PubMed | University of Michigan, University of Washington, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston and Bloodworks Northwest Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Free radical biology & medicine | Year: 2016
Victims of trauma often develop impaired blood clot formation (coagulopathy) that contributes to bleeding and mortality. Fibrin polymerization is one critical component of clot formation that can be impacted by post-translational oxidative modifications of fibrinogen after exposure to oxidants. In vitro evidence suggests that A-C domain methionine sulfoxide formation, in particular, can induce conformational changes that prevent lateral aggregation of fibrin protofibrils during polymerization. We used mass spectrometry of plasma from trauma patients to find that fibrinogen A-C domain methionine sulfoxide content was selectively-increased in patients with coagulopathy vs. those without coagulopathy. This evidence supports a novel linkage between oxidative stress, coagulopathy, and bleeding after injury.
PubMed | Service dhematologie biologique, Bloodworks Northwest Research Institute, Service de Medecine Interne, University Paris - Sud and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH | Year: 2016
Essentials Endothelial injury is thought to be a key event in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Endothelial and cardiac damages were assessed in a model of TTP using ADAMTS-13 knockout mice. Damages of cardiac perfusion and function were associated with nitric oxide pathway alteration. Endothelial dysfunction constitutes a critical event in TTP development and cardiac injury.Background Cardiac alterations represent a major cause of mortality in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Endothelial injury remains poorly defined, but seems to be a key initiating event leading to the formation of platelet-rich thrombi in TTP patients. Objectives To assess the changes in endothelial function and the induced cardiac damage in a mouse model of TTP. Patients/methods We used an animal model in which TTP-like symptoms are triggered by injection of 2000 units kg
PubMed | University of Pennsylvania, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Bloodworks Northwest Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Transfusion | Year: 2016
Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a potentially fatal disease in which ultralarge von Willebrand factor (UL-VWF) multimers accumulate as a result of autoantibody inhibition of the VWF protease, ADAMTS13. Current treatment is not specifically directed at the responsible autoantibodies and in some cases is ineffective or of transient benefit. More rational, reliable, and durable therapies are needed, and a human autoantibody-mediated animal model would be useful for their development. Previously, TTP patient anti-ADAMTS13 single-chain variable-region fragments (scFvs) were cloned that inhibited ADAMTS13 proteolytic activity in vitro and expressed features in common with inhibitory immunoglobulin G in patient plasma. Here, pathogenicity of these scFvs is explored in vivo by transfecting mice with inhibitory antibody cDNA.Hydrodynamic tail vein injection of naked DNA encoding human anti-ADAMTS13 scFv was used to create sustained ADAMTS13 inhibition in mice. Accumulation of UL-VWF multimers was measured and formation of platelet (PLT) thrombi after focal or systemic vascular injury was examined.Transfected mice expressed physiological plasma levels of human scFv and developed sustained ADAMTS13 inhibition and accumulation of unprocessed UL-VWF multimers. Induced focal endothelial injury generated PLT thrombi extending well beyond the site of initial injury, and systemic endothelial injury induced thrombocytopenia, schistocyte formation, PLT thrombi, and death.These results demonstrate for the first time the ability of human recombinant monovalent anti-ADAMTS13 antibody fragments to recapitulate key pathologic features of untreated acquired TTP in vivo, validating their clinical significance and providing an animal model for testing novel targeted therapeutic approaches.
