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Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

Bishayee K.,Kalyani University | Paul A.,Kalyani University | Ghosh S.,Kalyani University | Sikdar S.,Kalyani University | And 4 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Gonolobus condurango plant extract is used as an anticancer drug in some traditional systems of medicine including homeopathy, but it apparently lacks any scientific validation. Further, no detailed study is available to suggest whether condurango-glycoside-A (CGA), a major ingredient of condurango serves as a potent anticancer compound. Therefore, we investigated apoptosis-inducing ability of CGA against cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa). β-galactosidase- activity and DNA damage were critically studied at different time points; while induced DNA-damage was observed at 9-12th hours, senescence of cells appeared at a later stage (18th hour after CGA treatment), implicating thereby a possible role of DNA damage in inducing pre-mature cell senescence. Concurrently, the number of cells undergoing apoptosis increased along with increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Expression of p53 was also up-regulated, indicating that apoptosis could have been mediated through p53 pathway. DCHFDA (4′,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride) assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and annexin V/PI assay results collectively confirmed that apoptosis was induced by increased ROS generation. Reduction in proliferation of cells was further evidenced by the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 stage. Expression profiles of certain relevant genes and proteins like p53, Akt, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c and caspase 3 also provided evidence of ROS mediated p53 up-regulation and further boost in Bax expression and followed by cytochrome c release and activation of caspase 3. Overall results suggest that CGA initiates ROS generation, promoting up-regulation of p53 expression, thus resulting in apoptosis and pre-mature senescence associated with DNA damage. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Samadder A.,Kalyani University | Das S.,Kalyani University | Das J.,Kalyani University | Paul A.,Kalyani University | And 2 more authors.
JAMS Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies | Year: 2013

Cancer is a disease that needs a multi-faceted approach from different systems of medicine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether homeopathically-potentized ultra-high dilutions of Lycopodium Clavatum (LC-5C and LC-15C, respectively) have any anti-cancer effects on HeLa cells. Cells were exposed to either LC-5C (diluted below Avogadro's limit, i.e., 10-10) or LC-15C (diluted beyond Avogadro's limit, i.e., 10-30) (drug-treated) or to 30% succussed ethanol ("vehicle" of the drug). The drug-induced modulation in the percent cell viability, the onset of apoptosis, and changes in the expressions of Bax, Bcl2, caspase 3, and Apaf proteins in inter-nucleosomal DNA, in mitochondrial membrane potentials and in the release of cytochrome-c were analyzed by utilizing different experimental protocols. Results revealed that administration of LC-5C and LC-15C had little or no cytotoxic effect in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but caused considerable cell death through apoptosis in cancer (HeLa) cells, which was evident from the induction of DNA fragmentation, the increases in the expressions of protein and mRNA of caspase 3 and Bax, and the decreases in the expressions of Bcl2 and Apaf and in the release of cytochrome-c. Thus, the highly-diluted, dynamized homeopathic remedies LC-5C and LC-15C demonstrated their capabilities to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, signifying their possible use as supportive medicines in cancer therapy. © 2013.


De A.,Kalyani University | Das D.,Kalyani University | Dutta S.,Kalyani University | Chakraborty D.,Kalyani University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: To examine if potentized homeopathic drug Arsenicum Album 30C (Ars Alb 30C) can reduce sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in Escherichia coli. METHODS: E. coli were exposed to low arsenite insult after they grew up to log phase in Standard Luria-Bertani medium. E. coli were treated with 1 or 2 mmol/L sodium arsenite alone (control), or Ars Alb 30C was added to the medium of a subset of sodium arsenite-treated bacteria (drug-treated), or homeopathically agitated alcohol was added to the medium containing a subset of sodium arsenite-treated bacteria (placebo-treated). A sub-set of untreated E. coli served as the negative control. Glucose uptake, specific activities of hexokinase, lipid peroxidase (LPO), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, intra- and extra-cellular sodium arsenite content, cell growth, cell membrane potential, DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and free glutathione content and expressions of arsB and ptsG gene in normal control, sodium arsenite-treated, drug-treated and placebo-treated E. coli were analyzed. Treatments were blinded and randomized. RESULTS: In sodium arsenite-treated E. coli, glucose uptake, intracellular ROS, LPO and DNA damage increased along with decrease in the specific activities of hexokinase, SOD and catalase, intracellular ATP and free glutathione contents and cell membrane potential and growth, and there were increases in expression levels of arsB gene and ptsG gene. Ars Alb 30C administration reduced arsenic toxicity in E. coli by inhibiting generation of ROS and increasing tolerance to arsenite toxicity and cell growth. CONCLUSION: Ars Alb 30C ameliorated arsenic toxicity and DNA damage, validating efficacy of ultra-highly diluted remedies used in homeopathy.


Das S.,Kalyani University | Das J.,Kalyani University | Samadder A.,Kalyani University | Boujedaini N.,Boiron Laboratory | Khuda-Bukhsh A.R.,Kalyani University
Experimental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2012

We isolated apigenin (5,7,4′-trihydroxy flavone) from ethanolic extract of Lycopodium clavatum (LC) used as a homeopathic mother tincture for treatment of various diseases. We assessed the anticancer potentials of the compound using human malignant melanoma cell line A375 and a lung carcinoma cell line A549 and focussed on its putative molecular mechanism of action on apoptosis induction. We examined the cytotoxicity of apigenin in both cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A375 cells were more prone to apigenin-induced apoptosis, as compared with A549 cells after 24 h of treatment, while PBMC showed little or no cytotoxicity to apigenin. We also evaluated the effects of apigenin on interaction with DNA by comparative analysis of circular dichroism spectral data and melting temperature profiles (Tm) of calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) treated with or without apigenin. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in mitochondria, super-oxide dismutase and total thiol group (GSH) activities were also analyzed. The apoptotic process involved mitochondrial pathway associated with apigenin-DNA interaction, DNA fragmentation, ROS accumulation, cytochrome c (cyt c) release and mitochondrial transmembrane potential depolarization, Bax, caspase 3, 9, PARP, upregulation, Bcl-2 down-regulation and down-regulation of cyt c in the mitochondrial fraction. Results of mitochondrial inner membrane swelling measurements, intracellular ADP/ATP ratio and ATPase activity showed that in A549 cells, apigenin did not appear to directly target the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system but rather acted at an upstream step to activate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. However, apigenin could directly target and impair mitochondrial function in A375 cells by breaking down their oxidative phosphorylation system. Collectively, these results suggest that apigenin exhibits anticancer potential in A375 and A549 cells that may be mediated through DNA interaction, damage and mitochondrial dysfunction either by direct or indirect action on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. © 2008 Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.


Mukherjee A.,Kalyani University | Das D.,Kalyani University | Kumar Mondal S.,Kalyani University | Biswas R.,Kalyani University | And 3 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2010

The arsenate tolerance limit in wild-type Aspergillus niger was determined. Because of its high tolerance, toxic effects of arsenate concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 mg/L were investigated in regard to growth, intracellular thiols, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of wild-type A. niger. Cellular arsenate uptake was analyzed. Activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) were assayed. Growth of A. niger increased at 25 mg/L arsenate, and it survived up to 100 mg/L. MDA, intracellular thiol and proline contents increased up to a certain level. Activities of GR, SOD and CAT declined following a rise at low concentration(s); SDH activity decreased gradually with increased arsenate stress. Results indicated that A. niger had high arsenate uptake potential and could tolerate oxidative stress by manipulating its anti-oxidative defense mechanism, a property that may be exploited for removal of arsenate from contaminated aqua-environment. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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