Neilsen T.B.,Brigham Young University |
Gee K.L.,Brigham Young University |
Wall A.T.,Brigham Young University |
James M.M.,Blue Ridge Research and Consulting
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2013
Noise measured in the vicinity of an F-22A Raptor has been compared to similarity spectra found previously to represent mixing noise from large-scale and fine-scale turbulent structures in laboratory-scale jet plumes. Comparisons have been made for three engine conditions using ground-based sideline microphones, which covered a large angular aperture. Even though the nozzle geometry is complex and the jet is nonideally expanded, the similarity spectra do agree with large portions of the measured spectra. Toward the sideline, the fine-scale similarity spectrum is used, while the large-scale similarity spectrum provides a good fit to the area of maximum radiation. Combinations of the two similarity spectra are shown to match the data in between those regions. Surprisingly, a combination of the two is also shown to match the data at the farthest aft angle. However, at high frequencies the degree of congruity between the similarity and the measured spectra changes with engine condition and angle. At the higher engine conditions, there is a systematically shallower measured high-frequency slope, with the largest discrepancy occurring in the regions of maximum radiation. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America.
Wall A.T.,Brigham Young University |
Gee K.L.,Brigham Young University |
Neilsen T.B.,Brigham Young University |
Krueger D.W.,Brigham Young University |
James M.M.,Blue Ridge Research and Consulting
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2014
Near-field acoustical holography methods are used to predict sound radiation from an engine installed on a high-performance military fighter aircraft. Cylindrical holography techniques are an efficient approach to measure the large and complex sound fields produced by full-scale jets. It is shown that a ground-based, one-dimensional array of microphones can be used in conjunction with a cylindrical wave function field representation to provide a holographic reconstruction of the radiated sound field at low frequencies. In the current work, partial field decomposition methods and numerical extrapolation of data beyond the boundaries of the hologram aperture are required prior to holographic projection. Predicted jet noise source distributions and directionality are shown for four frequencies between 63 and 250Hz. It is shown that the source distribution narrows and moves upstream, and that radiation directionality shifts toward the forward direction, with increasing frequency. A double-lobe feature of full-scale jet radiation is also demonstrated. © 2014 Acoustical Society of America.
James M.M.,Blue Ridge Research and Consulting |
Gee K.L.,Brigham Young University
Sound and Vibration | Year: 2010
Jet engine technology is more sophisticated than ever, building on decades of learning and growth in the field. However, even the latest advances in jet engine design and technology have not been able to counter an age-old challenge - noise. Noise issues persist and adversely impact both ground maintenance personnel and surrounding communities. There is continued research to combat this issue, but for these emerging tools to achieve their full potential, innovative measurement and analysis methods are necessary to characterize the jet noise source region. A near-field acoustic holography system has been developed to meet this need and provide high-quality acoustic data. These data can be used for model refinement and benchmarking, evaluation of noise control devices, and predicting ground maintenance personnel and community noise exposure. The design of the 150-channel measurement array and data acquisition system is presented here. The prototype system was used recently to perform jet source noise measurements of an F-22 at Holloman Air Force Base located near Alamogordo, NM. The measurement approach and sound pressure level measurement maps detailing the near-field levels, spatial extent, and frequency content for four power conditions are featured.
Ikelheimer B.J.,Blue Ridge Research and Consulting
AUVSI Unmanned Systems North America Conference 2012 | Year: 2012
Acoustic signatures radiating to the ground enable the enemy to aurally detect, locate, and classify inbound air vehicles. This ability has become a critical factor limiting standoff distance and threatening aircraft survivability. Multiple services and agencies are working this problem, yet only limited capability currently exists with minimal validation. This paper will describe the process of determining an aircraft's detectability. The process begins by characterizing the emitted sound, followed by an acoustic propagation model. The results of this model are compared against the background noise and the listener's acuity to determine the probability of detection. Topics will include methods to characterize the sound source, the major elements that effect sound propagation, the major models used, and how the human auditory system works to detect sounds in the presence of background noise. In addition, we will review some recent validation results for several acoustic models, compared against field measurements.