PubMed | University of Minnesota, University of Sichuan, BloodWorks Northwest Research Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Baylor College of Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016
VWF is extensively glycosylated with biantennary core fucosylated glycans. Most N-linked and O-linked glycans on VWF are sialylated. FVIII is also glycosylated, with a glycan structure similar to that of VWF. ST3GAL sialyltransferases catalyze the transfer of sialic acids in the 2,3 linkage to termini of N- and O-glycans. This sialic acid modification is critical for VWF synthesis and activity. We analyzed genetic and phenotypic data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study for the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ST3GAL4 gene with plasma VWF levels and FVIII activity in 12,117 subjects. We also analyzed ST3GAL4 SNPs found in 2,535 subjects of 26 ethnicities from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) project for ethnic diversity, SNP imputation, and ST3GAL4 haplotypes. We identified 14 and 1,714 ST3GAL4 variants in the ARIC GWAS and 1000G databases respectively, with 46% being ethnically diverse in their allele frequencies. Among the 14 ST3GAL4 SNPs found in ARIC GWAS, the intronic rs2186717, rs7928391, and rs11220465 were associated with VWF levels and with FVIII activity after adjustment for age, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, ever-smoking status, and ABO. This study illustrates the power of next-generation sequencing in the discovery of new genetic variants and a significant ethnic diversity in the ST3GAL4 gene. We discuss potential mechanisms through which these intronic SNPs regulate ST3GAL4 biosynthesis and the activity that affects VWF and FVIII.
PubMed | University of Washington, Baylor College of Medicine, Tianjin Medical University, BloodWorks Northwest Research Institute and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Blood | Year: 2016
Cardiolipin (CL) is an anionic phospholipid located exclusively in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Its presence in blood indicates mitochondrial damage and release from injured cells. Here, we report the detection of CL-exposed brain-derived mitochondrial microparticles (mtMPs) at 17547 2677/L in the peripheral blood of mice subjected to fluid percussion injury to the brain. These mtMPs accounted for 55.2% 12.6% of all plasma annexin V-binding microparticles found in the acute phase of injury. They were also released from cultured neuronal and glial cells undergoing apoptosis. The mtMPs synergized with platelets to facilitate vascular leakage by disrupting the endothelial barrier. The disrupted endothelial barrier allowed the release of mtMPs into the systemic circulation to promote coagulation in both traumatically injured and mtMP- or CL-injected mice, leading to enhanced fibrinolysis, vascular fibrin deposition, and thrombosis. This mtMP-induced coagulation was mediated by CL transported from the inner to the outer mitochondrial membrane and was blocked by the scavenging molecule lactadherin. The mtMP-bound CL was 1600 times as active as purified CL in promoting coagulation. This study uncovered a novel procoagulant activity of CL and CL-exposed mitochondria that may contribute to traumatic brain injury-associated coagulopathy and identified potential pathways to block this activity.
Woodruff R.S.,Bloodworks Northwest Research Institute |
Woodruff R.S.,University of Washington |
Sullenger B.A.,Duke University
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2015
As a novel class of therapeutics, aptamers, or nucleic acid ligands, have garnered clinical interest because of the ease of isolating a highly specific aptamer against a wide range of targets, their chemical flexibility and synthesis, and their inherent ability to have their function reversed. The following review details the development and molecular mechanisms of aptamers targeting specific proteases in the coagulation cascade. The ability of these anticoagulant aptamers to bind to and inhibit exosite function rather than binding within the active site highlights the importance of exosites in blocking protein function. As both exosite inhibitors and reversible agents, the use of aptamers is a promising strategy for future therapeutics. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Zheng Y.,University of Washington |
Chen J.,Bloodworks Northwest Research Institute |
Lopez J.A.,Bloodworks Northwest Research Institute |
Lopez J.A.,University of Washington
Nature Communications | Year: 2015
Several systemic diseases, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, manifest much of their pathology through activation of endothelium and thrombotic occlusion of small blood vessels, often leading to multi-organ failure and death. Modelling these diseases is hampered by the complex three-dimensional architecture and flow patterns of the microvasculature. Here, we employ engineered microvessels of complex geometry to examine the pathological responses to endothelial activation. Our most striking finding is the capacity of endothelial-secreted von Willebrand factor (VWF) to assemble into thick bundles or complex meshes, depending on the vessel geometry and flow characteristics. Assembly is greatest in vessels of diameter â ‰ 300â €‰Î 1/4m, with high shear stress or strong flow acceleration, and with sharp turns. VWF bundles and webs bind platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes, obstructing blood flow and sometimes shearing passing erythrocytes. Our findings uncover the biophysical requirements for initiating microvascular thrombosis and suggest mechanisms for the onset and progression of microvascular diseases. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
