boostani R.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Derakhshan S.,Bojnurd University of Medical science
Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Tramadol is a synthetic analgesic. Seizures have been reported in patients receiving this drug. In this study we evaluated the correlation between tramadol consumption and seizure occurrence. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects with a history of tramadol consumption and seizure were studied. Electroencephalograms (EEG) were performed in the first 24 hours and again one week later. Subjects were followed up for a mean of 18 months after the initial attack. Results: In the 28 subjects, 26 (92.8%) were males and 2 (7.2%) were females. The mean age of the subjects was 28.4 years. Thirteen patients had abused more than 400 mg/day of tramadol. Sixteen subjects concomitantly used other drugs. The seizures occurred within the first 24 hours of tramadol intake in 25 of the subjects. The first EEG was abnormal in 12 cases, but the second EEG was abnormal in only one case. Neuroimaging of only one subject displayed patchy white matter lesions. Conclusion: In conclusion, the neurotoxicity of tramadol commonly manifests as generalized tonic clonic seizures most frequently within 24 hours after tramadol intake and was more common in subjects concomitantly consuming alcohol, illicit drugs, antipsychotics, or anti-depressants.

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