Block Center for Integrative Cancer Treatment

Skokie, IL, United States

Block Center for Integrative Cancer Treatment

Skokie, IL, United States

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Block K.I.,Block Center for Integrative Cancer Treatment | Gyllenhaal C.,Block Center for Integrative Cancer Treatment | Lowe L.,Getting to Know Cancer | Lowe L.,Lancaster University | And 182 more authors.
Seminars in Cancer Biology | Year: 2015

Targeted therapies and the consequent adoption of "personalized" oncology have achieved notablesuccesses in some cancers; however, significant problems remain with this approach. Many targetedtherapies are highly toxic, costs are extremely high, and most patients experience relapse after a fewdisease-free months. Relapses arise from genetic heterogeneity in tumors, which harbor therapy-resistantimmortalized cells that have adopted alternate and compensatory pathways (i.e., pathways that are notreliant upon the same mechanisms as those which have been targeted). To address these limitations, aninternational task force of 180 scientists was assembled to explore the concept of a low-toxicity "broad-spectrum" therapeutic approach that could simultaneously target many key pathways and mechanisms. Using cancer hallmark phenotypes and the tumor microenvironment to account for the various aspectsof relevant cancer biology, interdisciplinary teams reviewed each hallmark area and nominated a widerange of high-priority targets (74 in total) that could be modified to improve patient outcomes. For thesetargets, corresponding low-toxicity therapeutic approaches were then suggested, many of which werephytochemicals. Proposed actions on each target and all of the approaches were further reviewed forknown effects on other hallmark areas and the tumor microenvironment. Potential contrary or procar-cinogenic effects were found for 3.9% of the relationships between targets and hallmarks, and mixedevidence of complementary and contrary relationships was found for 7.1%. Approximately 67% of therelationships revealed potentially complementary effects, and the remainder had no known relationship. Among the approaches, 1.1% had contrary, 2.8% had mixed and 62.1% had complementary relationships. These results suggest that a broad-spectrum approach should be feasible from a safety standpoint. Thisnovel approach has potential to be relatively inexpensive, it should help us address stages and types ofcancer that lack conventional treatment, and it may reduce relapse risks. A proposed agenda for futureresearch is offered. © 2015 The Authors.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Getting to Know Cancer and 114 more.
Type: | Journal: Seminars in cancer biology | Year: 2015

Targeted therapies and the consequent adoption of personalized oncology have achieved notable successes in some cancers; however, significant problems remain with this approach. Many targeted therapies are highly toxic, costs are extremely high, and most patients experience relapse after a few disease-free months. Relapses arise from genetic heterogeneity in tumors, which harbor therapy-resistant immortalized cells that have adopted alternate and compensatory pathways (i.e., pathways that are not reliant upon the same mechanisms as those which have been targeted). To address these limitations, an international task force of 180 scientists was assembled to explore the concept of a low-toxicity broad-spectrum therapeutic approach that could simultaneously target many key pathways and mechanisms. Using cancer hallmark phenotypes and the tumor microenvironment to account for the various aspects of relevant cancer biology, interdisciplinary teams reviewed each hallmark area and nominated a wide range of high-priority targets (74 in total) that could be modified to improve patient outcomes. For these targets, corresponding low-toxicity therapeutic approaches were then suggested, many of which were phytochemicals. Proposed actions on each target and all of the approaches were further reviewed for known effects on other hallmark areas and the tumor microenvironment. Potential contrary or procarcinogenic effects were found for 3.9% of the relationships between targets and hallmarks, and mixed evidence of complementary and contrary relationships was found for 7.1%. Approximately 67% of the relationships revealed potentially complementary effects, and the remainder had no known relationship. Among the approaches, 1.1% had contrary, 2.8% had mixed and 62.1% had complementary relationships. These results suggest that a broad-spectrum approach should be feasible from a safety standpoint. This novel approach has potential to be relatively inexpensive, it should help us address stages and types of cancer that lack conventional treatment, and it may reduce relapse risks. A proposed agenda for future research is offered.


Baak J.P.A.A.,University of Stavanger | Baak J.P.A.A.,Fudan University | Gyllenhaal C.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Liu L.,Fudan University | And 3 more authors.
Integrative Cancer Therapies | Year: 2011

Recent studies based on epidemiological models published in this journal and elsewhere have demonstrated encouraging patterns suggesting that herbal treatment may improve prognosis in advanced colon and lung cancer patients. Various problems exist with data from nonrandomized studies of this type, but a strong signal of potential positive effect can be seen. The therapeutic mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine in metastatic cancer are discussed against a hypothetical, dualistic antiproliferation model and immune-stimulation model of tumor progression and regression. Recommendations are made for a strategy to demonstrate more conclusively the efficacy of adjunct herbal treatment during cancer chemotherapy and for discussions with patients until such time as the efficacy trials are completed. © SAGE Publications 2011.


