Blue Bear Systems Research

Oakley, United Kingdom

Blue Bear Systems Research

Oakley, United Kingdom
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Perfect P.,University of Liverpool | Perfect P.,Blue Bear Systems Research | Jump M.,University of Liverpool | White M.D.,University of Liverpool
CEAS Aeronautical Journal | Year: 2017

Interest in personal aerial vehicles (PAVs) is resurgent with several flying prototypes made possible through advances in the relevant technologies. Whilst the perceived wisdom is that these vehicles will be highly automated or autonomous, the current regulatory framework assumes that a human will always be able to intervene in the operation of the flight. This raises the possibility of manually operated PAVs and the requirement for an occupant flying training programme. This paper describes the development of training requirements for PAV pilots. The work includes a training needs analysis (TNA) for a typical PAV flight. It then describes the development of a training programme to develop the skills identified by the TNA. Five participants with no real flying experience, but varying levels of driving experience, undertook the training programme. Four completed the programme through to a successful simulation flight test of a commuter flight scenario. These participants evaluated the effectiveness of the training programme using the first three Levels of Kirkpatrick’s method. The evaluation showed that the developed training programme was effective, in terms of both trainee engagement and development of the handling skills necessary to fly PAV mission-related tasks in a flight simulator. The time required for the four successful participants to develop their core flying skills was less than 5 h. This duration indicates that future simulation PAV training would be commensurate with the training duration for current personal transportation modes. © 2017, The Author(s).

Perfect P.,University of Liverpool | Perfect P.,Center for Engineering Dynamics | Perfect P.,Blue Bear Systems Research | Jump M.,University of Liverpool | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics | Year: 2015

This paper describes the development of a methodology to assess the handling qualities requirements for vertical takeoff and landing-capable personal aerial vehicles. It is anticipated that such a personal aerial vehicle would be flown by a "flight-naïve" pilot who has received much less training than is typically received even by today's general aviation private pilots. The methodology used to determine handling requirements for a personal aerial vehicle cannot therefore be based entirely on existing best practice; the use of highly experienced test pilots in a conventional handling assessment limits the degree to which results apply to the flight-naïve pilot. Using rotary-wing handling qualities methods as a start point, this paper describes both existing and newly developed alternative methods to subjectively and objectively analyze the performance and workload of flight-naïve pilots in typical personal aerial vehicle tasks. A highly reconfigurable generic flight dynamics simulation model that has been used to validate the methodology is also described. Results that highlight the efficacy of the various methods used are presented, and their suitability for use with flight-naïve pilots demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.

Richardson T.S.,University of Bristol | Jones C.G.,University of Bristol | Likhoded A.,University of Bristol | Sparks E.,Roke Manor Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Field Robotics | Year: 2013

This paper describes an integrated control demonstration in which a rotary wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) landed on a moving platform using vision-based localization of the target vehicle. Three key areas are covered in this paper: the system components and integration, the control system structure and design, and finally flight test data including the first such successful landing. All the development and demonstration flights were carried out in the field, and key system challenges and lessons learned are highlighted throughout the paper. Results are given for landings carried out on both stationary and translating targets, in wind speeds of up to 15 knots. While the translating target was constrained to linearmotion, there are several applications such as recovery to a land-based convoy for which this capability would be applicable. The results show that the approach adopted for this demonstration could form part of a practical solution to the problem of automated UAV recovery in both civilian and military environments. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lu L.,University of Liverpool | Lu L.,University of Central Lancashire | Jump M.,University of Liverpool | White M.,University of Liverpool | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics | Year: 2016

With recent increased interest in autonomous vehicles and the associated technology, the prospect of realizing a personal aerial vehicle seems closer than ever. However, there is likely to be a continued requirement for any occupant of an air vehicle to be comfortable with both the automated portions of the flight and their ability to take manual control as and when required. This paper, using the approach to landing as an example maneuver, examines what a comfortable trajectory for personal aerial vehicle occupants might look like. Based upon simulated flight data, a "natural" flight trajectory is designed and then compared to constant deceleration and constant optic flow descent profiles.It is found that personal aerial vehicle occupants with limited flight training and no artificial guidance follow the same longitudinal trajectoryashas been found for professionally trained helicopter pilots. Further, the final stages of the approach to hover can be well described using the Tau theory. For automatic flight, personal aerial vehicle occupants prefer a constant deceleration profile. For approaches flown manually, the newly designed natural profile is preferred. Copyright © 2016 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.

Garcia Naranjo A.,Blue Bear Systems Research | Garcia Naranjo A.,University of Sheffield | Cowling I.,Blue Bear Systems Research | Green J.A.,Blue Bear Systems Research | Qin N.,University of Sheffield
Aeronautical Journal | Year: 2013

This work considers the effects of camber morphing, both in magnitude and chord position, on the performance of a generic unmanned air vehicle (UAV). The focus is to maximise appropriate aerodynamic factors across the mission by optimising the wing camber. Specifically, the enhancement of range, endurance, and stall speed is sought by means of maximising their aerodynamic performance parameters, CL/CD, CL 3/2/C D, and CLmax respectively. An analysis of the effects of camber morphing is carried out using the vortex panel code, XFOIL, utilising aerofoils from the NACA four-digit family. The results are then adjusted to account for 3D flow factors such as induced drag, offering a more realistic appraisal of their effectiveness. Flight testing is then performed on four wings of fixed aerofoil sections, optimised for each performance characteristic, to validate the trends observed in the XFOIL data onboard a 1.64m span aircraft.

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