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Carlin S.M.,Blood Stem Cells and Cancer Research | Khoo M.L.M.,Blood Stem Cells and Cancer Research | Ma D.D.,Blood Stem Cells and Cancer Research | Moore J.J.,St. Vincents Hospital

The Delta/Notch signal transduction pathway is central to T cell differentiation from haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Although T cell development is well characterized using expression of cell surface markers, the detailed mechanisms driving differentiation have not been established. This issue becomes central with observations that adult HSCs exhibit poor differentiation towards the T cell lineage relative to neonatal or embryonic precursors. This study investigates the contribution of Notch signalling and stromal support cells to differentiation of adult and Cord Blood (CB) human HSCs, using the Notch signalling OP9Delta co-culture system. Co-cultured cells were assayed at weekly intervals during development for phenotype markers using flow cytometry. Cells were also assayed for mRNA expression at critical developmental stages. Expression of the central thymocyte marker CD4 was initiated independently of Notch signalling, while cells grown with Notch signalling had reduced expression of CD4 mRNA and protein. Interruption of Notch signalling in partially differentiated cells increased CD4 mRNA and protein expression, and promoted differentiation to CD4+ CD8+ T cells. We identified a set of genes related to T cell development that were initiated by Notch signalling, and also a set of genes subsequently altered by Notch signal interruption. These results demonstrate that while Notch signalling is essential for establishment of the T cell lineage, at later stages of differentiation, its removal late in differentiation promotes more efficient DP cell generation. Notch signalling adds to signals provided by stromal cells to allow HSCs to differentiate to T cells via initiation of transcription factors such as HES1, GATA3 and TCF7. We also identify gene expression profile differences that may account for low generation of T cells from adult HSCs. © 2012 Carlin et al. Source

Shen S.,Center for Childrens Cancer and Blood Disorders | Shen S.,University of New South Wales | Shen S.,Childrens Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research | Xu N.,Center for Childrens Cancer and Blood Disorders | And 15 more authors.
Stem Cells and Development

Small-molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) have demonstrated strong anti-leukemia effects in preclinical studies. Here, we investigated the effect of GSK3β inhibitor 6-Bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO) previously shown to inhibit leukemia cell growth in vitro and of animal models on hematopoietic regeneration in recipients of stem cell transplant. BIO administered to immunocompromised mice transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells inhibited human stem cell engraftment in the bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood. BIO reduced CD34+ progenitor cells in the BM, and primitive lymphoid progenitors re-populated host thymus at later stages post-transplant. The development of all T-cell subsets in the thymus was suppressed in BIO-treated mice. Human cell engraftment was gradually restored after discontinuation of BIO treatment; however, T-cell depletion remained until the end of experiment, which correlated with the attenuated thymic function in the host. BIO delayed CD34+ cell expansion in stroma-supported or cytokine-only cultures. BIO treatment delayed progenitor cell divisions and induced apoptosis in cultures with sub-optimal cytokine support. In addition, BIO inhibited B- and T-cell development in co-cultures with MS5 and OP9-DL1 BM stroma cells, respectively. These data suggest that administration of GKS3β inhibitors may act to delay hematopoietic regeneration in patients who received stem cell transplant. © 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Khoo M.L.M.,Blood Stem Cells and Cancer Research | Khoo M.L.M.,University of New South Wales | Tao H.,Blood Stem Cells and Cancer Research | Tao H.,University of New South Wales | And 4 more authors.

Bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have shown promise in in vitro neuronal differentiation and in cellular therapy for neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson' disease. However, the effects of intracerebral transplantation are not well defined, and studies do not agreed on the optimal neuronal differentiation method. Here, we investigated three growth factor-based neuronal differentiation procedures (using FGF-2/EGF/PDGF/SHH/FGF-8/GDNF), and found all to be capable of eliciting an immature neural phenotype, in terms of cell morphology and gene/protein expression. The neuronal-priming (FGF-2/EGF) method induced neurosphere-like formation and the highest NES and NR4A2 expression by hMSCs. Transplantation of undifferentiated and neuronal-primed hMSCs into the striatum and substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-lesioned hemiparkinsonian rats revealed transient graft survival of 7 days, despite the reported immunosuppressive properties of MSCs and cyclosporine-immunosuppression of rats. Neither differentiation of hMSCs nor induction of host neurogenesis was observed at injection sites, and hMSCs continued producing mesodermal fibronectin. Strategies for improving engraftment and differentiation post-transplantation, such as prior in vitro neuronal-priming, nigral and striatal grafting, and co-transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells that promote neural regeneration, were unable to provide advantages. Innate inflammatory responses (Iba-1-positive microglia/macrophage and GFAP-positive astrocyte activation and accumulation) were detected around grafts within 7 days. Our findings indicate that growth factor-based methods allow hMSC differentiation toward immature neuronal-like cells, and contrary to previous reports, only transient survival and engraftment of hMSCs occurs following transplantation in immunosuppressed hemiparkinsonian rats. In addition, suppression of host innate inflammatory responses may be a key factor for improving hMSC survival and engraftment. © 2011 Khoo et al. Source

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