PubMed | BloodWorks Northwest Research Institute and University of Washington
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biophysical journal | Year: 2016
Platelets bind to exposed vascular matrix at a wound site through a highly specialized surface receptor, glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V complex, which recognizes von Willebrand factor (VWF) in the matrix. GPIb-IX-V is a catch bond for it becomes more stable as force is applied to it. After attaching to the wound site, platelets generate cytoskeletal forces to compact and reinforce the hemostatic plug. Here, we evaluated the role of the GPIb-IX-V complex in the transmission of cytoskeletal forces. We used arrays of flexible, silicone nanoposts to measure the contractility of individual platelets on VWF. We found that a significant proportion of cytoskeletal forces were transmitted to VWF through GPIb-IX-V, an unexpected finding given the widely held notion that platelet forces are transmitted exclusively through its integrins. In particular, we found that the interaction between GPIb and the A1 domain of VWF mediates this force transmission. We also demonstrate that the binding interaction between GPIb and filamin A is involved in force transmission. Furthermore, our studies suggest that cytoskeletal forces acting through GPIb are involved in maintaining platelet adhesion when external forces are absent. Thus, the GPIb-IX-V/VWF bond is able to transmit force, and uses this force to strengthen the bond through a catch-bond mechanism. This finding expands our understanding of how platelets attach to sites of vascular injury, describing a new, to the best of our knowledge, mechanism in which the catch bonds of GPIb-IX-V/VWF can be supported by internal forces produced by cytoskeletal tension.
PubMed | BloodWorks Northwest Research Institute and Lanzhou University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death | Year: 2016
Epirubicin (EPI) is widely used for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), but a substantial number of patients develop EPI resistance that is associated with poor outcome. The underlying mechanism for EPI resistance remains poorly understood. We have developed and characterized an EPI-resistant (EPI-R) cell line from parental MDA-MB-231 cells. These EPI-R cells reached stable growth in the medium containing 8g/ml of EPI. They overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and contained numerous autophagic vacuoles. The suppression of P-gp overexpression and/or autophagy restored the sensitivity of these EPI-R cells to EPI. We further show that autophagy conferred resistance to EPI on MDA cells by blocking the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-B)-mediated pro-apoptotic signals. Together, these results reveal a synergistic role of P-gp, autophagy, and NF-B pathways in the development of EPI resistance in TNBC cells. They also suggest that blocking the P-gp overexpression and autophagy may be an effective means of reducing EPI resistance.
PubMed | Bloodworks Northwest Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Transfusion | Year: 2016
Accumulation of bioactive lipids during red blood cell (RBC) storage has been identified as a potential source of posttransfusion sequelae in vulnerable populations. Typically, white blood cells (WBCs) have been implicated in the generation of bioactive lipids, and leukoreduction has been seen as a solution to this issue.We developed a targeted metabolomics approach with isotope dilution to quantify a panel of bioactive lipids in both leukoreduced (LR) and nonleukoreduced (NLR) RBC units over the course of storage.Leukoreduction greatly attenuated the production of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), 12-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, and 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDoHE), all three of which are mediated by 12-lipoxygenase present in WBCs and platelets. However, despite leukoreduction, micromolar levels of linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were observed in the RBC units stored for 42 days. These major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their oxidation products (oxylipins) also significantly increased with storage time, including 5-, 8-, 9-, 11-, 12-, and 15- HETEs from AA; 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE); 9-, 10-, and 12,13-dihydroxyoctadecenoic acids from LA; and 14-, 16-, and 17-HDoHEs from DHA. The majority of PUFAs and oxylipins accumulated in the supernatant fraction. Large donor-to-donor variations were observed in both LR-RBC and NLR-RBC units.While the exact role the accumulation of PUFAs and oxylipins plays in RBC unit quality and transfusion medical outcomes remains undetermined, the analytes of interest in this study may serve as biomarkers for lipid degradation and oxidation during storage and may induce changes in human physiology upon transfusion.