BlackLight Power Inc.

Cranbury, NJ, United States

BlackLight Power Inc.

Cranbury, NJ, United States
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Mills R.L.,BlackLight Power Inc. | Lu Y.,BlackLight Power Inc.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

Classical physical laws predict that atomic hydrogen may undergo a catalytic reaction with certain species, including itself, that can accept energy in integer multiples of the potential energy of atomic hydrogen, m·27.2 eV, wherein m is an integer. The predicted reaction involves a resonant, nonradiative energy transfer from otherwise stable atomic hydrogen to the catalyst capable of accepting the energy. The product is H(1/p), fractional Rydberg states of atomic hydrogen called "hydrino atoms," wherein n = 1/2, 1/3, 1/4,..., 1/p (p ≤ 137 is an integer) replaces the well-known parameter n = integer in the Rydberg equation for hydrogen excited states. Each hydrino state also comprises an electron, a proton, and a photon, but the field contribution from the photon increases the binding rather than decreasing it corresponding to energy desorption rather than absorption. Since the potential energy of atomic hydrogen is 27.2 eV, two H atoms formed from H 2 by collision with a third, hot H can act as a catalyst for this third H by accepting 2·27.2 eV from it. By the same mechanism, the collision of two hot H 2 provide 3H to serve as a catalyst of 3·27.2 eV for the fourth. Following the energy transfer to the catalyst an intermediate is formed having the radius of the H atom and a central field of 3 and 4 times the central field of a proton, respectively, due to the contribution of the photon of each intermediate. The radius is predicted to decrease as the electron undergoes radial acceleration to a stable state having a radius that is 1/3 (m = 2) or 1/4 (m = 3) the radius of the uncatalyzed hydrogen atom with the further release of 54.4 eV and 122.4 eV of energy, respectively. This energy emitted as a characteristic EUV continuum with a cutoff at 22.8 nm and 10.1 nm, respectively, was observed from pulsed hydrogen discharges. The continua spectra directly and indirectly match significant celestial observations. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Mills R.L.,BlackLight Power Inc. | Akhtar K.,BlackLight Power Inc.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

Atomic hydrogen is heated to temperatures of up to two orders of magnitude greater than the electron temperature or the temperature of any other species in certain hydrogen mixed gas RF or glow discharge plasmas. A crucial test of energetic hydrogen chemistry regarding a resonant energy transfer or rt-mechanism (RTM) versus field acceleration models (FAM) as the basis of this selective isotropic heating of a population of extraordinarily high-kinetic-energy hydrogen atoms is the observation of fast H in microwave cells proven to lack a high field as shown by the complete absence of fast H (∼0.08 eV) by Jovicevic et al. [S. Jovicevic, N. Sakan, M. Ivkovic, N. Konjevic, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 013306-1 (2009)]. The RTM predicts an enhancement in the production of fast H with the presence of a surface to support a high concentration of hydrogen atoms in order to initiate the energetic hot H source reaction that then propagates isotropically throughout the plasma. In contrast to the prior results, extraordinarily fast H of greater than 4 eV (50 times that observed and deemed possible in the Evenson microwave cell by FAM advocate Jovicevic et al.) and 50% fractional population was observed as predicted for RTM using the catalytic reaction systems of He/H 2, Ar/H 2, pure H 2, and water vapor microwave plasmas when an electrically insulating, but atomic hydrogen supporting material was placed in the plasma region. Increasing concentrations of Xe in the non-catalytic Xe/H 2 system results in a significant decrease in the energy and population of fast excited-state H atoms. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu.


Mills R.L.,BlackLight Power Inc. | Lu Y.,BlackLight Power Inc.
European Physical Journal D | Year: 2011

Spectra of low energy, high current pinch discharges in pure hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and helium were recorded in the EUV region, and continuum radiation was only observed from hydrogen [www.blacklightpower.com/pdf/GEN3- Harvard.pdf; Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 35, 8446 (2010); Cent. Eur. J. Phys. 8, 318 (2010)]. The continuum radiation bands at 10.1 and 22.8 nm and going to longer wavelengths for theoretically predicted transitions of hydrogen to lower-energy, so called "hydrino" states, was observed first at blacklight power, Inc. (BLP) and reproduced at the Harvard center for astrophysics (CfA). Considering the low energy of 5.2 J per pulse, the observed radiation in the energy range of about 120 eV to 40 eV and reference experiments, no conventional explanation was found to be plausible, including electrode metal emission, Bremsstrahlung radiation, ion recombination, molecular or molecular ion band radiation, and instrument artifacts involving radicals and energetic ions reacting at the CCD and H 2 re-radiation at the detector chamber. To further study these continuum bands assigned to hydrinos, time resolved spectra were performed that showed a unique delay of the continuum radiation of about 0.1 μs and a duration of < 2 μs following the high-voltage pulse consistent with the mechanism of recombination to form the optimal high-density atomic hydrogen in the pinch that permits the H-H interactions to cause the hydrino transitions and corresponding emission. © The Author(s) 2011.


