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Zeng P.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ma L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Gao Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 16 more authors.
Transfusion | Year: 2015

Background: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), an emerging tick-borne pathogen that can cause fatal severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, was first identified in China in 2009. Limited evidence suggests that SFTSV can be transmitted between humans via blood contact, raising concerns over transfusion safety. A study of donor samples from three Chinese blood centers was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence and rate of SFTSV viremia among Chinese blood donors. Study Design and Methods: From April 16 to October 31, 2012, a total of 17,208 plasma samples were collected from donors at Xinyang (located in an SFTSV-endemic area), Mianyang, and Luoyang Blood Centers. Assessment of anti-SFTSV total antibody was performed on all samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Repeat-reactive samples were tested for SFTSV RNA using reverse transcription (RT)-real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with Taqman probes. In addition, 9960 of the Xinyang samples were tested in pools of 4 by the same PCR method and each of the samples in a reactive pool was tested individually. Results: Donor seroreactivity rates were as follows: Xinyang, 0.54% (80/14,752); Mianyang, 0.27% (3/1130); and Luoyang, 0.28% (3/1326). All seroreactive samples were negative on RT-PCR single-sample testing. Two RT-PCR-reactive donor samples were identified, both with estimated viral load of less than 20 plaque-forming units/mL. The RNA prevalence rate for SFTSV among donors in Xinyang was 0.02%. Conclusion: This was the first multiregion study of SFTSV sero- and viral prevalence among Chinese blood donors. Viral prevalence was low and no seroreactive sample was viremic, suggesting a limited impact of SFTSV on blood safety in China. © 2014 AABB.

Rodriguez-Brito B.,San Diego State University | Li L.,San Diego State University | Li L.,Blood System Research Institute | Wegley L.,San Diego State University | And 32 more authors.
ISME Journal | Year: 2010

The species composition and metabolic potential of microbial and viral communities are predictable and stable for most ecosystems. This apparent stability contradicts theoretical models as well as the viral-microbial dynamics observed in simple ecosystems, both of which show Kill-the-Winner behavior causing cycling of the dominant taxa. Microbial and viral metagenomes were obtained from four human-controlled aquatic environments at various time points separated by one day to > 1 year. These environments were maintained within narrow geochemical bounds and had characteristic species composition and metabolic potentials at all time points. However, underlying this stability were rapid changes at the fine-grained level of viral genotypes and microbial strains. These results suggest a model wherein functionally redundant microbial and viral taxa are cycling at the level of viral genotypes and virus-sensitive microbial strains. Microbial taxa, viral taxa, and metabolic function persist over time in stable ecosystems and both communities fluctuate in a Kill-the-Winner manner at the level of viral genotypes and microbial strains. © 2010 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

Loureiro P.,University of Pernambuco | Proietti A.B.C.,Fundacao Hemominas | Capuani L.,University of Sao Paulo | Goncalez T.T.,Blood System Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia | Year: 2014

The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS) program was established in the United States in 1989 with the purpose of increasing blood transfusion safety in the context of the HIV/AIDS and human T-lymphotropic virus epidemics. REDS and its successor, REDS-II were at first conducted in the US, then expanded in 2006 to include international partnerships with Brazil and China. In 2011, a third wave of REDS renamed the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III) was launched. This seven-year research program focuses on both blood banking and transfusion medicine research in the United States of America, Brazil, China, and South Africa. The main goal of the international programs is to reduce and prevent the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other known and emerging infectious agents through transfusion, and to address research questions aimed at understanding global issues related to the availability of safe blood. This article describes the contribution of REDS-II to transfusion safety in Brazil. Articles published from 2010 to 2013 are summarized, including database analyses to characterize blood donors, deferral rates, and prevalence, incidence and residual risk of the main blood-borne infections. Specific studies were developed to understand donor motivation, the impact of the deferral questions, risk factors and molecular surveillance among HIV-positive donors, and the natural history of Chagas disease. The purpose of this review is to disseminate the acquired knowledge and briefly summarize the findings of the REDS-II studies conducted in Brazil as well as to introduce the scope of the REDS-III program that is now in progress and will continue through 2018. © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. All rights reserved.

Lahtinen A.,University of Helsinki | Kivela P.,University of Helsinki | Hedman L.,University of Helsinki | Kumar A.,University of Helsinki | And 10 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

To determine the prevalence of parvovirus 4 infection and its clinical and sociodemographic correlations in Finland, we used virus-like particle-based serodiagnostic procedures (immunoglobulin [Ig] G, IgM, and IgG avidity) and PCR. We found 2 persons with parvovirus 4 primary infection who had mild or asymptomatic clinical features among hepatitis C virus-infected injection drug users.

Muthivhi T.N.,CEO Strategy | Olmsted M.G.,Research Triangle Institute | Park H.,Research Triangle Institute | Sha M.,Research Triangle Institute | And 7 more authors.
Transfusion Medicine | Year: 2015

Background and Objectives: South Africa has a markedly skewed representation where the majority of blood (62%) is presently collected from an ethnically White minority. This study seeks to identify culturally specific factors affecting motivation of donors in South Africa. Materials and Methods: We performed a qualitative study to evaluate motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans. A total of 13 focus groups, comprising a total of 97 Black South Africans, stratified by age and geographic location were conducted. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using a coding framework by Bednall & Bove. Results: Participants made 463 unique comments about motivators focusing primarily on promotional communications (28%), incentives (20%) and prosocial motivation (16%). Participants made 376 comments about deterrents which focused primarily on fear (41%), negative attitudes (14%) and lack of knowledge (10%). Conclusion: Although prosocial motivation (altruism) was the most frequently mentioned individual motivator, promotional communication elicited more overall comments by participants. As reported by many authors, fear and lack of awareness were strong deterrents, but scepticism engendered by perceived racial discrimination in blood collection were unique to the South African environment. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

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