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Rodriguez-Brito B.,San Diego State University | Li L.,San Diego State University | Li L.,Blood System Research Institute | Wegley L.,San Diego State University | And 32 more authors.
ISME Journal | Year: 2010

The species composition and metabolic potential of microbial and viral communities are predictable and stable for most ecosystems. This apparent stability contradicts theoretical models as well as the viral-microbial dynamics observed in simple ecosystems, both of which show Kill-the-Winner behavior causing cycling of the dominant taxa. Microbial and viral metagenomes were obtained from four human-controlled aquatic environments at various time points separated by one day to > 1 year. These environments were maintained within narrow geochemical bounds and had characteristic species composition and metabolic potentials at all time points. However, underlying this stability were rapid changes at the fine-grained level of viral genotypes and microbial strains. These results suggest a model wherein functionally redundant microbial and viral taxa are cycling at the level of viral genotypes and virus-sensitive microbial strains. Microbial taxa, viral taxa, and metabolic function persist over time in stable ecosystems and both communities fluctuate in a Kill-the-Winner manner at the level of viral genotypes and microbial strains. © 2010 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.


Patavino G.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Patavino G.M.,Blood System Research Institute | Patavino G.M.,Institute Matematica e Estatistica | De Almeida-Neto C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 29 more authors.
Transfusion | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Brazilian blood centers ask candidate blood donors about the number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Candidates who report a number over the limit are deferred. We studied the implications of this practice on blood safety. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed demographic characteristics, number of heterosexual partners, and disease marker rates among 689,868 donations from three Brazilian centers between July 2007 and December 2009. Donors were grouped based on maximum number of partners allowed in the past 12 months for each center. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were conducted to examine associations between demographic characteristics, number of sex partners, and individual and overall positive markers rates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus Types 1 and 2, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis. RESULTS: First-time, younger, and more educated donors were associated with a higher number of recent sexual partners, as was male sex in São Paulo and Recife (p < 0.001). Serologic markers for HIV and syphilis and overall were associated with multiple partners in São Paulo and Recife (p < 0.001), but not in Belo Horizonte (p = 0.05, p = 0.94, and p = 0.75, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, number of recent sexual partners was associated with positive serologic markers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.2-1.5), especially HIV (AOR, 1.9-4.4). CONCLUSIONS: Number of recent heterosexual partners was associated with HIV positivity and overall rates of serologic markers of sexually transmitted infections. The association was not consistent across centers, making it difficult to define the best cutoff value. These findings suggest the use of recent heterosexual contacts as a potentially important deferral criterion to improve blood safety in Brazil. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.


Zeng P.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ma L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Gao Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 16 more authors.
Transfusion | Year: 2015

Background: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), an emerging tick-borne pathogen that can cause fatal severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, was first identified in China in 2009. Limited evidence suggests that SFTSV can be transmitted between humans via blood contact, raising concerns over transfusion safety. A study of donor samples from three Chinese blood centers was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence and rate of SFTSV viremia among Chinese blood donors. Study Design and Methods: From April 16 to October 31, 2012, a total of 17,208 plasma samples were collected from donors at Xinyang (located in an SFTSV-endemic area), Mianyang, and Luoyang Blood Centers. Assessment of anti-SFTSV total antibody was performed on all samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Repeat-reactive samples were tested for SFTSV RNA using reverse transcription (RT)-real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with Taqman probes. In addition, 9960 of the Xinyang samples were tested in pools of 4 by the same PCR method and each of the samples in a reactive pool was tested individually. Results: Donor seroreactivity rates were as follows: Xinyang, 0.54% (80/14,752); Mianyang, 0.27% (3/1130); and Luoyang, 0.28% (3/1326). All seroreactive samples were negative on RT-PCR single-sample testing. Two RT-PCR-reactive donor samples were identified, both with estimated viral load of less than 20 plaque-forming units/mL. The RNA prevalence rate for SFTSV among donors in Xinyang was 0.02%. Conclusion: This was the first multiregion study of SFTSV sero- and viral prevalence among Chinese blood donors. Viral prevalence was low and no seroreactive sample was viremic, suggesting a limited impact of SFTSV on blood safety in China. © 2014 AABB.


Lahtinen A.,University of Helsinki | Kivela P.,University of Helsinki | Hedman L.,University of Helsinki | Kumar A.,University of Helsinki | And 10 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

To determine the prevalence of parvovirus 4 infection and its clinical and sociodemographic correlations in Finland, we used virus-like particle-based serodiagnostic procedures (immunoglobulin [Ig] G, IgM, and IgG avidity) and PCR. We found 2 persons with parvovirus 4 primary infection who had mild or asymptomatic clinical features among hepatitis C virus-infected injection drug users.


Muthivhi T.N.,CEO Strategy | Olmsted M.G.,Research Triangle Institute | Park H.,Research Triangle Institute | Sha M.,Research Triangle Institute | And 7 more authors.
Transfusion Medicine | Year: 2015

Background and Objectives: South Africa has a markedly skewed representation where the majority of blood (62%) is presently collected from an ethnically White minority. This study seeks to identify culturally specific factors affecting motivation of donors in South Africa. Materials and Methods: We performed a qualitative study to evaluate motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans. A total of 13 focus groups, comprising a total of 97 Black South Africans, stratified by age and geographic location were conducted. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using a coding framework by Bednall & Bove. Results: Participants made 463 unique comments about motivators focusing primarily on promotional communications (28%), incentives (20%) and prosocial motivation (16%). Participants made 376 comments about deterrents which focused primarily on fear (41%), negative attitudes (14%) and lack of knowledge (10%). Conclusion: Although prosocial motivation (altruism) was the most frequently mentioned individual motivator, promotional communication elicited more overall comments by participants. As reported by many authors, fear and lack of awareness were strong deterrents, but scepticism engendered by perceived racial discrimination in blood collection were unique to the South African environment. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.