Downing M.,Blue Ridge Research and Consulting
Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics | Year: 2013
Recent research efforts on nonlinear propagation from high performance jet aircraft have revealed an interesting challenge to predicting community response. This challenge focuses on receiver perception of these unique acoustical signals, which contain acoustical shocks that appear to increase their relative loudness and/or noisiness. This current finding suggests a need for an improved description of a receiver perception of the loudness of these signals in order to improve the assessment of noise impacts from these aircraft. Looking backwards, an interesting question emerges: did the earlier low bypass jet engines on commercial and transport aircraft also include these acoustical shocks? If they did contain these features, then the perceptual differences observed between aircraft and other transportation noise sources may be partially explained. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015
ABSTRACT:The proposed effort will begin connecting military jet noise source and field properties with waveform and spectral features that correlate with human perception and annoyance. Tactical military aircraft noise evokes significant community response relative to ordinary transportation noise because of its high amplitudes and unique features, such as significant shock content and low-frequency rumble. During Phase I, metrics will be examined for ability to correlate physical noise characteristics, such as source distribution, radiation properties, directivity, and shock content, with human annoyance and disturbance. A comprehensive evaluation of existing tactical jet noise measurement databases will be conducted to determine their suitability for Phase-II listener studies based on candidate metrics. The listener test experimental design, training protocols, and reviews will be completed. Experimental design for any additional required acoustical measurements will also be developed. To guide source characterization efforts and improve ability to extract significant noise features, a cost/benefit analysis of acoustical holography and beamforming will be conducted with full-scale data. These technical tasks will lay the foundation for quantifying source and field features that impact human perception in Phase II. The results will improve prediction of community noise impacts and guide future noise models, data collection, and noise mitigation efforts.BENEFIT:The teams combined experience in the areas of aircraft noise measurements, noise model development, and environmental impact determination associated with operations of military aircraft demonstrate a unique ability to assess the market need for this research and its utility and benefits to the community at large. In addition to a continuous effort to publish new and relevant research, active participation in multiple conferences each year, and numerous connections to both government and commercial clients provide us with the ability to increase awareness of this technology and market through a multitude of avenues. With the beddown of the next-generation of fighter jets such as the F 35, the demand for improved metrics that correlate jet noise exposure to human response and the desire for increased understanding of jet noise source characterization is only expected to increase,. The specialized jet noise metrics developed under this effort will attempt to represent the psychoacoustic response to high-power jet noise, which will improve in the evaluation of community impacts. Evaluating potential environmental impacts, including noise, is required by the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) for proposed actions, such as the beddown of the F-35. The environmental impact from aircraft are currently evaluated by the DOD, FAA, and other federal agencies using models such as NOISEMAP and AEDT, which output traditional noise metrics. Through the development of these specialized metrics, identification of the temporal and spectral jet noise characteristics associated with human response will inform requirements to improve and refine the sound propagation models used to evaluate community impacts. These advancements will lead to a deeper understanding of the community responds to jet noise and will improve the overall environment assessment of community noise exposures from tactical jet operations. These improved tools will translate into better relationships between the airfield and neighboring communities. Additionally, these specialized metrics are anticipated to play a crucial role in rocket noise impact evaluation from the emerging spaceport industry, regulated by FAA/AST, NASA, and the Air Force. Improved jet noise source characterization and a deeper understanding of jet noise generation mechanisms will inform future aircraft noise measurements. A high-fidelity representation of the noise sources will provide better inputs to environmental noise models, mission planning tools, and research tools than currently available. The acoustic source definitions, refined under this effort, will be used to improve predictions of ground personnel noise exposure, evaluate the performance of proposed noise control devices, and provide model refinement and benchmarking.
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 599.94K | Year: 2011
Accurate estimates of the vibroacoustic loading placed on space vehicles and payloads during launch require knowledge of the rocket noise source properties. Given the extreme nature of acoustic environments near the plume, data sufficient to characterize the noise source region have been difficult to acquire. Without these data, structures may be designed to handle insufficient or excessive vibroacoustic loads, resulting in either an overbuilt structure (and extra weight), or an under-designed vibration isolation system that could result in damaged cargos. Current energy-based acoustic probe designs have limited frequency bandwidth due to physical limitations. A new set of probe designs is proposed that incorporate both a new physical probe design but also a more advanced signal processing methodology that will significantly increase the usable frequency bandwidth of the probes while reducing the manufacturing and maintenance costs of the probes. The probe system will also include the design of a complete data acquisition system capable of recording data under the harsh conditions present in typical rocket motor test firings.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 742.94K | Year: 2010
Acoustic signatures radiating to the ground enable the enemy to aurally detect, locate, and classify inbound U.S. tactical aircraft. This ability has become a critical limiting factor hindering engagement with the enemy as well as threatening aircraft and crew survivability. Multi-Service and multi-agency requirements exist to study the problem and to develop countermeasures, yet no capability currently exists to adequately assess our vulnerability. As part of the project Blue Ridge Research and Consulting will develop a modular acoustic detection system for integration into an already existing user platform. With this system a user will be able to plan an aircraft flight track and determine the probability of detection of the vehicle along that flight track. The program will take into consideration the terrain and 4D weather conditions, the source characteristics of the vehicle, and the ambient background noise levels. The sound propagation will be calculated with a user selectable algorithm. The interchangeable nature of the system design will allow for easy future upgrades. Estimated error bars on the predicted noise measurements will be determined through extensive testing of the complete system. Preliminary validation and verification measurements will be conducted as well.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 922.93K | Year: 2010
Emerging new military high-performance aircraft and most current fighter aircraft generate community noise footprints that are in many cases 10 times or larger in size than current transport commercial aircraft. These higher levels lead to community annoyance, expensive and restrictive noise mitigation, and restriction of operations. Noise reduction technologies have been developed and employed on commercial aircraft engines giving significant reductions in community noise. However, few, if any, of these technologies have direct application to military high-performance jet engines. DoD is funding research to develop advanced modeling tools for community noise exposure and for noise reduction techniques. These tools are being developed to improve the military’s capabilities to assess and to potentially reduce its operational noise. However, for these tools to achieve their full potential, a system needs to be developed to optimize operational flight procedures that reduce community noise exposure while minimizing nonstandard flight procedures. This optimization system will provide the most cost effective near-term solution for jet noise reduction for the military that can be applied to any military aircraft at any airfield for relatively small incremental costs. The initial localized noise reduction expected from operational modifications is expected to be approximately 3 to 6 dB DNL.
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.68K | Year: 2010
Accurate estimates of the vibroacoustic loading placed on space vehicles and payloads during launch require knowledge of the rocket noise source properties. Given the extreme nature of acoustic environments near the plume, data sufficient to characterize the noise source region have been difficult to acquire. Without these data, structures may be designed to handle an insufficient or excessive vibroacoustic loads, resulting in either an overbuilt structure (and extra weight), or an under-designed vibration isolation system that could result in damaged cargos. Current energy base acoustic probe designs have limited frequency bandwidth due to physical limitations. A new set of probe designs is proposed that incorporate both a new physical probe design but also a more advanced signal processing methodology that will significantly increase the usable frequency bandwidth of the probes while reducing the manufacturing and maintenance costs of the probes. The probe system will also include the design of a complete data acquisition system capable of recording data under the harsh conditions present in typical rocket motor test firings.