Bayerische Motoren Werke AG , commonly known as BMW or BMW AG, is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916.BMW is headquartered in Munich, Bavaria. It also owns and produces Mini cars, and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW produces motorcycles under BMW Motorrad. In 2012, the BMW Group produced 1,845,186 automobiles and 117,109 motorcycles across all of its brands. BMW is part of the "German Big 3" luxury automakers, along with Audi and Mercedes-Benz, which are the three best-selling luxury automakers in the world. Wikipedia.
Lehar M.,General Electric |
Zimmermann M.,BMW AG
Structural Safety | Year: 2012
The failure probability of a system at an uncertain state can be estimated within a precise confidence interval using the Monte-Carlo sampling technique. Using this approach, the number of system parameters may be arbitrarily large, and the system may be non-linear and subject to random noise. For a given confidence level and interval, the number of required simulations can be exactly computed using the Beta Distribution. When failure probabilities are on the order of 1-10%, this technique becomes very inexpensive. In particular, 100 simulations are always sufficient for a failure estimate with a confidence interval of +/-10% at a 95% confidence level.In an engineering development process, this estimate limits the number of trials required to assess the robustness or reliability of high-dimensional and non-linear systems. When simulations are expensive, for example in vehicle crash development, using such a rule to minimize the number of trials can greatly reduce the expense and time invested in development. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Michler T.,Adam Opel AG |
Naumann J.,BMW AG
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010
Several commercial bcc steels with various combinations of ferritic, pearlitic, bainitic and martensitic microstructures were tensile tested in gaseous hydrogen (10 MPa) at room temperature. Fractography of all bcc/bct steels tested in gaseous hydrogen showed clear indications of hydrogen assisted fracture morphology. Comparing these results with those of austenitic stainless steels, it can be assumed that hydrogen enhanced localized plasticity (HELP) is also the primary failure mechanism in all bcc microstructures (ferritic, ferritic/pearlitic, bainitic, martensitic) investigated here. Neither strength nor final grain size nor prior austenite grain size were identified as sole primary factors influencing hydrogen embrittlement. The only steel with a negligible loss in macroscopic ductility was a precipitation hardenable grade indicating that incorporating irreversible traps might be a successful way to reduce the susceptibility of bcc steels to hydrogen embrittlement. © 2009 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu.
Knezevic J.M.,BMW AG
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2013
Brushed DC (BDC) motor drives are widely used in vehicle auxiliary applications. These motor drives, if the position information is required, are usually equipped with position sensors. Even Hall sensors, which are used as a low-cost solution, including pin connectors and cables, are a significant part of the drive cost. To keep costs at a low level, eliminating position sensors for these applications is very important. In this paper, a simple method for accurate sensorless position control is presented. First, the current slot harmonics are filtered to estimate the incremental motor position. Second, a motor modification is introduced, which provides an index signal for the correction algorithm. Several simulation and experimental tests have been conducted. The tests show the effectiveness of the presented method. © 1967-2012 IEEE.
Furst S.,BMW AG
Proceedings -Design, Automation and Test in Europe, DATE | Year: 2010
Since the foundation of AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR), the AUTOSAR Core Partners and more than 65 Premium and Development Members have been working on the standardization of vehicles' software architecture. As a result of its joint development activities AUTOSAR has already provided several Releases, which comprise a set of specifications describing software architecture components and defining their interfaces. With Release 2.1 and Release 3.0/3.1 the majority of partners and members started their series roll-out of AUTOSAR. When introducing the AUTOSAR standard in series products dedicated migration scenarios need to be applied. BMW is migrating to AUTOSAR Basic Software in its current and upcoming product lines. This includes also common functionality that is today already realized as AUTOSAR compliant extensions to the basic software. Further on BMW's strategy on providing application software as ready-to-integrate AUTOSAR software components is described. © 2010 EDAA.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.6.6 | Award Amount: 14.63M | Year: 2011
ecoDriver addresses the need to consider the human element when encouraging green driving, since driver behaviour is a critical element in energy efficiency. The focus of the project is on technology working with the driver. The project aims to deliver the most effective feedback to drivers on green driving by optimising the driver-powertrain-environment feedback loop. It will carry out a substantial programme of work to investigate how best to win the support of the driver to obtain the most energy-efficient driving style for best energy use. Feedback coverage will include preview of the upcoming situation, optimising the current driving situation as well as post-drive feedback and learning. The project will address this across a wide range of vehicles -- e.g. cars, light trucks and vans, medium and heavy trucks and buses -- covering both individual and collective transport, and will optimise feedback to drivers for both nomadic devices and built-in systems and compare the effectiveness of each. The project will evaluate HMIs and feedback to drivers via both nomadic devices and built-in systems and compare the effectiveness of each. In each case a range of HMIs and feedback styles will be assessed. The project aims to examine driving not only with current and near-term powertrains but also with a full range of future vehicles, including various types of hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles. A comprehensive evaluation will be carried out both in the laboratory (a variety of driving simulators) and in real world driving in both the private and fleet contexts. Scenarios will be developed to assess the implications for the future effectiveness of green driving support. The target of ecoDriver is to deliver a 20% improvement in energy efficiency by autonomous means alone, which opens up the possibility of greater than 20% savings in combination with cooperative systems.