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Atlanta, GA, United States

Darlington P.J.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Boivin M.-N.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Renoux C.,Center for Clinical Epidemiology | Francois M.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | And 7 more authors.
Annals of Neurology | Year: 2010

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are being considered for clinical trials of multiple sclerosis (MS). We examined the effects of adult bone marrow-derived hMSCs on responses of primary human Th1, Th17, and Th1/17 double-expressing T-cell subsets, all implicated in MS. As expected, soluble products from hMSCs inhibited Th1 responses; however, Th17 responses were increased. Secretion of interleukin (IL)-10, considered anti-inflammatory, was decreased. Pretreating hMSCs with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β accentuated these effects, and caused decreases in the Th1/17 subset. These findings underscore the importance of further preclinical work and immune-monitoring to define hMSC effects on disease-relevant immune responses under variable conditions. © 2010 American Neurological Association.

Barrera M.,University of Toronto | Doyle J.,Hospital for Sick Children | Berlin-Romalis D.,Blood and Marrow Transplant Program | Hancock K.,University of Toronto
Bone Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and related factors in mothers and fathers of children who undergo SCT, before, and 1 and 2 years after SCT. A total of 84 parents (49 mothers/35 fathers) of patients diagnosed mainly with leukemia completed a HRQOL measure before SCT, 46 at 1 year (26 mothers/20 fathers) and 50 parents (31 mothers/19 fathers) at 2 years post SCT. Physical and psychosocial HRQOL summary scores are reported. Parents age and gender, child's diagnosis, radiation history, age, behavior and physical health were examined. Linear mixed models for repeated measures with a covariate structure were used for analysis. Physical HRQOL did not differ between mothers and fathers or over time. Maternal and paternal psychosocial HRQOL scores improved by 2 years post SCT. Child's behavior problems and poor health, and maternal age (younger) predicted poor maternal psychosocial HRQOL 2 years post SCT. Child's behavior problems, diagnosis and treatment severity predicted poor paternal psychosocial HRQOL. These findings identify similar (child's poor behavior) and differential risk factors (parental young age, disease and treatment severity, and child's poor health status) for poor HRQOL for mothers and fathers. These findings can guide comprehensive family-care interventions before, during and after pediatric SCT. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Nieder M.L.,Blood and Marrow Transplant Program | McDonald G.B.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Kida A.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Hingorani S.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2011

Long-term complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have been studied in detail. Although virtually every organ system can be adversely affected after HCT, the underlying pathophysiology of these late effects remain incompletely understood. This article describes our current understanding of the pathophysiology of late effects involving the gastrointestinal, renal, cardiac, and pulmonary systems, and discusses post-HCT metabolic syndrome studies. Underlying diseases, pretransplantation exposures, transplantation conditioning regimens, graft-versus-host disease, and other treatments contribute to these problems. Because organ systems are interdependent, long-term complications with similar pathophysiologic mechanisms often involve multiple organ systems. Current data suggest that post-HCT organ complications result from cellular damage that leads to a cascade of complex events. The interplay between inflammatory processes and dysregulated cellular repair likely contributes to end-organ fibrosis and dysfunction. Although many long-term problems cannot be prevented, appropriate monitoring can enable detection and organ-preserving medical management at earlier stages. Current management strategies are aimed at minimizing symptoms and optimizing function. There remain significant gaps in our knowledge of the pathophysiology of therapy-related organ toxicities disease after HCT. These gaps can be addressed by closely examining disease biology and identifying those patients at greatest risk for adverse outcomes. In addition, strategies are needed for targeted disease prevention and health promotion efforts for individuals deemed at high risk because of their genetic makeup or specific exposure profile. © 2011 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Parikh S.H.,Duke University | Mendizabal A.,EMMES Corporation | Benjamin C.L.,University of Miami | Komanduri K.V.,University of Miami | And 11 more authors.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2014

Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have the potential to decrease transplantation-related morbidity and mortality. However, engraftment failure has been prohibitively high after RIC unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) in chemotherapy-naïve children with nonmalignant diseases (NMD). Twenty-two children with a median age of 2.8years, many with severe comorbidities and prior viral infections, were enrolled in a novel RIC protocol consisting of hydroxyurea, alemtuzumab, fludarabine, melphalan, and thiotepa followed by single UCBT. Patients underwent transplantation for inherited metabolic disorders (n=8), primary immunodeficiencies (n=9), hemoglobinopathies (n=4) and Diamond Blackfan anemia (n=1). Most umbilical cord blood (UCB) units were HLA-mismatched with median infused total nucleated cell dose of 7.9× 107/kg. No serious organ toxicities were attributable to the regimen. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 86.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65% to 100%) in a median of 20days, with the majority sustaining>95% donor chimerism at 1year. Cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades II to IV and III to IV by day 180 was 27.3% (95% CI, 8.7% to 45.9%) and 13.6% (95 CI, 0% to 27.6%), respectively. Cumulative incidence of extensive chronic GVHD was 9.1% (95% CI, 0% to 20.8%). The primary causes of death were viral infections (n=3), acute GVHD (n=1) and transfusion reaction (n=1). One-year overall and event-free survivals were 77.3% (95% CI, 53.7% to 89.8%) and 68.2% (95% CI, 44.6% to 83.4%) with 31months median follow-up. This is the first RIC protocol demonstrating durable UCB engraftment in children with NMD. Future risk-based modifications of this regimen could decrease the incidence of viral infections. (www.clinicaltrials.gov/NCT00744692). © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Solomon S.R.,Blood and Marrow Transplant Program | Sanacore M.,Blood and Marrow Transplant Program | Zhang X.,Georgia State University | Brown S.,Blood and Marrow Transplant Program | And 3 more authors.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2014

Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) form the foundation of current graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimens. We hypothesized that a CNI-free regimen consisting of post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) and brief-course sirolimus would reduce chronic GVHD and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) after reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Twenty-six patients (median age, 61 years) underwent unmanipulated PBSCT from an 8/8 locus-matched donor (matched related donor, n = 17; natched unrelated donor, n = 9). GVHD prophylaxis consisted of PTCy and brief-course sirolimus. Donor engraftment occurred in all patients. The cumulative incidence (CI) of grade II-IV acute GVHD, grade III-IV acute GVHD, and chronic GVHD was 46%, 15%, and 31% respectively. One-year NRM was 4%. The median time to immunosuppression discontinuation was day +138. With a median follow-up of 20 months, the estimated 2-year overall survival was 71%, estimated disease-free survival was 64%, and estimated relapse incidence was 32%. In patients with a lymphoid malignancy (eg, chronic lymphoblastic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease), 2-year disease-free survival was 100%, and there were no relapses. Good immune reconstitution was evidenced by low cytomegalovirus reactivation rate of 21% (4 of 19 at-risk patients). GVHD prophylaxis with PTCy and sirolimus achieves consistent donor engraftment, low rates of chronic GVHD and NRM, and excellent outcomes in recipients of HLA-identical related and unrelated donor allogeneic PBSCT. © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

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