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Lyubchenko L.N.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center
Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk | Year: 2011

Li-Fraumeni syndrome (sarcoma family syndrome, OMIM 151623) is a rare clinically and genetically hetergoeneous autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the evolvement and accumulation of softtissue osteogenic sarcomas in members of a family, as well as uni- and bilateral breast cancer in young women, brain tumours, adrenocortical cancer, and lymphoproliferative diseases. Germinal mutations of the TP53 gene constitute the etiological genetic basis of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network developed recommendations for genetic testing and observation of carriers of TP53 mutations. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated correlation between the TP53-nmtaat genotype and resistance to standard therapeutic modalities. This finding gave impetus to the development of new genotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of TP53-associated tumours in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.


Tkachev S.I.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | Yuryeva T.V.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | Nechyushkin M.I.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center
Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk | Year: 2011

The authors discuss changes in the equipment and technologies of radiotherapy during the past 10-15 years. These changes ensured the improvement of diagnostics and treatment of neoplasms by two other main methods, surgical and medicamental. Modifications in the combined application of radiotherapy and surgery and of radio- and pharmacotherapy are discussed.


Gorobets E.S.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | Nekhaev I.V.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | Lomidze S.V.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center
Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk | Year: 2011

A few modern concepts of anesthesiological and resuscitation care during complicated surgical interventions are considered with special reference to multimodal anesthesia as a principal tool for the protection of the patient from a surgical trauma based on the rational combination of three-component epidural analgesia (ropivacaine, fentanyl, and adrenalin) with sevoflurane inhalation narcosis and extention of the same epidural analgesia to the early postoperative period. The basic principles of infusion-transfusion dierapy for the treatment of massive intraoperative blood loss ensuring its tolerability by the patient are discussed. Special attention is given to the problem of hospital-acquired infections and sepsis in oncosurgery. Methods are proposed for the improvement of the management of septic shock including immunomodulation, respiratory support, infusion and anti-infective therapies. It is concluded that the use of these conceptual approaches permits to perform extensive surgical interventions in patients with the initially low reserve capacity of vital functions.


Kazakova O.B.,RAS Institute of Organic Chemistry | Giniyatullina G.V.,RAS Institute of Organic Chemistry | Medvedeva N.I.,RAS Institute of Organic Chemistry | Lopatina T.V.,RAS Institute of Organic Chemistry | And 3 more authors.
Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry | Year: 2014

3-Deoxy-3a-homo-3a-aza derivatives of betulin and erythrodiol have been synthesized from betulonic and oleanonic acids. 3-Deoxy-3a-homo-3a-aza-28- hydroxy-12(13)-oleanene showed the highest antineoplastic activity of the broad spectrum in vitro; the results of an extensive examination of the derivative in vitro enable one to recommend it for in vivo tests. The modification of the compound in the position C28 by the introduction of a methoxycinnamoyl fragment led to the loss of the antineoplastic activity. As a whole, 3-deoxy-3a-homo-3a- aza derivatives of betulin [3-(aminopropyl)-, 28-(2-carboxyethyl)carboxy-, and 28-cinamoyloxy-] exhibited a moderate antineoplastic activity toward large intestine cancer, breast cancer, and leukemia cells. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Dolgushin B.I.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | Nechipai A.M.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center
Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk | Year: 2011

A few novel minimally invasive techniques are described for catheter-free repair of internal bile outflow in patients with neoplasms in the biliopancreatoduodenal region complicated by mechanical jaundice and in cases of iatrogenic complications of surgical treatment. The methods based on a combination of modern interventional radiologic and endoscopic technologies allow to improve the outcome of antineoplastic treatment and the quality of life in certain categories of patients. The introduction of these techniques into clinical practice of specialized medical facilities may help to optimize the treatment strategy, reduce the volume of surgery whenever it can be confined to minimally invasive treatment, decrease the employment index, increase the surgical bed turnover rate and other economic characteristics of a surgical clinic.


