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Patent
BlackLight Power Inc. | Date: 2012-03-30

An electrochemical power system is provided that generates an electromotive force (EMF) from the catalytic reaction of hydrogen to lower energy (hydrino) states providing direct conversion of the energy released from the hydrino reaction into electricity, the system comprising at least two components chosen from: H


Mills R.,BlackLight Power Inc. | Lotoski J.,BlackLight Power Inc.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2015

Atomic hydrogen is predicted to form fractional Rydberg energy states H(1/p) called "hydrino atoms" wherein n=12,13,14,.,1p (p≤137 is an integer) replaces the well-known parameter n = integer in the Rydberg equation for hydrogen excited states. The transition of H to a stable hydrino state H[;bsupesup/p=m+1] having a binding energy of ·13.6eV occurs by a nonradiative resonance energy transfer of m·27.2eV (m is an integer) to a matched energy acceptor such as nascent H2O that has a potential energy of 81.6 eV (m = 3). The energy transfer to the HOH catalyst results in its ionization wherein the charge build up may become limiting of the further propagation of the catalysis reaction. An applied, low-voltage, high current was predicted to ameliorate this space charge inhibition of the hydrino reaction. To achieve these conditions, a solid fuel was used that comprises a highly conductive matrix such as a metal powder with bound or suspended H2O that served as the source of HOH catalyst and H. When the high current was applied, the H2O-based solid exploded with a tremendous burst of optical power as recorded with high-speed video and spectroscopically. The power density was confirmed to be about 3 × 1010 W/liter of fuel volume using the measured time of the event and the energy released as measured by bomb calorimetry. The predicted molecular hydrino H2(1/4) was identified as a product by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). © 2014 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Mills R.,BlackLight Power Inc. | Booker R.,University of North Carolina at Asheville | Lu Y.,BlackLight Power Inc.
Journal of Plasma Physics | Year: 2013

Under a study contracted by GEN3 Partners, spectra of high current pinch discharges in pure hydrogen and helium were recorded in the extreme ultraviolet radiation region at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in an attempt to reproduce experimental results published by BlackLight Power, Inc. (BLP) showing predicted continuum radiation due to hydrogen in the 10-30 nm region (Mills, R. L. and Lu, Y. 2010 Hydrino continuum transitions with cutoffs at 22.8 nm and 10.1 nm. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 35, 8446-8456, doi:10.1016?j.ijhydene.2010.05.098). Alternative explanations were considered to the claimed interpretation of the continuum radiation as being that emitted during transitions of H to lower-energy states (hydrinos). Continuum radiation was observed at CfA in the 10-30 nm region that matched BLP's results. Considering the low energy of 5.2 J per pulse, the observed radiation in the energy range of about 120-40 eV, reference experiments and analysis of plasma gases, cryofiltration to remove contaminants, and spectra of the electrode metal, no conventional explanation was found in the prior or present work to be plausible including contaminants, electrode metal emission, and Bremsstrahlung, ion recombination, molecular or molecular ion band radiation, and instrument artifacts involving radicals and energetic ions reacting at the charge-coupled device and H2 re-radiation at the detector chamber. Moreover, predicted selective extraordinarily high-kinetic energy H was observed by the corresponding Doppler broadening of the Balmer α line. Copyright © 2013 Cambridge University Press. Source


Mills R.L.,BlackLight Power Inc. | Akhtar K.,BlackLight Power Inc.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

Atomic hydrogen is heated to temperatures of up to two orders of magnitude greater than the electron temperature or the temperature of any other species in certain hydrogen mixed gas RF or glow discharge plasmas. A crucial test of energetic hydrogen chemistry regarding a resonant energy transfer or rt-mechanism (RTM) versus field acceleration models (FAM) as the basis of this selective isotropic heating of a population of extraordinarily high-kinetic-energy hydrogen atoms is the observation of fast H in microwave cells proven to lack a high field as shown by the complete absence of fast H (∼0.08 eV) by Jovicevic et al. [S. Jovicevic, N. Sakan, M. Ivkovic, N. Konjevic, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 013306-1 (2009)]. The RTM predicts an enhancement in the production of fast H with the presence of a surface to support a high concentration of hydrogen atoms in order to initiate the energetic hot H source reaction that then propagates isotropically throughout the plasma. In contrast to the prior results, extraordinarily fast H of greater than 4 eV (50 times that observed and deemed possible in the Evenson microwave cell by FAM advocate Jovicevic et al.) and 50% fractional population was observed as predicted for RTM using the catalytic reaction systems of He/H 2, Ar/H 2, pure H 2, and water vapor microwave plasmas when an electrically insulating, but atomic hydrogen supporting material was placed in the plasma region. Increasing concentrations of Xe in the non-catalytic Xe/H 2 system results in a significant decrease in the energy and population of fast excited-state H atoms. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Source


Mills R.L.,BlackLight Power Inc. | Lu Y.,BlackLight Power Inc.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

Classical physical laws predict that atomic hydrogen may undergo a catalytic reaction with certain species, including itself, that can accept energy in integer multiples of the potential energy of atomic hydrogen, m·27.2 eV, wherein m is an integer. The predicted reaction involves a resonant, nonradiative energy transfer from otherwise stable atomic hydrogen to the catalyst capable of accepting the energy. The product is H(1/p), fractional Rydberg states of atomic hydrogen called "hydrino atoms," wherein n = 1/2, 1/3, 1/4,..., 1/p (p ≤ 137 is an integer) replaces the well-known parameter n = integer in the Rydberg equation for hydrogen excited states. Each hydrino state also comprises an electron, a proton, and a photon, but the field contribution from the photon increases the binding rather than decreasing it corresponding to energy desorption rather than absorption. Since the potential energy of atomic hydrogen is 27.2 eV, two H atoms formed from H 2 by collision with a third, hot H can act as a catalyst for this third H by accepting 2·27.2 eV from it. By the same mechanism, the collision of two hot H 2 provide 3H to serve as a catalyst of 3·27.2 eV for the fourth. Following the energy transfer to the catalyst an intermediate is formed having the radius of the H atom and a central field of 3 and 4 times the central field of a proton, respectively, due to the contribution of the photon of each intermediate. The radius is predicted to decrease as the electron undergoes radial acceleration to a stable state having a radius that is 1/3 (m = 2) or 1/4 (m = 3) the radius of the uncatalyzed hydrogen atom with the further release of 54.4 eV and 122.4 eV of energy, respectively. This energy emitted as a characteristic EUV continuum with a cutoff at 22.8 nm and 10.1 nm, respectively, was observed from pulsed hydrogen discharges. The continua spectra directly and indirectly match significant celestial observations. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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