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Bernardo L.,Canadian Blood Services | Bernardo L.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute | Yu H.,Canadian Blood Services | Yu H.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2015

Polyclonal anti-D has been used to prevent RhD-negative mothers from becoming immunized against RhD positive fetal erythrocytes, and this mechanism has been referred as Ab or IgG-mediated immune suppression (AMIS). Although anti-D has been highly successful, the inhibitory mechanisms remain poorly understood. Two major theories behind AMIS involve the binding of IgG to activating or inhibitory FcγR, which can induce either erythrocyte clearance or immune inhibition, respectively. In this work, we explored the absolute role of activating and inhibitory FcγR in the AMIS mechanism using the HOD mouse model of RBC immunization. HOD mice contain a RBC-specific recombinant protein composed of hen egg lysozyme (HEL), OVA and human transmembrane Duffy Ag, and erythrocytes from HOD mice can stimulate an immune response to HEL. To assess the contribution of activating and inhibitory FcγR to AMIS, C57BL/6 versus FcRg-chain-/- or FcγRIIB-/- mice were used as recipients of HOD-RBC alone or together with anti-HEL Abs (i.e., AMIS) and the resulting immune response to HEL evaluated. We show that anti-HEL polyclonal Abs induce the same degree of AMIS effect in mice lacking these IgG binding receptors as compared with wild-type mice. In agreement with this, F(ab′)2 fragments of the AMIS Ab also significantly reduced the Ab response to the HOD cells. In conclusion, successful inhibition of in vivo Ab responses to HOD-RBC by polyclonal IgG can occur independently of activating or inhibitory FcγR involvement. These results may have implications for the understanding of RhD prophylaxis. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. Source

Zhang L.-H.,Lanzhou University | Yang A.-J.,Lanzhou University | Wang M.,Lanzhou University | Liu W.,Lanzhou University | And 6 more authors.
Apoptosis | Year: 2016

Epirubicin (EPI) is widely used for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), but a substantial number of patients develop EPI resistance that is associated with poor outcome. The underlying mechanism for EPI resistance remains poorly understood. We have developed and characterized an EPI-resistant (EPI-R) cell line from parental MDA-MB-231 cells. These EPI-R cells reached stable growth in the medium containing 8 μg/ml of EPI. They overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and contained numerous autophagic vacuoles. The suppression of P-gp overexpression and/or autophagy restored the sensitivity of these EPI-R cells to EPI. We further show that autophagy conferred resistance to EPI on MDA cells by blocking the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-mediated pro-apoptotic signals. Together, these results reveal a synergistic role of P-gp, autophagy, and NF-κB pathways in the development of EPI resistance in TNBC cells. They also suggest that blocking the P-gp overexpression and autophagy may be an effective means of reducing EPI resistance. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media. Source

Ostertag E.M.,University of Pennsylvania | Ostertag E.M.,Poseida Therapeutics Inc | Bdeir K.,University of Pennsylvania | Kacir S.,University of Pennsylvania | And 10 more authors.
Transfusion | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a potentially fatal disease in which ultralarge von Willebrand factor (UL-VWF) multimers accumulate as a result of autoantibody inhibition of the VWF protease, ADAMTS13. Current treatment is not specifically directed at the responsible autoantibodies and in some cases is ineffective or of transient benefit. More rational, reliable, and durable therapies are needed, and a human autoantibody-mediated animal model would be useful for their development. Previously, TTP patient anti-ADAMTS13 single-chain variable-region fragments (scFv's) were cloned that inhibited ADAMTS13 proteolytic activity in vitro and expressed features in common with inhibitory immunoglobulin G in patient plasma. Here, pathogenicity of these scFv's is explored in vivo by transfecting mice with inhibitory antibody cDNA. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Hydrodynamic tail vein injection of naked DNA encoding human anti-ADAMTS13 scFv was used to create sustained ADAMTS13 inhibition in mice. Accumulation of UL-VWF multimers was measured and formation of platelet (PLT) thrombi after focal or systemic vascular injury was examined. RESULTS: Transfected mice expressed physiological plasma levels of human scFv and developed sustained ADAMTS13 inhibition and accumulation of unprocessed UL-VWF multimers. Induced focal endothelial injury generated PLT thrombi extending well beyond the site of initial injury, and systemic endothelial injury induced thrombocytopenia, schistocyte formation, PLT thrombi, and death. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate for the first time the ability of human recombinant monovalent anti-ADAMTS13 antibody fragments to recapitulate key pathologic features of untreated acquired TTP in vivo, validating their clinical significance and providing an animal model for testing novel targeted therapeutic approaches. © 2016 AABB Source

Woodruff R.S.,Bloodworks Northwest Research Institute | Woodruff R.S.,University of Washington | Sullenger B.A.,Duke University
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2015

As a novel class of therapeutics, aptamers, or nucleic acid ligands, have garnered clinical interest because of the ease of isolating a highly specific aptamer against a wide range of targets, their chemical flexibility and synthesis, and their inherent ability to have their function reversed. The following review details the development and molecular mechanisms of aptamers targeting specific proteases in the coagulation cascade. The ability of these anticoagulant aptamers to bind to and inhibit exosite function rather than binding within the active site highlights the importance of exosites in blocking protein function. As both exosite inhibitors and reversible agents, the use of aptamers is a promising strategy for future therapeutics. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Soule E.E.,Duke University | Bompiani K.M.,Duke University | Bompiani K.M.,University of California at San Diego | Woodruff R.S.,Duke University | And 3 more authors.
Nucleic Acid Therapeutics | Year: 2016

Potent and rapid-onset anticoagulation is required for several clinical settings, including cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. In addition, because anticoagulation is associated with increased bleeding following surgery, the ability to rapidly reverse such robust anticoagulation is also important. Previously, we observed that no single aptamer was as potent as heparin for anticoagulating blood. However, we discovered that combinations of two aptamers were as potent as heparin. Herein, we sought to combine two individual anticoagulant aptamers into a single bivalent RNA molecule in an effort to generate a single molecule that retained the potent anticoagulant activity of the combination of individual aptamers. We created four bivalent aptamers that can inhibit Factor X/Xa and prothrombin/thrombin and anticoagulate plasma, as well as the combination of individual aptamers. Detailed characterization of the shortest bivalent aptamer indicates that each aptamer retains full binding and functional activity when presented in the bivalent context. Finally, reversal of this bivalent aptamer with a single antidote was explored, and anticoagulant activity could be rapidly turned off in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrate that bivalent anticoagulant aptamers represent a novel and potent approach to actively and reversibly control coagulation. © Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016. Source

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