Mills R.L.,BlackLight Power Inc. | Zhao G.,BlackLight Power Inc. | Good W.,BlackLight Power Inc.
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

The specifics of a continuous hydrino reaction system design are presented. Heat from the hydrino reactions within individual cells provide both reactor power and the heat for regeneration of the reactants. These processes occur continuously and the power from each cell is constant. The conversion of thermal power to electrical power requires the use of a heat engine exploiting a cycle such as a Rankine, Brayton, Stirling, or steam-engine cycle. Due to the temperatures, economy goal, and efficiency, the Rankine cycle is the most practical and can produce electricity at 30-40% efficiency with a component capital cost of about $300 per kW electric. Conservatively, assuming a conversion efficiency of 25% the total cost with the addition of the boiler and chemical components is estimated at $1064 per kW electric. © 2010.


Patent
BlackLight Power Inc. | Date: 2013-05-21

An electrochemical power system is provided that generates an electromotive force (EMF) from the catalytic reaction of hydrogen to lower energy (hydrino) states providing direct conversion of the energy released from the hydrino reaction into electricity, the system comprising at least two components chosen from: H_(2)O catalyst or a source of H_(2)O catalyst; atomic hydrogen or a source of atomic hydrogen; reactants to form the H_(2)O catalyst or source of H_(2)O catalyst and atomic hydrogen or source of atomic hydrogen; and one or more reactants to initiate the catalysis of atomic hydrogen. The electrochemical power system for forming hydrinos and electricity can further comprise a cathode compartment comprising a cathode, an anode compartment comprising an anode, optionally a salt bridge, reactants that constitute hydrino reactants during cell operation with separate electron flow and ion mass transport, a source of oxygen, and a source of hydrogen. Due to oxidation-reduction cell half reactions, the hydrino-producing reaction mixture is constituted with the migration of electrons through an external circuit and ion mass transport through a separate path such as the electrolyte to complete an electrical circuit. A power source and hydride reactor is further provided that powers a power system comprising (i) a reaction cell for the catalysis of atomic hydrogen to form hydrinos, (ii) a chemical fuel mixture comprising at least two components chosen from: a source of H_(2)O catalyst or H_(2)O catalyst; a source of atomic hydrogen or atomic hydrogen; reactants to form the source of H_(2)O catalyst or H_(2)O catalyst and a source of atomic hydrogen or atomic hydrogen; one or more reactants to initiate the catalysis of atomic hydrogen; and a support to enable the catalysis, (iii) thermal systems for reversing an exchange reaction to thermally regenerate the fuel from the reaction products, (iv) a heat sink that accepts the heat from the power-producing reactions, and (v) a power conversion system.


Patent
BlackLight Power Inc. | Date: 2016-01-13

A power source and hydride reactor is provided that powers a power system comprising (i) a reaction cell for the catalysis of atomic hydrogen to form hydrinos, (ii) a chemical fuel mixture comprising at least two components chosen from: a source of catalyst or catalyst; a source of atomic hydrogen or atomic hydrogen; reactants to form the source of catalyst or catalyst and a source of atomic hydrogen or atomic hydrogen; one or more reactants to initiate the catalysis of atomic hydrogen; and a support to enable the catalysis, (iii) thermal systems for reversing an exchange reaction to thermally regenerate the fuel from the reaction products, (iv) a heat sink that accepts the heat from the power-producing reactions, and (v) a power conversion system. In an embodiment, the catalysis reaction is activated or initiated and propagated by one or more other chemical reactions such as a hydride-halide exchange reaction between a metal of the catalyst and another metal. These reactions are thermally reversible by the removal of metal vapor in the reverse exchange. The hydrino reactions are maintained and regenerated in a batch mode using thermally-coupled multi-cells arranged in bundles wherein cells in the power-production phase of the cycle heat cells in the regeneration phase. In this intermittent cell power design, the thermal power is statistically constant as the cell number becomes large, or the cells cycle is controlled to achieve steady power.