Jensen L.D.,Linköping University | Jensen L.D.,Karolinska Institutet | Gyllenhaal C.,Block Center for Integrative Cancer Treatment | Block K.,Block Center for Integrative Cancer Treatment
Biomolecular Concepts | Year: 2014

Daily rhythms of light/darkness, activity/rest and feeding/fasting are important in human physiology and their disruption (for example by frequent changes between day and night shifts) increases the risk of disease. Many of the diseases found to be associated with such disrupted circadian lifestyles, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders and neurological diseases, depend on pathological de-regulation of angiogenesis, suggesting that disrupting the circadian clock will impair the physiological regulation of angiogenesis leading to development and progression of these diseases. Today there is little known regarding circadian regulation of pathological angiogenesis but there is some evidence that supports both direct and indirect regulation of angiogenic factors by the cellular circadian clock machinery, as well as by circulating circadian factors, important for coordinating circadian rhythms in the organism. Through highlighting recent advances both in pre-clinical and clinical research on various diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disorders and obesity, we will here present an overview of the available knowledge on the importance of circadian regulation of angiogenesis and discuss how the circadian clock may provide alternative targets for pro- or anti-angiogenic therapy in the future. © 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.


Frenkel M.,University of Houston | Abrams D.I.,San Francisco General Hospital | Ladas E.J.,Columbia University | Deng G.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 7 more authors.
Integrative Cancer Therapies | Year: 2013

Many studies confirm that a majority of patients undergoing cancer therapy use self-selected forms of complementary therapies, mainly dietary supplements. Unfortunately, patients often do not report their use of supplements to their providers. The failure of physicians to communicate effectively with patients on this use may result in a loss of trust within the therapeutic relationship and in the selection by patients of harmful, useless, or ineffective and costly nonconventional therapies when effective integrative interventions may exist. Poor communication may also lead to diminishment of patient autonomy and self-efficacy and thereby interfere with the healing response. To be open to the patient's perspective, and sensitive to his or her need for autonomy and empowerment, physicians may need a shift in their own perspectives. Perhaps the optimal approach is to discuss both the facts and the uncertainty with the patient, in order to reach a mutually informed decision. Today's informed patients truly value physicians who appreciate them as equal participants in making their own health care choices. To reach a mutually informed decision about the use of these supplements, the Clinical Practice Committee of The Society of Integrative Oncology undertook the challenge of providing basic information to physicians who wish to discuss these issues with their patients. A list of leading supplements that have the best suggestions of benefit was constructed by leading researchers and clinicians who have experience in using these supplements. This list includes curcumin, glutamine, vitamin D, Maitake mushrooms, fish oil, green tea, milk thistle, Astragalus, melatonin, and probiotics. The list includes basic information on each supplement, such as evidence on effectiveness and clinical trials, adverse effects, and interactions with medications. The information was constructed to provide an up-to-date base of knowledge, so that physicians and other health care providers would be aware of the supplements and be able to discuss realistic expectations and potential benefits and risks. © 2013 The Author(s).


Bishayee A.,Larkin Health science Institute | Block K.,Block Center for Integrative Cancer Treatment
Seminars in Cancer Biology | Year: 2015

Despite exciting advances in targeted therapies, high drug costs, marginal therapeutic benefits and notable toxicities are concerning aspects of today's cancer treatments. This special issue of Seminars in Cancer Biology proposes a broad-spectrum, integrative therapeutic model to complement targeted therapies. Based on extensive reviews of the cancer hallmarks, this model selects multiple high-priority targets for each hallmark, to be approached with combinations of low-toxicity, low-cost therapeutics, including phytochemicals, adapted to the well-known complexity and heterogeneity of malignancy. A global consortium of researchers has been assembled to advance this concept, which is especially relevant in an era of rapidly expanding capacity for genomic tumor analyses, alongside alarming growth in cancer morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income nations. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Larkin Health science Institute and Block Center for Integrative Cancer Treatment
Type: | Journal: Seminars in cancer biology | Year: 2015

Despite exciting advances in targeted therapies, high drug costs, marginal therapeutic benefits and notable toxicities are concerning aspects of todays cancer treatments. This special issue of Seminars in Cancer Biology proposes a broad-spectrum, integrative therapeutic model to complement targeted therapies. Based on extensive reviews of the cancer hallmarks, this model selects multiple high-priority targets for each hallmark, to be approached with combinations of low-toxicity, low-cost therapeutics, including phytochemicals, adapted to the well-known complexity and heterogeneity of malignancy. A global consortium of researchers has been assembled to advance this concept, which is especially relevant in an era of rapidly expanding capacity for genomic tumor analyses, alongside alarming growth in cancer morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income nations.

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