Kazakova O.B.,RAS Institute of Organic Chemistry | Smirnova I.E.,RAS Institute of Organic Chemistry | Khusnutdinova E.F.,RAS Institute of Organic Chemistry | Zhukova O.S.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | And 7 more authors.
Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry | Year: 2014

A variety of oxygen-, nitrogen-, sulfur-, and platinum-containing allobetulin derivatives, including those with different positions of double bonds in rings A and B, the penta- and hexacyclic ring A, and the 21-acetyl-20,28-epoxy-18α,19βH-ursanoisomeric cycle E, have been synthesized, and the screening of their antineoplastic activity in vitro (cytotoxicity) has been carried out. A significant cytotoxic activity was exhibited by (3R,5R)-19β,28-epoxy-4,5-seco-18α-olean-3(5)-ozonide toward MeWo melanoma cells and by 2,3-indolo-21β-acetyl-20β,28-epoxy-18α,19βH-ursane toward SR leukosis cells. The 3S,5S-diastereoisomer of the former compound showed no cytotoxicity. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Kazakova O.B.,RAS Institute of Organic Chemistry | Medvedeva N.I.,RAS Institute of Organic Chemistry | Lopatina T.V.,RAS Institute of Organic Chemistry | Apryshko G.N.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry | Year: 2015

Lupane C-28-imidazolides containing 3-oxo-, 3-hydroxyimino-, and 2-cyano-2,3-seco-4(23)-ene fragments in cycle A have been synthesized. 3-3-Hydroxyimino-lup-20(29)-en-28-yl-1H-imidazole-1-carboxylate showed the highest antineoplastic activity in experiments in vitro, significantly inhibiting the growth and inducing the death of cells of lung, colon cancer, breast, central nervous system, ovarian, prostate, renal, leukemia, and melanoma cancers. In experiments on mice, it had a moderate antineoplastic effect on inoculated breast adenocarcinoma Ca755 and large intestine adenocarcinoma AKATOL. © 2015 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Tjulandin S.A.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | Pokataev I.A.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | Tjulandina A.S.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | Kuznetsov V.V.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to analyse the outcome of ovarian cancer depending on the type of surgical debulking, the strategy of treatment of recurrent cancer, and other clinical factors. We performed retrospective analysis of patients with stage IC-IV ovarian cancer treated at the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Chemotherapy in 1993-2010. A total of 353 patients were included. The medians of progression-free and overall survival were 11.3 and 40.8 months respectively. The results of the treatment depended on the mode of surgical debulking, histological type and stage of the tumour, regimen of front-line chemotherapy. The main prognostic factor in recurrent ovarian cancer was the number of potentially effective anticancer agents used during the treatment.


Matveev V.B.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | Volkova M.I.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | Figurin K.M.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | Fainshtein L.A.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk | Year: 2011

The first stage in the treatment of disseminated gerrainogenic ovarian tumours (HOT) is induction chemotherapy in accordance with the IGCCCG prognosis group. Dynamic observation is indicated in case of incomplete induction in patients with seminoma excepting those with PET-positive residual tumours bigger than 3 cm to whom secondline chemotherapy or retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy is indicated. Ablation of residual tumour of any localization is indicated to patients with disseminated non-seminoma HOT (NHOT), incomplete induction, and negative level of tumour markers. The necessity of adjuvant chemotherapy in case of a viable malignant HOT in the removed tissues remains debatable. Refractory and recurring HOT are usually treated with a combination of fosfamide and vinblastine. Residual tumours need to be removed after salvation chemotherapy. Surgical treatment is the preferred option for the management of late NHOT relapses.


Davydov M.I.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center | Turkin I.N.,Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center
Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk | Year: 2011

The study was designed to analyse results of D1 - and D2-lymphodissection in 3 94 patients with early stomach cancer between 1990-2007. Risk factors of lymphogenic metastasis (lymphatic invasion, submucous invasion, tumour size in excess of 4 cm, venous invasion, tumour spread to the oesophagus, type 0I and 0II tumors, poor differentiation) are considered to be an absolute indication for D2-lymphodissection that allows to significantly reduce the frequency of relapses and improve the outcome of surgery. The restriction of surgery volume to Dl-lymphodissection is possible only in patients with negligibly low risk of metastasis regardless of the type of early cancer.

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