Lira I.,University of Santiago de Chile |
Grientschnig D.,Bohler Edelstahl Gmbh
Metrologia | Year: 2010
The publication of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), and later of its Supplement 1, can be considered to be landmarks in the field of metrology. The second of these documents recommends a general Monte Carlo method for numerically constructing the probability distribution of a measurand given the probability distributions of its input quantities. The output probability distribution can be used to estimate the fixed value of the measurand and to calculate the limits of an interval wherein that value is expected to be found with a given probability. The approach in Supplement 1 is not restricted to linear or linearized models (as is the GUM) but it is limited to a single measurand. In this paper the theory underlying Supplement 1 is re-examined with a view to covering explicit or implicit measurement models that may include any number of output quantities. It is shown that the main elements of the theory are Bayes' theorem, the principles of probability calculus and the rules for constructing prior probability distributions. The focus is on developing an analytical expression for the joint probability distribution of all quantities involved. In practice, most times this expression will have to be integrated numerically to obtain the distribution of the output quantities, but not necessarily by using the Monte Carlo method. It is stressed that all quantities are assumed to have unique values, so their probability distributions are to be interpreted as encoding states of knowledge that are (i) logically consistent with all available information and (ii) conditional on the correctness of the measurement model and on the validity of the statistical assumptions that are used to process the measurement data. A rigorous notation emphasizes this interpretation. © 2010 BIPM & IOP Publishing Ltd. Source
Bohler Edelstahl Gmbh | Date: 2011-04-05
Gun barrel for firearms made from a deformed material and method for producing the gun barrel material. The material has a chemical composition in % by weight of:
Bohler Edelstahl Gmbh | Date: 2010-03-05
A cold-forming steel article which comprises an alloy that comprises carbon, manganese, silicon, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten and optionally, niobium in certain concentrations, as well as up to about 0.4 wt. % of accompanying elements, remainder iron and contaminants. The article is formed by atomization of a melt and hot isostatic pressing of the resultant powder. The article exhibits a hardness of at least about 60 HRC and a toughness in terms of impact strength of higher than about 50 J. This abstract is neither intended to define the invention disclosed in this specification nor intended to limit the scope of the invention in any way.
Bohler Edelstahl Gmbh | Date: 2011-10-17
The invention relates to a method for the production of tools for a chip-removing machining of metallic materials and to a tool with improved wear resistance and/or high toughness. The invention further provides an alloyed steel with a chemical composition comprising carbon, silicon, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium, and cobalt as well as aluminum, nitrogen, and iron. The alloyed steel may be used to make tools to a hardness of greater than 66 HRC and increased chip-removing machining performance.
Bohler Edelstahl Gmbh | Date: 2010-01-13
A wear-resistant material which comprises certain concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, niobium/tantalum as well as other metallic elements. The material comprises a metal matrix and hard phases embedded therein. The hard phases comprise one or more of carbides, nitrides, carbonitrides, and oxide carbonitrides and have a diameter of from about 0.2 m to about 50 m. This abstract is neither intended to define the invention disclosed in this specification nor intended to limit the scope of the invention in any way.