Lira I.,University of Santiago de Chile |
Grientschnig D.,Bohler Edelstahl Gmbh
Metrologia | Year: 2010
The publication of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), and later of its Supplement 1, can be considered to be landmarks in the field of metrology. The second of these documents recommends a general Monte Carlo method for numerically constructing the probability distribution of a measurand given the probability distributions of its input quantities. The output probability distribution can be used to estimate the fixed value of the measurand and to calculate the limits of an interval wherein that value is expected to be found with a given probability. The approach in Supplement 1 is not restricted to linear or linearized models (as is the GUM) but it is limited to a single measurand. In this paper the theory underlying Supplement 1 is re-examined with a view to covering explicit or implicit measurement models that may include any number of output quantities. It is shown that the main elements of the theory are Bayes' theorem, the principles of probability calculus and the rules for constructing prior probability distributions. The focus is on developing an analytical expression for the joint probability distribution of all quantities involved. In practice, most times this expression will have to be integrated numerically to obtain the distribution of the output quantities, but not necessarily by using the Monte Carlo method. It is stressed that all quantities are assumed to have unique values, so their probability distributions are to be interpreted as encoding states of knowledge that are (i) logically consistent with all available information and (ii) conditional on the correctness of the measurement model and on the validity of the statistical assumptions that are used to process the measurement data. A rigorous notation emphasizes this interpretation. © 2010 BIPM & IOP Publishing Ltd.
Bohler Edelstahl Gmbh | Date: 2011-04-05
Gun barrel for firearms made from a deformed material and method for producing the gun barrel material. The material has a chemical composition in % by weight of:
Bohler Edelstahl Gmbh | Date: 2011-10-17
The invention relates to a method for the production of tools for a chip-removing machining of metallic materials and to a tool with improved wear resistance and/or high toughness. The invention further provides an alloyed steel with a chemical composition comprising carbon, silicon, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium, and cobalt as well as aluminum, nitrogen, and iron. The alloyed steel may be used to make tools to a hardness of greater than 66 HRC and increased chip-removing machining performance.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CS | Phase: JTI-CS-2011-1-SAGE-04-009 | Award Amount: 365.00K | Year: 2011
The objective of this project is the implementation of an integrated simulation chain including pre material characteristics, thermo-mechanical processing (forging and heat treatment) and assessment of microstructure and functional properties for aerospace turbine components. The integration of different computational results within an interdisciplinary and intercompany design-chain is a challenging task. A fully integrated simulation chain along the supply chain will give unique benefit for product development with respect to time, cost, and quality. This allows an optimization of the forgings in respect of weight, efficiency and CO2 reduction. Bhler Schmiedetechnik GmbH & Co KG (BSTG) has developed a model for determining the microstructure (e.g. local grain size distribution in a component) from forging and heat treatment simulations. This model is in daily use for thermo-mechanical process design and optimization of turbine disks. In past, recent and future R&D projects, Bhler Schmiedetechnik has developed models for determining the local functional properties depending on the microstructure. In a further step, aiming to the topic of this proposal, the simulation chain is to be integrated into an industrialized useful format, target-aimed to customer needs. Suitable strategies and methods for integration of the pre-material characteristics have to be assessed. The quality of the existing models has to be evaluated together with the customer. Comprehensive statistic investigations work is necessary in order to make the usage of the simulated data possible at the customer. Detailed investigations have to be executed to improve and/or generate functional properties models like yield stress, low cycle fatigue and creep models. Interfaces have to be defined and generated. A validation work has to be examined with forged LPT (low pressure turbine) demonstrator disks which show the effectiveness and model capabilities.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.28M | Year: 2011
European SMEs from the manufacturing sector are facing increasing competition, since manufacturing is migrating to low-cost countries even for manufacturing of high value parts in aeronautical or the mold making industry. To remain competitive SMEs must conceive radical new production solutions. Mostly new innovative products come along with the introduction of advanced materials like super alloys or super hard steels, which are extremely hard to machine. However, successful introduction in innovative products requires economic manufacturing processes in a short period of time. In this challenging field most SMEs apply high-performance multi-axis milling. This technology offers maximum flexibility in terms of part geometry and material, but it also requires comprehensive process knowledge. Thus, the main objective of this proposal is to create a novel and holistic, knowledge-based development platform that rapidly provides optimum process design for advanced milling tasks covering tailored coated milling tools including adapted parameter sets and strategies. Process layout must ensure maximum tool life by minimum use of lubricant. The platform will enable the SMEs to achieve a delivery time reduction of highly efficient manufactured components by at least 25% and will consequently enable potential customers to reduce time-to-market and costs for their high quality products made of hard-to-machine materials. This will finally and sustainable strengthen the position and competitiveness of European SMEs in growing markets. Participating SMEs will also contribute to reduce energy consumption by the efficient use of material resources in manufacturing. In addition they will directly contribute to increase energy efficiency at the OEMs mass production (innovative dies and molds) as well as at the OEMs products (lighter jet engines with lower CO2 emission). Both are examples which lead to a significant improvement of environmental and health conditions in Europe.