Hansen A.L.,Center for Innovation | Kurach J.D.R.,Center for Innovation | Turner T.R.,Center for Innovation | Jenkins C.,Center for Innovation | And 9 more authors.
Vox Sanguinis | Year: 2015

Background and Objectives: While the clinical impact of differences in red blood cell (RBC) component processing methods is unknown, there are concerns they may be confounding variables in studies such as the ongoing 'age of blood' investigations. Here, we compare the in vitro characteristics of red cell concentrates (RCCs) produced by several different processing methods. Materials and Methods: Nine processing methods were examined: three apheresis methods (Alyx, MCS+ and Trima), as well as leucoreduced whole blood-derived RCCs produced by buffy coat and whole blood filtration and non-leucoreduced RCCs. RCCs were stored in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol or additive solutions (AS) 1 or 3 for 42 days, with quality tested on day 5 and day 42. Results: Many significant product differences were observed both early in and at the end of storage. Mean haemoglobin (Hb) ranged from 52 to 71 g/unit and mean Hct from 59·5 to 64·8%. Most RCC passed regulated quality control criteria according to Canadian Standards Association guidelines, although there were some failures relating to Hb content and residual WBC counts. Conclusion: Processing method impacts RCC characteristics throughout storage; better understanding of these differences and reporting of processing method details is critical. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.


Oka T.,Ohio State University | Oka T.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Lu Z.,Ohio State University | Phan T.,Blood System Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Sapoviruses (SaVs) are enteric caliciviruses that have been detected in multiple mammalian species, including humans, pigs, mink, dogs, sea lions, chimpanzees, and rats. They show a high level of diversity. A SaV genome commonly encodes seven nonstructural proteins (NSs), including the RNA polymerase protein NS7, and two structural proteins (VP1 and VP2). We classified human and animal SaVs into 15 genogroups (G) based on available VP1 sequences, including three newly characterized genomes from this study. We sequenced the full length genomes of one new genogroup V (GV), one GVII and one GVIII porcine SaV using long range RT-PCR including newly designed forward primers located in the conserved motifs of the putative NS3, and also 5′ RACE methods. We also determined the 5′- and 3′-ends of sea lion GV SaV and canine GXIII SaV. Although the complete genomic sequences of GIX-GXII, and GXV SaVs are unavailable, common features of SaV genomes include: 1) "GTG" at the 5′-end of the genome, and a short (9-14 nt) 5′-untranslated region; and 2) the first five amino acids (M [A/V] S [K/R] P) of the putative NS1 and the five amino acids (FEMEG) surrounding the putative cleavage site between NS7 and VP1 were conserved among the chimpanzee, two of five genogroups of pig (GV and GVIII), sea lion, canine, and human SaVs. In contrast, these two amino acid motifs were clearly different in three genogroups of porcine (GIII, GVI and GVII), and bat SaVs. Our results suggest that several animal SaVs have genetic similarities to human SaVs. However, the ability of SaVs to be transmitted between humans and animals is uncertain. © 2016 Oka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xinyang 154 Military Hospital, Mianyang Blood Center, Xinyang Blood Center and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Transfusion | Year: 2015

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), an emerging tick-borne pathogen that can cause fatal severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, was first identified in China in 2009. Limited evidence suggests that SFTSV can be transmitted between humans via blood contact, raising concerns over transfusion safety. A study of donor samples from three Chinese blood centers was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence and rate of SFTSV viremia among Chinese blood donors.From April 16 to October 31, 2012, a total of 17,208 plasma samples were collected from donors at Xinyang (located in an SFTSV-endemic area), Mianyang, and Luoyang Blood Centers. Assessment of anti-SFTSV total antibody was performed on all samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Repeat-reactive samples were tested for SFTSV RNA using reverse transcription (RT)-real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with Taqman probes. In addition, 9960 of the Xinyang samples were tested in pools of 4 by the same PCR method and each of the samples in a reactive pool was tested individually.Donor seroreactivity rates were as follows: Xinyang, 0.54% (80/14,752); Mianyang, 0.27% (3/1130); and Luoyang, 0.28% (3/1326). All seroreactive samples were negative on RT-PCR single-sample testing. Two RT-PCR-reactive donor samples were identified, both with estimated viral loadof less than20plaque-forming units/mL. The RNA prevalence rate for SFTSV among donors in Xinyang was 0.02%.This was the first multiregion study of SFTSV sero- and viral prevalence among Chinese blood donors. Viral prevalence was low and no seroreactive sample was viremic, suggesting a limited impact of SFTSV on blood safety in China.


PubMed | Blood System Research Institute, Sanguine and Institute Louis Malarde
Type: | Journal: Journal of medical virology | Year: 2016

Zika virus (ZIKV) viremia is reported as low and transient, however, these estimates rely on limited data. We report RNA loads in sera collected from symptomatic patients during the 2013-2014 French Polynesian ZIKV outbreak.We performed molecular detection of ZIKV RNA in sera from 747 patients presenting with suspected acute phase ZIKV infection. Among patients with confirmed infection, we analyzed the duration of viremia, assessed viral RNA loads and recorded the main clinical symptoms.A total of 210/747 (28.1%) sera tested positive using a ZIKV-specific RT-PCR. Viral RNA loads in symptomatic patients that ranged from 5 to 3.710The rate of detection of ZIKV RNA in sera from suspected cases of acute phase ZIKV infection was low. ZIKV RNA loads were lower in symptomatic patients compared to asymptomatic blood donors and were lower than RNA loads usually reported in dengue infections. As there is no abrupt onset of symptoms in ZIKV infections, we suggest that infected patients sought for medical attention when viremia was already decreasing or had resolved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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