Patent
BlackLight Power Inc. | Date: 2012-03-30

An electrochemical power system is provided that generates an electromotive force (EMF) from the catalytic reaction of hydrogen to lower energy (hydrino) states providing direct conversion of the energy released from the hydrino reaction into electricity, the system comprising at least two components chosen from: H_(2)O catalyst or a source of H_(2)O catalyst; atomic hydrogen or a source of atomic hydrogen; reactants to form the H_(2)O catalyst or source of H_(2)O catalyst and atomic hydrogen or source of atomic hydrogen; and one or more reactants to initiate the catalysis of atomic hydrogen. The electrochemical power system for forming hydrinos and electricity can further comprise a cathode compartment comprising a cathode, an anode compartment comprising an anode, optionally a salt bridge, reactants that constitute hydrino reactants during cell operation with separate electron flow and ion mass transport, and a source of hydrogen. Due to oxidation-reduction cell half reactions, the hydrino-producing reaction mixture is constituted with the migration of electrons through an external circuit and ion mass transport through a separate path such as the electrolyte to complete an electrical circuit. A power source and hydride reactor is further provided that powers a power system comprising (i) a reaction cell for the catalysis of atomic hydrogen to form hydrinos, (ii) a chemical fuel mixture comprising at least two components chosen from: a source of H_(2)O catalyst or H_(2)O catalyst; a source of atomic hydrogen or atomic hydrogen; reactants to form the source of H_(2)O catalyst or H_(2)O catalyst and a source of atomic hydrogen or atomic hydrogen; one or more reactants to initiate the catalysis of atomic hydrogen; and a support to enable the catalysis, (iii) thermal systems for reversing an exchange reaction to thermally regenerate the fuel from the reaction products, (iv) a heat sink that accepts the heat from the power-producing reactions, and (v) a power conversion system.


News Article | October 21, 2008
Site: gigaom.com

BlackLight Power, the company that has pulled in $60 million for its seemingly physics-defying fuel cell, is back with an announcement about an independent validation of its technology. A team of engineers, headed by Dr. Peter Jansson at Rowan University, have tested BlackLight’s prototypes and found that the devices perform as BlackLight claims, ambiguously concluding that “there is a novel reaction of some type causing the large exotherm which is consistently produced.” To translate: There’s definitely lots of energy being produced. They’re just not sure why. Cranbury, N.J.-based BlackLight says its technology can push an electron closer to the nucleus by way of a catalytic reaction, resulting in a huge amount of clean energy. The company describes the reaction as “somewhere between a nuclear and a chemical reaction,” but without any of the messy fallout. Update: The problem is that “relaxing” an electron below its ground state, as BlackLight says it can do, is fundamentally impossible, according to one peer-reviewed scientific paper debunking BlackLight’s so-called “Hydrino theory” that Mills disputes. The team at Rowan tested BlackLight’s 1,000- and 50,000-watt reactors over three months and were able to replicate BlackLight’s energy claims, saying that the energy produced “cannot be explained by other known sources like combustion or nuclear energy.” The company says a complete verification of the whole process will likely happen within a year. BlackLight tells us it is now in the process of licensing its technology to power producers. The company says it has enough capital to get through commercialization and plans to have its reactors in a power plant in the next two years. Like others, we’ll be waiting to see if those plans actually bear fruit. The 19-year-old BlackLight Power has ruffled quite a few feathers in the quantum mechanics establishment. Blacklight’s founder and CEO, Randell Mills, has been causing controversy for years and many in the scientific community think the math behind his theory is flawed. Despite those pesky skeptical physicists, BlackLight Power has managed to raise $60 million in funding from individual, impressive investors: the company’s Board includes Michael Jordan, former CEO of Electronic Data Systems and Westinghouse, and Neil Moskowitz, CFO of Credit Suisse First Boston.


News Article | July 30, 2009
Site: venturebeat.com

For background, BlackLight says it lowers the energy level of hydrogen atoms below ground state — something most scientists have deemed impossible. For this reason, many have speculated that BLP’s process is nothing more than an elaborate hoax. But it’s hard to assume false advertising when now six utilities have signed on to distribute the power it creates. The non-exclusive deal with Akridge gives it the right to use the secretive BlackLight process and some of the company’s technology to provide as much as 400 megawatts of continuous capacity power to buildings in Maryland, Virginia and the District of Columbia. The electricity will be sold primarily to commercial tenants, and will eventually be added to the local power grid, BlackLight says. Across its previous five licensing deals, the company has given out rights to produce 8,000 megawatts of electricity overall. The utilities in question will technically purchase, own and manage the electricity generated for about 985,000 total customers. Most of BLP’s investors are undisclosed, but it did receive $10 million from electric utilities Conectiv and Pacificorp, as well as high-profile members of its own board like Shelby Brewer, assistant secretary of nuclear energy under Reagan, and Michael Jordan, chief executive of Electronic Data Systems.

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