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Xie C.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Xie C.,Sun Yat Sen University | Epstein L.H.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Eiden R.D.,State University of New York at Buffalo | And 7 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVE: To compare risk of stunting at 5 years across etiological subgroups of small for gestational age (SGA) newborns. METHODS: We analyzed data of a subsample (N = 1100) of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. We defined SGA as birth weight <10th percentile, then classified subjects into etiological subgroups by each of 8 risk factors (ie, maternal prepregnancy underweight, short stature, smoking during pregnancy, alcohol use during pregnancy, inadequate gestational weight gain [GWG], hypertension, genital herpes infection, and multiple births) or by cooccurrence of 2 often intertwined risk factors (smoking and inadequate GWG). We defined stunting as 5 years height-for-age z score below -2. We fitted logistic regression models to test whether the risk of stunting differed across SGA subgroups, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: SGA subgroup with maternal short stature (odds ratio [OR] = 3.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.16-6.96) or inadequate GWG (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.23-3.84) had higher risk of stunting at 5 years, compared with the SGA subgroup without the corresponding risk factor. SGA newborns with both maternal smoking and inadequate GWG during pregnancy had much higher risk of stunting at 5 years (OR = 3.10; 95% CI = 1.21-7.91), compared with SGA newborns without any of these 2 SGA risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Etiological subgroups of SGA differed in risk of stunting at 5 years. SGA newborns of inadequate GWG mothers who smoke and SGA newborns of short mothers were at particularly high risk of stunting. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

Wang J.,Southern Medical University | Xiao Q.-Z.,Zhuhai Women and Children Care Hospital | Chen Y.-M.,Southern Medical University | Yi S.,Southern Medical University | And 11 more authors.
Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases | Year: 2014

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked incompletely dominant enzyme deficiency that results from G6PD gene mutations. Women heterozygous for G6PD mutations exhibit variation in the loss of enzyme activity but the cause of this phenotypic variation is unclear. We determined DNA methylation and X-inactivation patterns in 71 G6PD-deficient female heterozygotes and 68 G6PD non-deficient controls with the same missense mutations (G6PD Canton c.1376G>T or Kaiping c.1388G>A) to correlate determinants with variable phenotypes. Specific CpG methylations within the G6PD promoter were significantly higher in G6PD-deficient heterozygotes than in controls. Preferential X-inactivation of the G6PD wild-type allele was determined in heterozygotes. The incidence of preferential X-inactivation was 86.2% in the deficient heterozygote group and 31.7% in the non-deficient heterozygote group. A significant negative correlation was observed between X-inactivation ratios of the wild-type allele and G6PD/6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) ratios in heterozygous G6PD Canton (r= - 0.657, p< 0.001) or Kaiping (r= - 0.668, p< 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that heterozygotes with hypermethylation of specific CpG sites in the G6PD promoter and preferential X-inactivation of the wild-type allele were at risk of enzyme deficiency. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Zhu W.-W.,Peking University | Yang H.-X.,Peking University | Yang H.-X.,Xian Jiaotong University | Wei Y.-M.,Peking University | And 14 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVEdTo evaluate the value of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) value in the first prenatal visit to diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSdMedical records of 17,186 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in 13 hospitals in China, including the Peking University First Hospital (PUFH), were examined. Patients with pre-GDMwere excluded; data for FPG at the first prenatal visit and one-step GDM screening with 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation were collected and analyzed. RESULTSdThe median 6 SD FPG value was 4.58 6 0.437. FPG decreased with increasing gestational age. FPG level at the first prenatal visit was strongly correlatedwith GDMdiagnosed at 24-28 gestational weeks (x2 = 959.3, P < 0.001). The incidences of GDM were 37.0, 52.7, and 66.2%, respectively, for women with FPG at the first prenatal visit between 5.10 and 5.59, 5.60 and 6.09, and 6.10-6.99 mmol/L. The data of PUFH were not statistically different from other hospitals. CONCLUSIONSdPregnant women (6.10#FPG,7.00mmol/L) should be considered and treated as GDM to improve outcomes; for women with FPG between 5.10 and 6.09 mmol/L, nutrition and exercise advice should be provided. An OGTT should be performed at 24-28 weeks to confirm or rule out GDM. Based on our data, we cannot support an FPG value 5.10 mmol/L at the first prenatal visit as the criterion for diagnosis of GDM. Copyright © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

Qu Y.,Guangdong Academy of Medical science | Liu X.,Guangdong Academy of Medical science | Zhuang J.,Surgery Academy | Chen G.,Dongguan Houjie Hospital | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

There are 16.5 million newborns in China annually. However, the incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) has not been evaluated. In 2004, we launched an active province-wide hospital-based CHD registry in the Guangdong Province of southern China. In this study, we examined the incidence of CHD and its subtypes from 2004 to 2012 and compared our findings to the literature. Our results indicate there is an increasing trend of CHD incidence. The increase in incidence occurred mainly for single lesion and the most common subtypes (e.g., ventricular or atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus). There were no increases found for multiple lesions or more complex subtypes. The proportion of CHD cases that were detected early (e.g., 1 week) increased over time. The incidence of CHD stabilized in 2010-2012 with the average cumulative incidences of 9.7, 9.9, and 11.1 per 1,000 live births at 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year, respectively. The incidences of CHD subtypes were comparable with recent international results. The data did not support previous reports that Asian children have a higher incidence of pulmonary outflow obstructions and lower incidence of transposition of the great arteries. However, there was a lower incidence of left ventricular outflow tract obstructions observed in our series. The increase in CHD incidence observed over time was due to improved detection and diagnosis. The true incidence of CHD in China was approximately 11.1 per 1,000 live births, which is higher than previously reported. © 2016 Qu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Si J.,Southern Medical University | Su Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Wang Y.,Southern Medical University | Yan Y.-L.,Boai Hospital of Zhongshan | Tang Y.-L.,Xiamen University
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine | Year: 2015

Aim: To investigate the associations between the expressions of three lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors (LPA1-3) and the development of ovarian carcinoma (OC). Method: Ovarian tissue specimens, including normal ovarian epithelium tissues, benign ovarian tumor tissues and OC tissues were collected from patients who underwent surgical resections between March 2012 and December 2014. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect LPA receptor expressions in ovarian tissues. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to detect mRNA and protein expression of LPA receptors, respectively. Association analysis between LPA receptors protein expression and clinical pathological characteristics was conducted. The value of LPA2 and LPA3 in discriminating OC was confirmed by receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves analysis. Results: The positive expression rates of LPA2 and LPA3 in OC group was obviously higher than normal control and benign groups. The LPA2 and LPA3 mRNA and protein levels in OC group were higher than in normal control and benign groups. LPA2 and LPA3 mRNA expression levels were positively correlated with LPA2 and LPA3 protein expression in OC group. ROC curve analysis revealed that LPA2 yield a specificity of 96.3% and a sensitivity of 97.9%, and LPA3 yield a specificity of 98.5% and a sensitivity of 97.9% for the detection of OC. Conclusion: LPA2 and LPA3 were highly expressed in OC tissues, which may be involved in the development of OC. Further, LPA2 and LPA3 had higher sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing the OC from benign ovarian tumors, which could be potential diagnostic indictors in OC. © 2015, E-Century Publishing Corporation. All Rights reserved. Source

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